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The Government at Work The Bureaucracy Chapter 15.

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1 The Government at Work The Bureaucracy Chapter 15

2 Bureaucracy Large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of an organization In gov’t – includes those non-elected positions Efficient & effective way to organize Yet often criticized for being slow & inefficient & sometimes inhumane 3 Features of a bureaucracy 1.Hierarchical authority 2.Job specialization – each bureaucrat 3.Formalized rules

3 Federal Bureaucracy Today: 4.1 million work for the federal gov’t (2013) Most in the executive branch Divided into three areas in Executive Branch Executive Office of the President Executive Departments – 15 cabinet departments Independent Agencies (See page 429) Remember – Congress & federal court system have their own bureaucracies

4 Its all in a name… Department – Cabinet level departments Agency, administration – major unit, near –Cabinet status Commission – typically connected to business activities Also can be investigative & advisory bodies Corporation, authority – conduct “business-like” activities often w/ a board & a manager Bureau – major element of “it” Can also be called service, administration, office, branch, division

5 Staff vs. Line agencies Staff agencies – are the support personnel Line agencies – actually perform the tasks In gov’t – we see the line agencies doing the work Staff agencies in gov’t help them do this through advising, budgeting, purchasing, management & planning EPA is a line agency National Security Council is a staff agency

6 Executive Office of the President - EOP “the President’s right arm” Several separate agencies staffed by approx. 1800 to help the President be chief executive (2013) White House Office National Security Council Office of Management & Budget Office of National Drug Control Policy Council of Economic Advisors …& more

7 White House Office President’s key personal & political staff “the West Wing” - Near the Oval Office & Cabinet Room Chief of Staff, Press Secretary Counselor to the President, senior advisors Deputy assistants – foreign policy, defense, homeland security, the economy, political affairs, congressional relations, speech writing Appointment & Scheduling Assistant, Physician 1 st Lady’s Chief of Staff & press secretary

8 National Security Council Staff agency that advises President on domestic & military matters and on most foreign policy issues; often at short notice VP, National Security Advisor, Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense; may also include Director of National Intelligence & Chairman of Joint Chiefs Has small staff of experts Much of their work is super top secret All have highest level of security clearances

9 Office of Management & Budget OMB – largest & 2 nd most influential unit in the Executive Office Primary goal – preparing annual Federal Budget Federal fiscal year – Oct 1 st thru Sept 30 th Each agency submits budget requests OMB reviews & crafts President’s proposed budget Then monitors gov’t spending Also oversees the agencies enforcing laws & double checks legislative proposals to make sure they are in line with the President’s policy positions Assists preparing executive orders & veto messages

10 Rest of the EOP Office of National Drug Control Policy Council of Economic Advisors Helps prepare annual Economic Report to Congress Domestic Policy Council Council on Environmental Quality Office of the Vice President Office of the US Trade Representative Office of Science & Technology Office of Administration

11 The Cabinet Executive Departments authorized by Congress Today: 15, newest is Homeland Security Heads are called Secretaries, except for Attorney General for DoJ Serve as primary between the departments & President Under or Deputy secretaries & assistant secretaries also appointed by the President Each department divided into subunits & often even smaller groupings than that Both staff agencies & line agencies

12 Picking the Cabinet Nominated by the President Confirmed by the Senate Factors considered include: Supporters of the President Professional qualifications & experience Balancing geography Interest groups Management style More recently – gender, race, ethnicity considerations

13 What you will do… Receive your Cabinet assignment Research & be ready to report back on the following: Purpose or mission of department At least one Current event of the department Roles of the deputy/ under secretaries Subunits of the department Current budget and # of employees *** ½ page report for classmates is advised***

14 Independent Agencies Agencies not connected to any of the 15 executive departments They do not fit within any of the given departments Sometimes to protect them from politics Some need to be as they are regulatory commissions Of course, still answer to the President But several are free of Presidential control Three main groups of independent agencies…

15 1 - Independent Executive Agencies Include most of the non-Cabinet agencies Include very large “near-Cabinet” status ones General Services Adm. (GSA); NASA, EPA Include some that do good works & get good PR Peace Corps, Small Business Adm., NTSB Some get very little notice & are relatively small American Battle Monuments Commission

16 2 – Independent Regulatory Commissions 11 agencies that regulate important aspects of the nation’s economy These are largely beyond the President’s control Congress designed them to be so independent Boards or commissions have 5-7 members with staggered terms Must have both major parties represented Also have quasi- legislative & judicial powers Make regulations & impose fines & penalties See page 447 for the 11 of these…

17 3 – Gov’t Corporations Set up by Congress to carry out business-like activities & are under the President’s control Today more than 50 of them exist Resembles a private business Has a board of directors & general manager Any income goes back into itself Difference: funded by the Gov’t & subject to review by the OMB FDIC, US Postal Service, Amtrak, TVA

18 Working for the Gov’t Office of Personnel Management (OPM) oversees all federal employees Is an Independent Executive Agency Is a staff agency Civil Service System – from the Pendleton Act, 1883 90% of federal employees are in the “classified service” So must take the Civil Service Exam (Different from the Selective Service System = the draft Males, 18 – 26 years old must still be registered)


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