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Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America

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1 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America
Module 1 - Radio Basics BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012 .

2 Purpose Make You a Radio Expert Basic Familiarity With Radio Emergency Preparedness ..

3 Class Format Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio
Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications

4 Module 1 Introduction To Radio ..

5 Key Topics in This Module
1 - What is Radio? 1a,1b - Types of Radio Services 1c - Radio Call Signs & Identification 1d - The Phonetic Alphabet 2a - Radio Wave Propagation, WWV & WWVH 2b - The FCC & ITU 3a - The Electromagnetic Spectrum

6 What Is Radio? Electronic communication from one location to another without wires 1920s-era Radio Receiver . Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc.

7 Where Radio is used Radio is used in: broadcast receivers car locks
two way radios televisions cellular telephones wireless LANs garage door openers car locks EZPass satellites pagers radar microwave ovens etc, etc Requirement 1

8 Broadcast Radio Broadcast - One-way transmissions to the public. Could be commercial (music, news, sports with advertisements) or non-commercial (National Public Radio, school radio stations, Voice of America) Requirement 1

9 Broadcast Radio Towers
Three Types Of Radio Examples of radio transmission towers you may see: AM / FM Radio NOAA Weather Radio Television .. Requirement 1

10 Two-Way Communications
Two Way Radios both send (transmit) and receive messages. walkie-talkies Amateur Radio cell phones fire and police aviation ships military, etc. Requirement 1

11 Hobby Radio Use of the radio by the public to communicate with others or to control models. Amateur radio is a licensed type of Hobby Radio Requirement 1

12 Amateur Radio Three Types Of Radio A volunteer non-commercial radio service devoted to educational, recreational and emergency purposes “HAM” Radio “Hobby” Radio Requirement 1

13 Why Amateur Radio? A place to learn about radio!
Called the “Amateur Radio Service” because it can’t be used for profit. An important part of disaster response. A lot of fun! Requirement 1

14 Technology In The Wilderness
From the BSA Field Book, page 436… “Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications.” Requirement 1

15 Radio Call Signs Call Signs are identification. They show you have a license to transmit. Broadcast Call Signs WHO, KDKA, KORA, WNBC Ham Call Signs WW3Y, KB3BOY, VR2DK, 9N1MM, JA1ABC A92EB/OZ, G4RZC/MM All ham call signs contain a number Requirement 1

16 US Call Signs Every US station has a call sign issued by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Broadcast call signs begin with K or W KXAS WBAP Amateur call signs begin with A, K, N or W AB2SN KF0WT NY8N W0JMD Special Event Amateur call signs K0B Requirement 1

17 Amateur Radio Call Signs
Requirement 1

18 International Call Signs
International call sign prefixes assigned by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Countries issue specific call signs Examples: XE – Mexico VE – Canada VK – Australia ZL – New Zealand PY – Brazil G – Great Britain F – France I – Italy 4X – Israel JA – Japan . Requirement 1

19 Station Identification Rules
Broadcasters - Once per hour. Amateurs - Every ten minutes and at end of a conversation. Requirement 1

20 Example: “My name is Tom – tango, oscar, mike – Tom”
Phonetic Alphabet Alfa AL fah Bravo BRAH VOH Charlie CHAR lee Delta DELL tah Echo ECK oh Foxtrot FOX trot Golf GOLF Hotel hoh TELL India IN dee ah Juliet JEW lee ETT Kilo KEY loh Lima LEE mah Mike MIKE November no VEM ber Oscar OSS cah Papa pah pah Quebec keh BECK Romeo ROW me oh Sierra see AIR rah Tango TANG go Uniform YOU nee form Victor VIK ter Whiskey WISS key X-Ray ECKS RAY Yankee YANG kee Zulu ZOO loo Example: “My name is Tom – tango, oscar, mike – Tom” Requirement 1

21 How High Frequency (HF) Radio Waves Travel (Propagation)
Ionosphere (80 km) Sky Waves Ground Wave Skip Zone Ground Wave Sky Wave Ionosphere Skip Local DX .. Requirement 2

22 How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel (1)
Requirement 2

23 How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel - Line of Sight

24 Radio Propagation Characteristics
HF Wavelengths (160 – 10 meters) Generally utilizes skywave propagation Affected by solar activity VHF Wavelengths (6 meters – 2 meters) Generally utilize line-of-sight Affected very little by solar activity UHF Wavelengths (70cm and shorter) Generally utilize light-of-sight propagation Affected much by terrain, buildings .

25 WWV Provides accurate frequencies, time, and HF propagation forecasts.
WWV & WWVH transmit on 5,10,15 and 20 MHz WWV is in Ft Collins, Colorado WWVH is in Kauai, Hawaii Requirement 2

26 Radio Station WWV Transmits on standard frequencies
If you can hear WWV, the HF bands are open 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Mhz Fort Collins, CO .. Requirement 2

27 Regulation of Radio ITU FCC International Telecommunications Union
Meets every few years. Sets International Frequency assignments. Assigns prefixes to countries. FCC Federal Communication Commission Set Frequency Assignments in US. Issues Licenses & Call Signs in US. Enforces Radio Laws in US. Requirement 2

28 Frequencies (One Hertz is cycle per second)
DC Power AC Power Audio (Sound) LF MF HF or Shortwave VHF UHF Microwave Visible Light 0 Hertz (goes in one direction only) 60 Hertz (Hz) 100 Hz to 20 KHz ( ,000 Hz) kHz (30, ,000) .3-3 MHz (300,000-3,000,000) 3-30 MHz (3,000,000-30,000,000) MHz (30,000, ,000,000) 300-3,000 MHz (well, you get the idea) Frequencies above 500 MHz THz (400,000, ,000,000 MHz) Requirement 3

29 So, what frequencies are assigned to whom?
AM Broadcast Radio FM Broadcast Radio Short Wave Broadcast Television Broadcast CB Radio Police Radio Amateur Radio kHz MHz MHz Channel 2 = MHz 27 MHz MHz 3.5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 150 MHz 80, 40, 30, 20, 15, 10, 6, 2 meters Freq=C/meters C=300,000,000 or Freq (MHz)= 300/meters Requirement 3

30 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Long Radio Wavelengths Short Radio Wavelengths Sound Microwaves Frequency - Measured in Hertz (kilohertz, megahertz, gigahertz) Wavelength – Measured in meters (cm) . Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc.

31 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Medium Frequency (MF) High Frequency (HF) Very High Frequency (VHF) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Requirement 3

32 International Shortwave Broadcast
DRAW the Electromagnetic Spectrum MF Marine AM Broadcast Marine / Navigation 300 Khz 3 Mhz HF International Shortwave Broadcast 10m Ham 3 Mhz 30 Mhz VHF TV 6m Ham TV FM Broadcast Air VHF Ham P/F 30 Mhz 300 Mhz UHF UHF Ham TV Cellular Police/Fire WiFi 300 Mhz 3 Ghz .

33 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America
Module 2 Electronics, Safety & Careers BSA National Radio Scouting Committee2012

34 Class Format Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio
Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications ..

35 Key Topics in This Module
4 – How Radio Carries Information 5a – Radio Schematic Diagrams 5a, 5b – Radio Block Diagrams 5c – Types of Electrical Circuits 5d – Electronic Components & Symbols 6 – Radio Safety 8 – Careers in Radio

36 Modulation Modulation – Superimposing information (audio, data, video) onto a radio signal Un-modulated radio carrier Carrier modulated with audio . Requirement 4

37 How Do Radio Waves Carry Sounds or Information?
FM AM PM Requirement 4

38 Continuous Wave (CW) The Oldest Digital Mode
Works by simply turning the transmitter on and off in a pattern called Morse Code. Requirement 4

39 “CW” or Morse Code No longer required to know, but still popular among ham radio operators. Needs less power and bandwidth than other ‘modes”. Requirement 4

40 Modern Components . Requirement 5d

41 Older Components .. Requirement 5d

42 Properties Record These In Your Workbook Resistor – opposes or “resists” current flow measured in ohms Capacitor – stores energy in electric field measured in farads Inductor – stores energy in a magnetic field measured in henries ..

43 Conductors & Insulators
Conductors conduct (carry) electricity. Most metals (gold, silver, aluminum, copper) Many liquids (water) Insulators insulate (don’t carry) electricity. Air Most rubbers and plastics Most ceramics Wood and cloth (when dry and at low voltage)

44 Types of Electrical Current
Direct Current (DC) – flows only one direction; produced by battery Alternating Current (AC) – flows in first one direction then another; found in our home electrical outlets ..

45 Schematic Diagram Shows how to build a radio from components.
Requirement 5

46 Basic Electrical Terms
Voltage – electrical pressure (volts) Current – the flow of electricity through a circuit (amps) Power – the ability to do work (watts) .

47 Block Diagram vs. Schematic
Radio Transmitter Block Diagram: Outlines the various functions within an electronic device RF Oscillator Carrier Signal Pre Amp Final Amp Input Output Audio Signal Modulated RF Signal Mixer Switch 120 ohm Schematic Diagram: Uses standard electrical symbols to describe an electrical circuit in detail + 3V LED flashlight .

48 Schematic Symbols Represent Individual Electronic Parts (“Components”)
Fuse Contains a thin wire which is made to melt which protects the rest of the circuit from damage if there is too much current from a short circuit. Battery Stores electric energy. Resistor Resists the flow of electric current, reducing its flow. Variable resistor Like a regular resistor, but adjustable. For example, the volume knob on your stereo. Earth ground A connection between the equipment (radio) and the earth, usually through a copper pipe driven into the soil. Chassis ground A connection of the negative side of the electronic circuit to the chassis, or steel frame, of the equipment. Requirement 5

49 Schematic Symbols (cont.)
Capacitor Gets and stores an electric charge. Lets alternating current (AC - like in your house) flow but stops direct current (DC - like from a battery). Variable capacitor Same as a regular capacitor, but adjustable. NPN transistor Amplifies a current. PNP transistor Inductor Also called a choke or coil, it works the opposite of a capacitor. It lets DC flow but stops AC. Tube A vacuum tube made of glass with wire filaments inside. Amplifies a current. It has been replaced by transistors in most home equipment, but is still found in some high power radio transmitters. Requirement 5

50 Schematic Symbols (cont.)
Antenna Sends radio frequency signals into the air. SPST switch Single-pole single-throw switch. Has two positions, on and off. Like most light switches DPDT switch Double-pole double-throw switch. A double-throw switch has three positions. It can switch one input to one of two outputs - sort of like the switch you put on your television to switch between watching TV and playing your video game. The double-pole means it can switch a pair of inputs to either of two pairs of outputs. Requirement 5

51 Draw Schematic Symbols In Your Workbook
+ Resistor Battery Capacitor Inductor Transformer SPST Switch Light-Emitting Diode Earth Ground Variable Resistor (Potentiometer) Variable Capacitor Transistor Diode Circuit Ground .

52 How Radio Waves Are Created
Basic AM Transmitter RF Oscillator Carrier Signal Feed Line Pre Amp Final Amp Audio Signal Modulated RF Signal Antenna Mixer Mic Transmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signal Amplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed line Antenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air .

53 How Radio Waves Are Created
Basic AM Transmitter RF Oscillator Carrier Signal Feed Line Pre Amp Final Amp Audio Signal Modulated RF Signal Antenna Mixer Mic Transmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signal Amplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed line Antenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air .

54 How Radio Waves Are Created
Basic AM Transmitter RF Oscillator Carrier Signal Feed Line Pre Amp Final Amp Audio Signal Modulated RF Signal Antenna Mixer Mic Transmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signal Amplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed line Antenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air .

55 How Radios Send and Receive Information
Microphone Takes in Audio or Digital signal input Transmitter Creates an RF “carrier” Modulates the carrier Receiver Receives a radio signal Demodulates the carrier Transceiver Both a transmitter and receiver in one box Amplifier Increases RF signal power Tuner Matches transmitter to antenna Feed line Provides path to antenna Antenna Radiates the RF signal Key or Paddle For sending Morse code TNC (Terminal Node Controller) A computers “Radio Modem” Microphone Transceiver Amplifier Tuner Key/Paddle TNC Computer Requirement 4

56 Simplified Block Diagram
Antenna Microphone Transceiver Amplifier Tuner Feed Line Key/Paddle Shows how station components are connected together. TNC Computer Requirement 5

57 Detailed Block Diagram
Shows how the radio works. Requirement 5

58 Types of Electrical Circuits
+ 3V S1 120 ohm Current Flow LED flashlight On Closed Circuit Circuit is complete. Electricity flows like it should. Open Circuit Circuit is incomplete. Electricity doesn’t flow. Short Circuit Circuit is complete through an unplanned shortcut. Electricity flows where it shouldn’t! Dangerous – parts can get hot, start fires or even explode! + 3V S1 120 ohm Current Flow LED flashlight Off Fuse Requirement 5

59 Safety With RF Energy Never operate radios with the cover off.
The case keeps the RF radiation in. Exposure to high levels of RF can cause burns and cancer Human eyes especially sensitive to RF. Keep antennas out of reach. Hams required to conduct a “routine station evaluation” to verify safe operation Usually done by consulting a chart. .

60 Radio Safety Make sure the power is disconnected before working.
Electric shock can hurt or kill. Even with the power off, some parts inside the radio can hold a dangerous charge. If you don't know what you are doing, get help. Disconnect radios when not in use Connect antennas to ground when not in use Requirement 6

61 Antennas & Towers Make sure antennas cannot touch power lines
you could be electrocuted when using the radio. NEVER OVER or UNDER power lines Where they could fall on a power line in any direction Where a person could touch the antenna Be careful working on towers and roofs You could fall or hurt someone on the ground. .

62 Grounding AC Outlet Grounding Direct Current Grounding
Ground wire connected to house wiring. Equipment uses 3 prong plugs to ground equipment case. If wire inside touches case, house circuit breaker is opened. Direct Current Grounding Hams add another ground rod and connect all of their station equipment cases to it as well. Provides additional safety and grounds any stray RF. Antenna Grounding Use lightning protectors where antennas enter the house. These bleed off static electricity. No protection to a direct strike. Requirement 6

63 Lightning Protection Antenna pole connected to ground rod
Disconnect radios if lightning is in the area Lightning can hit your antenna and travel down your lines to the radio. Make sure your antenna and radio are grounded to a good earth ground. Don’t operate in thunderstorms. .

64 Safety With Electricity
Minimum fatal voltage – 30 volts Minimum fatal current if passed through the human heart – 1/10th of an amp Power lines are un-insulated and carry thousands of volts – never touch them! .

65 Radio Careers Broadcasting Technical Operators Announcer/Personality
Station Manager/Program Director/ Music Director Technical Radio Engineer Radio Technician Cellular Phone Technician Operators Public Safety Dispatcher Military Radio Operator Requirement 8

66 Education for Radio Careers
Most jobs require high school diploma. Colleges offer courses in broadcasting and communications. Gain broadcasting experience at college radio stations. Radio technicians attend trade schools or community colleges. Radio engineers study electrical engineering at college. Organizations such as APCO and NARTE offer radio licensing training courses and certifications. Requirement 8

67 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America
Module 3 – Amateur Radio BSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012

68 Class Format Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio
Module 2 – Electronic Components & Safety Module 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications .

69 Key Topics in This Module
9.a.(1) – Why does the FCC have an Amateur Radio Service? 9.a.(1) – Amateur Radio Activities 9.a.(2) – Real / Simulated Radio Contact 9.a.(3) – Q Signals & Abbreviations 9.a.(4) – Amateur Radio Licenses 9.a.(5) – Emergency Procedures 9.a.(6) – Types of Amateur stations 9.a.(6) – Repeaters NOAA Weather Radio

70 Why does the FCC have an Amateur Radio Service?
Volunteer service - (community service and disaster help). A Scout does a good turn daily - here's another way. International goodwill - A great way to talk to people in far away lands. Experimentation - If you want, you can build your own radio equipment, and many hams build their own antennas. Some hams have come up with new inventions, such as FM, SSB, Packet Radio, Automatic Position Reporting Systems. Communication skills - Because only one person can talk at a time, you learn how to listen! Self-training - You can learn by doing. Requirement 9 a (1)

71 What is Amateur Radio? Voluntary, non-commercial radio service established to: Increase the number of radio and electronics experts Improve international goodwill Assist with emergency communications Experiment with radio to improve technology .

72 Amateur Radio Activities 1
DX Many hams talk to other hams around the world They can collect QSL cards (postcards) to prove they did it. (Collect countries!) It's a great way to have fun and learn about geography. Contests Held many weekends to contact as many people from a certain place or in a certain way. Packet radio Some hams hook computers to radios to send electronic messages. Rather like wireless . Requirement 9 a (1)

73 Amateur Radio Activities 2
Camping Communications are easy even in the backcountry Can summon help or report back how things are going. “Fox” hunting (Radio Direction Finding) Used to locate: Hidden transmitters Tagged wildlife Downed aircraft Life rafts Stolen cars Jamboree On The Air (JOTA) is the third weekend every October when Scouts all over the world talk to each other on ham radio. Requirement 9 a (1)

74 Amateur Radio Activities 3
Public Service At parades & special events. From small carnivals all the way to the Tournament of Roses Parade. Ham radio operators are often the best to help with communication at large community events Disasters Hams are often called on to help during fires, floods, earthquakes, and other disasters. At these times, telephone lines and cell phone sites are often damaged or overloaded, Ham radio is the only reliable communication. Skywarn National Weather Service uses Hams to report severe weather . Requirement 9 a (1)

75 Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications

76 Cell Phones In The Wilderness
From the BSA Field Book, page 78… “Likewise, wireless telephones can be a convenient means for groups to contact emergency response personnel, but phones are useless if they malfunction, the batteries are exhausted, or distance and terrain prevent clear reception of signals. Frivolous use of wireless phones can seriously diminish solitude, independence, and challenge in the outdoors. If you carry a portable telephone, stow it deep in your pack and bring it out only for emergency calls.” .

77 Cell Phones In The Wilderness
Music Player BSA Field Book, p78 Idle Chit-Chat Video Game Emergency preparedness tool Keep packed away and turned off Carry extra battery Respect serenity of outdoors Just because Scoutmaster has one doesn’t mean YOU’RE prepared! .

78 Cell Phones In The Wilderness
From the chapter entitled “Avoiding the Outdoor Emergency”… “Know how to increase your phone’s signal strength by pointing the antenna up, moving into a clearing, gaining elevation, and turning your body (you might be obstructing the signal)…cell phones should never replace preparedness.” Wilderness Survival Merit Badge Book, p 15 ..

79 Cellular During a Disaster
Weakness During widespread emergency, Such as 9-11 or the 2005 London train bombings, cell systems busy out and become unusable. TRY TEXT MESSAGES .

80 Technology In The Wilderness
From the BSA Field Book, page 436… “Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications.” .

81 Log Book Essentials Contact’s Name Contact’s Call
Contact’s QTH (location) Frequency Mode RST Sent (signal report) RST Received (signal report) Comments _________________ Requirement 9 a (2)

82 Q Signals and Amateur Terms
QRM Man-made interference QRN Natural noise or interference QRP Low Power (< five watts) QRS Slow down Morse code speed QRT Quitting - off the air QSB Signal is fading QSL Acknowledge receipt (card) QSO Conversation ("cue-so") QSY Change frequency QTH Location (think H for Home) Log Record of QSOs CW Morse code (means Continuous Wave) DX Distant (foreign stations) CQ Calling any station ("seek you") OM Old man (male ham) YL Young lady (female ham) Rig Radio Shack Room the radio is in HI Laugh in Morse code 73, 88 Best regards, love and kisses Requirement 9 a (3)

83 Licensing License required to transmit, but not to receive
Tests given by volunteer examiners No age limit No distance limit .

84 Amateur Radio License Classes
Technician Class Starter license Simple 35 question multiple-choice written test All privileges above 30 MHz (VHF, UHF) Mostly line-of-sight (but includes repeaters and satellites) General Class Standard license Additional 35 question multiple-choice test Adds HF (long distance) Extra Class Highest class of license Detailed 50 question Radio Theory Test A few more HF frequencies Short Call Sign Requirement 9 a (4)

85 Amateur Radio License Classes
Requirement 9 a (4)

86 Technician Class License
Entry level license. Full VHF & UHF use communicate around town and use repeaters, cannot use MOST of the HF bands which are used for world-wide contacts. This merit badge covers about half of the license test! Practice tests can be found at: QRZ web page Requirement 9 a (4)

87 Emergency Communications
QST, April 2008, p 13 Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc.

88 Sending Out An Emergency Call - Voice
You may use any radio at any time to get help during an emergency “Break Break” followed by your call sign to interrupt a radio conversation in progress “Mayday Mayday Mayday” followed by your call sign to call on a clear frequency .

89 Emergency Radio Calls "MAYDAY" is the international word for requesting help by radio. In the US, "EMERGENCY“ works too. In Morse code, send SOS ” ( _ _ _ ) slowly. Speak clearly and give complete information Similar to a 911 telephone call. Give detailed location of the emergency The person helping you on the radio may be in another state or even in another country! Just because you have a radio doesn't mean someone will be able to hear you. You might have to climb higher up a hill. FRS radios and cell phones have less power than ham radios. Requirement 9 a (5)

90 Who Administers Amateur Radio Exams?
Hams called “Volunteer Examiners” administer the exams for the FCC. Exam sessions and free study classes are run by local radio clubs such as: The Warminster Amateur Radio Club The Delaware Valley Radio Association Lots of other information on ham radio can be found at the ARRL web page: Requirement 9 a (4)

91 Ham Radio Station Types
Handheld Transceivers (HT): Small, light, portable, but not much power. Some can fit in your pocket. Using repeaters, they can be quite useful, and they can go on your hike easily. Base Station Transceivers : Permanent station in a building. More power, easier to use, more features. Mobile Transceivers : Permanent station in a vehicle. More power. That HT antenna doesn't work well inside a metal car. Repeaters: Located on high points (Mountains, tall buildings, satellites) to automatically relay signals. Some have connections to the telephone system or the internet. Which kind of radio is best? It depends on what you want to do. You wouldn’t backpack with a heavy base station radio, but that base station radio will let you talk farther when you are at home. Requirement 9 a (6)

92 Portable Operation Fixed operation at a location other than your normal home station. Camp Field Day Emergency Drill . Requirement 9 a (6)

93 Types of Radios - Handhelds
Bands – VHF / UHF Power – Up to 5 watts Range – 1 to 5 miles without repeater, much more with repeater Price – $100 to $350 Single Band or Dual Band .. Requirement 9 a (6)

94 Types of Radios – Mobiles
Single Band Bands – VHF / UHF Power – Up to 50 watts Range – 5 to 10 miles without repeater, much more with repeater Price – $150 to $500 Dual Band . Requirement 9 a (6)

95 Base Station Operation
Operation at a fixed location, usually your home. . Requirement 9 a (6)

96 Types of Radios – Base Station
Bands – HF (Sometimes VHF / UHF also) Power – Usually 100 watts Range – Worldwide Price – $700 to $10,000 .. Requirement 9 a (6)

97 Two-Way Radio Three Types Of Radio More examples of radios that both transmit and receive (two-way) Police / fire Utilities Businesses WiFi Cellular . Requirement 9 a (6)

98 Mobile Operation The ability to operate while in motion .
Requirement 9 a (6)

99 Family Radio Service (FRS)
FRS is a radio service in the UHF band for use by the general public. 14 channels ½ watt of output power Range limited to couple of miles line-of-sight No license required General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) 22 channels higher output power Range up to 10 miles, line of sight License required .

100 FRS + GPS = Garmin Rino GPS receiver for determining your location
FRS radio for voice communications Map showing your location and your buddy’s location Radio sends out periodic location data burst on voice channel Cost – $250 to $400 depending on features ..

101 Get On The Air For Free With Echolink
Free software lets you link into distant repeater towers over an internet connection Only a computer, headset and internet connection required. This is called VoIP communications .. Requirement 9 a (6)

102 Get On The Air For Free With Echolink
. Requirement 9 a (6)

103 Repeaters Receive on one frequency and transmit on another.
Usually in the VHF and UHF bands Allow much longer range for small radios. Located on mountains, towers, buildings and in space. Repeater MHz Input MHz Output MHz Output MHz Input Requirement 9 a (6)

104 NOAA Weather Radio Continuous Weather Forecasts & Warnings
162.55, , , , MHz Essential for boating, hiking and camping. Most Ham radios can also receive this. Special SAME (Specific Area Alert Encoding) receivers actually turn themselves on when a warning is sent for your county!

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