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Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 1 - Radio Basics BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 1 - Radio Basics BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 1 - Radio Basics BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012.

2 Make You a Radio Expert Basic Familiarity With Radio Emergency Preparedness.. Purpose

3 Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications Class Format

4 Introduction To Radio.. Module 1

5 1 - What is Radio? 1a,1b - Types of Radio Services 1c - Radio Call Signs & Identification 1d - The Phonetic Alphabet 2a - Radio Wave Propagation, WWV & WWVH 2b - The FCC & ITU 3a - The Electromagnetic Spectrum Key Topics in This Module

6 Electronic communication from one location to another without wires. What Is Radio? 1920s-era Radio Receiver

7 Where Radio is used Radio is used in: broadcast receivers two way radios televisions cellular telephones wireless LANs garage door openers car locks EZPass satellites pagers radar microwave ovens etc, etc Requirement 1

8 Broadcast - One-way transmissions to the public. Could be commercial (music, news, sports with advertisements) or non-commercial (National Public Radio, school radio stations, Voice of America) Broadcast Radio Requirement 1

9 Examples of radio transmission towers you may see:.. Broadcast Radio Towers Three Types Of Radio AM / FM Radio Television NOAA Weather Radio Requirement 1

10 Two Way Radios both send (transmit) and receive messages. walkie-talkies Amateur Radio cell phones fire and police aviation ships military, etc. Two-Way Communications Requirement 1

11 Use of the radio by the public to communicate with others or to control models. Amateur radio is a licensed type of Hobby Radio Hobby Radio Requirement 1

12 A volunteer non-commercial radio service devoted to educational, recreational and emergency purposes HAM Radio Hobby Radio Amateur Radio Three Types Of Radio Requirement 1

13 A place to learn about radio! Called the Amateur Radio Service because it cant be used for profit. An important part of disaster response. A lot of fun! Why Amateur Radio? Requirement 1

14 Technology In The Wilderness Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications. From the BSA Field Book, page 436… Requirement 1

15 Call Signs are identification. They show you have a license to transmit. Broadcast Call Signs WHO, KDKA, KORA, WNBC Ham Call Signs WW3Y, KB3BOY, VR2DK, 9N1MM, JA1ABC A92EB/OZ, G4RZC/MM All ham call signs contain a number Radio Call Signs Requirement 1

16 Every US station has a call sign issued by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Broadcast call signs begin with K or W KXASWBAP Amateur call signs begin with A, K, N or W AB2SN KF0WT NY8N W0JMD Special Event Amateur call signs K0B US Call Signs Requirement 1

17 Amateur Radio Call Signs Requirement 1

18 International Call Signs. International call sign prefixes assigned by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) International call sign prefixes assigned by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Countries issue specific call signs Countries issue specific call signs Examples: Examples: G – Great Britain G – Great Britain F – France F – France I – Italy I – Italy 4X – Israel 4X – Israel JA – Japan JA – Japan XE – MexicoXE – Mexico VE – CanadaVE – Canada VK – AustraliaVK – Australia ZL – New ZealandZL – New Zealand PY – BrazilPY – Brazil Requirement 1

19 Broadcasters - Once per hour. Amateurs - Every ten minutes and at end of a conversation. Station Identification Rules Requirement 1

20 Phonetic Alphabet Alfa AL fah Bravo BRAH VOH Charlie CHAR lee Delta DELL tah Echo ECK oh Foxtrot FOX trot Golf GOLF Hotel hoh TELL India IN dee ah Juliet JEW lee ETT Kilo KEY loh Lima LEE mah Mike MIKE November no VEM ber Oscar OSS cah Papa pah pah Quebec keh BECK Romeo ROW me oh Sierra see AIR rah Tango TANG go Uniform YOU nee form Victor VIK ter Whiskey WISS key X-Ray ECKS RAY Yankee YANG kee Zulu ZOO loo Example: My name is Tom – tango, oscar, mike – Tom Requirement 1

21 Ground Wave Sky Wave Ionosphere Skip Local DX.. How High Frequency (HF) Radio Waves Travel (Propagation) Requirement 2 Ionosphere (80 km) Sky Waves Ground Wave Skip Zone

22 How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel (1) Requirement 2

23 How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel - Line of Sight

24 HF Wavelengths (160 – 10 meters) -Generally utilizes skywave propagation -Affected by solar activity VHF Wavelengths (6 meters – 2 meters) -Generally utilize line-of-sight -Affected very little by solar activity UHF Wavelengths (70cm and shorter) -Generally utilize light-of-sight propagation -Affected much by terrain, buildings. Radio Propagation Characteristics

25 WWV Provides accurate frequencies, time, and HF propagation forecasts. WWV & WWVH transmit on 5,10,15 and 20 MHz WWV is in Ft Collins, Colorado. WWVH is in Kauai, Hawaii Requirement 2

26 Transmits on standard frequencies If you can hear WWV, the HF bands are open.. Radio Station WWV 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Mhz Fort Collins, CO Requirement 2

27 Regulation of Radio ITU International Telecommunications Union Meets every few years. Sets International Frequency assignments. Assigns prefixes to countries. FCC Federal Communication Commission Set Frequency Assignments in US. Issues Licenses & Call Signs in US. Enforces Radio Laws in US. Requirement 2

28 Frequencies (One Hertz is cycle per second) DC Power AC Power Audio (Sound) LF MF HF or Shortwave VHF UHF Microwave Visible Light 0 Hertz (goes in one direction only) 60 Hertz (Hz) 100 Hz to 20 KHz ( ,000 Hz) kHz (30, ,000).3-3 MHz (300,000-3,000,000) 3-30 MHz (3,000,000-30,000,000) MHz (30,000, ,000,000) 300-3,000 MHz (well, you get the idea) Frequencies above 500 MHz THz (400,000, ,000,000 MHz) Requirement 3

29 So, what frequencies are assigned to whom? AM Broadcast Radio FM Broadcast Radio Short Wave Broadcast Television Broadcast CB Radio Police Radio Amateur Radio kHz MHz MHz Channel 2 = MHz 27 MHz MHz 3.5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 150 MHz 80, 40, 30, 20, 15, 10, 6, 2 meters Freq=C/meters C=300,000,000 or Freq (MHz)= 300/meters Requirement 3

30 Frequency - Measured in Hertz (kilohertz, megahertz, gigahertz) Wavelength – Measured in meters (cm). The Electromagnetic Spectrum Sound Long Radio Wavelengths Short Radio Wavelengths Microwaves

31 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Medium Frequency (MF) High Frequency (HF) Very High Frequency (VHF) Ultra High Frequency (UHF ) Requirement 3

32 . DRAW the Electromagnetic Spectrum MF HF VHF UHF MarineAM Broadcast 300 Khz3 Mhz Marine / Navigation 3 Mhz 30 Mhz 300 Mhz 30 Mhz 300 Mhz 3 Ghz WiFiUHF Ham 10m Ham VHF Ham FM BroadcastTV TVTV Air P/F Cellular Police/Fire International Shortwave Broadcast 6m Ham

33 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 2 Electronics, Safety & Careers BSA National Radio Scouting Committee2012

34 Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications.. Class Format

35 4 – How Radio Carries Information 5a – Radio Schematic Diagrams 5a, 5b – Radio Block Diagrams 5c – Types of Electrical Circuits 5d – Electronic Components & Symbols 6 – Radio Safety 8 – Careers in Radio Key Topics in This Module

36 Modulation – Superimposing information (audio, data, video) onto a radio signal. Modulation Un-modulated radio carrierCarrier modulated with audio Requirement 4

37 How Do Radio Waves Carry Sounds or Information? FM AM PM Requirement 4

38 Continuous Wave (CW) The Oldest Digital Mode Works by simply turning the transmitter on and off in a pattern called Morse Code. Requirement 4

39 CW or Morse Code No longer required to know, but still popular among ham radio operators. Needs less power and bandwidth than other modes. Requirement 4

40 . Modern Components Requirement 5d

41 .. Older Components Requirement 5d

42 .. Properties Resistor – opposes or resists current flow measured in ohms Capacitor – stores energy in electric field measured in farads Inductor – stores energy in a magnetic field measured in henries Record These In Your Workbook

43 Conductors conduct (carry) electricity. Most metals (gold, silver, aluminum, copper) Many liquids (water) Insulators insulate (dont carry) electricity. Air Most rubbers and plastics Most ceramics Wood and cloth (when dry and at low voltage) Conductors & Insulators

44 Direct Current (DC) – flows only one direction; produced by battery Alternating Current (AC) – flows in first one direction then another; found in our home electrical outlets.. Types of Electrical Current

45 Schematic Diagram Shows how to build a radio from components. Requirement 5

46 Voltage – electrical pressure (volts) Current – the flow of electricity through a circuit (amps) Power – the ability to do work (watts). Basic Electrical Terms

47 . Block Diagram vs. Schematic Audio Signal Pre Amp RF Oscillator Mixer Carrier Signal Final Amp Modulated RF Signal Block Diagram: Outlines the various functions within an electronic device InputOutput Schematic Diagram: Uses standard electrical symbols to describe an electrical circuit in detail LED flashlight + 3V Switch 120 ohm Radio Transmitter

48 Schematic Symbols FuseContains a thin wire which is made to melt which protects the rest of the circuit from damage if there is too much current from a short circuit. BatteryStores electric energy. ResistorResists the flow of electric current, reducing its flow. Variable resistor Like a regular resistor, but adjustable. For example, the volume knob on your stereo. Earth ground A connection between the equipment (radio) and the earth, usually through a copper pipe driven into the soil. Chassis ground A connection of the negative side of the electronic circuit to the chassis, or steel frame, of the equipment. Requirement 5 Represent Individual Electronic Parts (Components)

49 Schematic Symbols (cont.) Capacitor Gets and stores an electric charge. Lets alternating current (AC - like in your house) flow but stops direct current (DC - like from a battery). Variable capacitor Same as a regular capacitor, but adjustable. NPN transistor Amplifies a current. PNP transistor Amplifies a current. Inductor Also called a choke or coil, it works the opposite of a capacitor. It lets DC flow but stops AC. TubeA vacuum tube made of glass with wire filaments inside. Amplifies a current. It has been replaced by transistors in most home equipment, but is still found in some high power radio transmitters. Requirement 5

50 Schematic Symbols (cont.) Antenna Sends radio frequency signals into the air. SPST switch Single-pole single-throw switch. Has two positions, on and off. Like most light switches DPDT switch Double-pole double-throw switch. A double-throw switch has three positions. It can switch one input to one of two outputs - sort of like the switch you put on your television to switch between watching TV and playing your video game. The double-pole means it can switch a pair of inputs to either of two pairs of outputs. Requirement 5

51 . Schematic Symbols + Resistor SPST SwitchLight-Emitting Diode BatteryCapacitorInductorTransformer DiodeTransistorVariable Capacitor Variable Resistor (Potentiometer) Earth Ground Circuit Ground Draw Schematic Symbols In Your Workbook

52 . How Radio Waves Are Created Mic Audio Signal Pre Amp RF Oscillator Mixer Carrier Signal Final Amp Feed Line Antenna Basic AM Transmitter Modulated RF Signal Transmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signal Amplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed line Antenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air

53 . How Radio Waves Are Created Mic Audio Signal Pre Amp RF Oscillator Mixer Carrier Signal Final Amp Feed Line Antenna Basic AM Transmitter Modulated RF Signal Transmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signal Amplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed line Antenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air

54 . How Radio Waves Are Created Mic Audio Signal Pre Amp RF Oscillator Mixer Carrier Signal Final Amp Feed Line Antenna Basic AM Transmitter Modulated RF Signal Transmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signal Amplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed line Antenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air

55 Microphone Takes in Audio or Digital signal input Transmitter Creates an RF carrier Modulates the carrier Receiver Receives a radio signal Demodulates the carrier Transceiver Both a transmitter and receiver in one box Amplifier Increases RF signal power Tuner Matches transmitter to antenna Feed line Provides path to antenna Antenna Radiates the RF signal Key or Paddle For sending Morse code TNC (Terminal Node Controller) A computers Radio Modem How Radios Send and Receive Information TransceiverAmplifierTuner Microphone Key/Paddle TNCComputer Requirement 4

56 Simplified Block Diagram TransceiverAmplifierTuner Microphone Key/Paddle TNCComputer Shows how station components are connected together. Antenna Requirement 5 Feed Line

57 Detailed Block Diagram Shows how the radio works. Requirement 5

58 Closed Circuit Circuit is complete. Electricity flows like it should. Open Circuit Circuit is incomplete. Electricity doesnt flow. Short Circuit Circuit is complete through an unplanned shortcut. Electricity flows where it shouldnt! Dangerous – parts can get hot, start fires or even explode! Types of Electrical Circuits Requirement 5 + 3V S1120 ohm Current Flow LED flashlight + 3V S1120 ohm Current Flow LED flashlight On Off Fuse

59 Never operate radios with the cover off. The case keeps the RF radiation in. Exposure to high levels of RF can cause burns and cancer Human eyes especially sensitive to RF. Keep antennas out of reach. Hams required to conduct a routine station evaluation to verify safe operation Usually done by consulting a chart.. Safety With RF Energy

60 Make sure the power is disconnected before working. Electric shock can hurt or kill. Even with the power off, some parts inside the radio can hold a dangerous charge. If you don't know what you are doing, get help. Disconnect radios when not in use Connect antennas to ground when not in use Radio Safety Requirement 6

61 Make sure antennas cannot touch power lines you could be electrocuted when using the radio. NEVER OVER or UNDER power lines Where they could fall on a power line in any direction Where a person could touch the antenna Be careful working on towers and roofs You could fall or hurt someone on the ground.. Antennas & Towers

62 AC Outlet Grounding Ground wire connected to house wiring. Equipment uses 3 prong plugs to ground equipment case. If wire inside touches case, house circuit breaker is opened. Direct Current Grounding Hams add another ground rod and connect all of their station equipment cases to it as well. Provides additional safety and grounds any stray RF. Antenna Grounding Use lightning protectors where antennas enter the house. These bleed off static electricity. No protection to a direct strike. Grounding Requirement 6

63 Antenna pole connected to ground rod Disconnect radios if lightning is in the area Lightning can hit your antenna and travel down your lines to the radio. Make sure your antenna and radio are grounded to a good earth ground. Dont operate in thunderstorms.. Lightning Protection

64 Minimum fatal voltage – 30 volts Minimum fatal current if passed through the human heart – 1/10 th of an amp Power lines are un-insulated and carry thousands of volts – never touch them!. Safety With Electricity

65 Broadcasting Announcer/Personality Station Manager/Program Director/ Music Director Technical Radio Engineer Radio Technician Cellular Phone Technician Operators Public Safety Dispatcher Military Radio Operator Radio Careers Requirement 8

66 Most jobs require high school diploma. Colleges offer courses in broadcasting and communications. Gain broadcasting experience at college radio stations. Radio technicians attend trade schools or community colleges. Radio engineers study electrical engineering at college. Organizations such as APCO and NARTE offer radio licensing training courses and certifications. Education for Radio Careers Requirement 8

67 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 3 – Amateur Radio BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012

68 Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications. Class Format

69 9.a.(1) – Why does the FCC have an Amateur Radio Service? 9.a.(1) – Amateur Radio Activities 9.a.(2) – Real / Simulated Radio Contact 9.a.(3) – Q Signals & Abbreviations 9.a.(4) – Amateur Radio Licenses 9.a.(5) – Emergency Procedures 9.a.(6) – Types of Amateur stations 9.a.(6) – Repeaters NOAA Weather Radio Key Topics in This Module

70 Volunteer service - (community service and disaster help). A Scout does a good turn daily - here's another way. International goodwill - A great way to talk to people in far away lands. Experimentation - If you want, you can build your own radio equipment, and many hams build their own antennas. Some hams have come up with new inventions, such as FM, SSB, Packet Radio, Automatic Position Reporting Systems. Communication skills - Because only one person can talk at a time, you learn how to listen! Self-training - You can learn by doing. Why does the FCC have an Amateur Radio Service? Requirement 9 a (1)

71 Voluntary, non-commercial radio service established to: Increase the number of radio and electronics experts Improve international goodwill Assist with emergency communications Experiment with radio to improve technology. What is Amateur Radio?

72 DX Many hams talk to other hams around the world They can collect QSL cards (postcards) to prove they did it. (Collect countries!) It's a great way to have fun and learn about geography. Contests Held many weekends to contact as many people from a certain place or in a certain way. Packet radio Some hams hook computers to radios to send electronic messages. Rather like wireless . Amateur Radio Activities 1 Requirement 9 a (1)

73 Camping Communications are easy even in the backcountry Can summon help or report back how things are going. Fox hunting (Radio Direction Finding) Used to locate: Hidden transmitters Tagged wildlife Downed aircraft Life rafts Stolen cars Jamboree On The Air (JOTA) is the third weekend every October when Scouts all over the world talk to each other on ham radio. Amateur Radio Activities 2 Requirement 9 a (1)

74 Public Service At parades & special events. From small carnivals all the way to the Tournament of Roses Parade. Ham radio operators are often the best to help with communication at large community events Disasters Hams are often called on to help during fires, floods, earthquakes, and other disasters. At these times, telephone lines and cell phone sites are often damaged or overloaded, Ham radio is the only reliable communication. Skywarn National Weather Service uses Hams to report severe weather. Amateur Radio Activities 3 Requirement 9 a (1)

75 Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications..

76 . Cell Phones In The Wilderness Likewise, wireless telephones can be a convenient means for groups to contact emergency response personnel, but phones are useless if they malfunction, the batteries are exhausted, or distance and terrain prevent clear reception of signals. Frivolous use of wireless phones can seriously diminish solitude, independence, and challenge in the outdoors. If you carry a portable telephone, stow it deep in your pack and bring it out only for emergency calls. From the BSA Field Book, page 78…

77 Emergency preparedness tool Keep packed away and turned off Carry extra battery Respect serenity of outdoors Just because Scoutmaster has one doesnt mean YOURE prepared!. Cell Phones In The Wilderness BSA Field Book, p78 Idle Chit- Chat Music Player Video Game

78 .. Cell Phones In The Wilderness Wilderness Survival Merit Badge Book, p 15 Know how to increase your phones signal strength by pointing the antenna up, moving into a clearing, gaining elevation, and turning your body (you might be obstructing the signal)…cell phones should never replace preparedness. From the chapter entitledAvoiding the Outdoor Emergency…

79 Weakness During widespread emergency, Such as 9-11 or the 2005 London train bombings, cell systems busy out and become unusable. TRY TEXT MESSAGES. Cellular During a Disaster

80 . Technology In The Wilderness Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications. From the BSA Field Book, page 436…

81 Log Book Essentials Contacts Name Contacts Call Contacts QTH (location) Frequency Mode RST Sent (signal report) RST Received (signal report) Comments _________________ Requirement 9 a (2)

82 Q Signals and Amateur Terms QRMMan-made interference QRNNatural noise or interference QRPLow Power (< five watts) QRSSlow down Morse code speed QRTQuitting - off the air QSBSignal is fading QSLAcknowledge receipt (card) QSOConversation ("cue-so") QSYChange frequency QTHLocation (think H for Home) LogRecord of QSOs CWMorse code (means Continuous Wave) DXDistant (foreign stations) CQCalling any station ("seek you") OMOld man (male ham) YLYoung lady (female ham) RigRadio ShackRoom the radio is in HILaugh in Morse code 73, 88Best regards, love and kisses Requirement 9 a (3)

83 License required to transmit, but not to receive Tests given by volunteer examiners No age limit No distance limit. Licensing

84 Technician Class Starter license Simple 35 question multiple-choice written test All privileges above 30 MHz (VHF, UHF) Mostly line-of-sight (but includes repeaters and satellites) General Class Standard license Additional 35 question multiple-choice test Adds HF (long distance) Extra Class Highest class of license Detailed 50 question Radio Theory Test A few more HF frequencies Short Call Sign Amateur Radio License Classes Requirement 9 a (4)

85 Amateur Radio License Classes Requirement 9 a (4)

86 Entry level license. Full VHF & UHF use communicate around town and use repeaters, cannot use MOST of the HF bands which are used for world-wide contacts. This merit badge covers about half of the license test! Practice tests can be found at: QRZ web page Technician Class License Requirement 9 a (4)

87 Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc. Emergency Communications QST, April 2008, p 13

88 You may use any radio at any time to get help during an emergency Break Break followed by your call sign to interrupt a radio conversation in progress Mayday Mayday Mayday followed by your call sign to call on a clear frequency. Sending Out An Emergency Call - Voice

89 "MAYDAY" is the international word for requesting help by radio. In the US, "EMERGENCY works too. In Morse code, send SOS (... _ _ _... ) slowly. Speak clearly and give complete information Similar to a 911 telephone call. Give detailed location of the emergency The person helping you on the radio may be in another state or even in another country! Just because you have a radio doesn't mean someone will be able to hear you. You might have to climb higher up a hill. FRS radios and cell phones have less power than ham radios. Emergency Radio Calls Requirement 9 a (5)

90 Hams called Volunteer Examiners administer the exams for the FCC. Exam sessions and free study classes are run by local radio clubs such as: The Warminster Amateur Radio Club The Delaware Valley Radio Association Lots of other information on ham radio can be found at the ARRL web page: Who Administers Amateur Radio Exams? Requirement 9 a (4)

91 Handheld Transceivers (HT): Small, light, portable, but not much power. Some can fit in your pocket. Using repeaters, they can be quite useful, and they can go on your hike easily. Base Station Transceivers : Permanent station in a building. More power, easier to use, more features. Mobile Transceivers : Permanent station in a vehicle. More power. That HT antenna doesn't work well inside a metal car. Repeaters: Located on high points (Mountains, tall buildings, satellites) to automatically relay signals. Some have connections to the telephone system or the internet. Which kind of radio is best? It depends on what you want to do. You wouldnt backpack with a heavy base station radio, but that base station radio will let you talk farther when you are at home. Ham Radio Station Types Requirement 9 a (6)

92 . Portable Operation Fixed operation at a location other than your normal home station. Camp Field Day Emergency Drill Requirement 9 a (6)

93 Types of Radios - Handhelds.. Single Band or Dual Band Bands – VHF / UHF Power – Up to 5 watts Range – 1 to 5 miles without repeater, much more with repeater Price – $100 to $350 Requirement 9 a (6)

94 Types of Radios – Mobiles. Bands – VHF / UHF Power – Up to 50 watts Range – 5 to 10 miles without repeater, much more with repeater Price – $150 to $500 Dual Band Single Band Requirement 9 a (6)

95 Base Station Operation. Operation at a fixed location, usually your home. Requirement 9 a (6)

96 Types of Radios – Base Station.. Bands – HF (Sometimes VHF / UHF also) Power – Usually 100 watts Range – Worldwide Price – $700 to $10,000 Requirement 9 a (6)

97 More examples of radios that both transmit and receive (two-way) Police / fire Utilities Businesses WiFi Cellular. Two-Way Radio Three Types Of Radio Requirement 9 a (6)

98 . Mobile Operation The ability to operate while in motion Requirement 9 a (6)

99 Family Radio Service (FRS). FRS is a radio service in the UHF band for use by the general public. 14 channels½ watt of output power Range limited to couple of miles line-of-sight No license required General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) 22 channelshigher output power Range up to 10 miles, line of sight License required

100 FRS + GPS = Garmin Rino.. GPS receiver for determining your location FRS radio for voice communications Map showing your location and your buddys location Radio sends out periodic location data burst on voice channel Cost – $250 to $400 depending on features

101 Get On The Air For Free With Echolink.. Free software lets you link into distant repeater towers over an internet connection Only a computer, headset and internet connection required. This is called VoIP communications Requirement 9 a (6)

102 Get On The Air For Free With Echolink. Requirement 9 a (6)

103 Repeaters Receive on one frequency and transmit on another. Usually in the VHF and UHF bands Allow much longer range for small radios. Located on mountains, towers, buildings and in space MHz Input MHz Output MHz Output MHz Input Requirement 9 a (6) Repeater

104 NOAA Weather Radio Continuous Weather Forecasts & Warnings , , , , MHz Essential for boating, hiking and camping. Most Ham radios can also receive this. Special SAME (Specific Area Alert Encoding) receivers actually turn themselves on when a warning is sent for your county!

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