5 Key Topics in This Module 1 - What is Radio?1a,1b - Types of Radio Services1c - Radio Call Signs & Identification1d - The Phonetic Alphabet2a - Radio Wave Propagation, WWV & WWVH2b - The FCC & ITU3a - The Electromagnetic Spectrum
6 What Is Radio?Electronic communication from one location to another without wires1920s-era Radio Receiver.Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc.
7 Where Radio is used Radio is used in: broadcast receivers car locks two way radiostelevisionscellular telephoneswireless LANsgarage door openerscar locksEZPasssatellitespagersradarmicrowave ovensetc, etcRequirement 1
8 Broadcast RadioBroadcast - One-way transmissions to the public. Could be commercial (music, news, sports with advertisements) or non-commercial (National Public Radio, school radio stations, Voice of America)Requirement 1
9 Broadcast Radio Towers Three Types Of RadioExamples of radio transmission towers you may see:AM / FM RadioNOAA Weather RadioTelevision..Requirement 1
10 Two-Way Communications Two Way Radios both send (transmit) and receive messages.walkie-talkiesAmateur Radiocell phonesfire and policeaviationshipsmilitary, etc.Requirement 1
11 Hobby RadioUse of the radio by the public to communicate with others or to control models.Amateur radio is a licensed type of Hobby RadioRequirement 1
12 Amateur RadioThree Types Of RadioA volunteer non-commercial radio service devoted to educational, recreational and emergency purposes“HAM” Radio“Hobby” RadioRequirement 1
13 Why Amateur Radio? A place to learn about radio! Called the “Amateur Radio Service” because it can’t be used for profit.An important part of disaster response.A lot of fun!Requirement 1
14 Technology In The Wilderness From the BSA Field Book, page 436…“Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications.”Requirement 1
15 Radio Call SignsCall Signs are identification. They show you have a license to transmit.Broadcast Call SignsWHO, KDKA, KORA, WNBCHam Call SignsWW3Y, KB3BOY, VR2DK, 9N1MM, JA1ABCA92EB/OZ, G4RZC/MMAll ham call signs contain a numberRequirement 1
16 US Call SignsEvery US station has a call sign issued by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)Broadcast call signs begin with K or WKXAS WBAPAmateur call signs begin with A, K, N or WAB2SN KF0WT NY8N W0JMDSpecial Event Amateur call signs K0BRequirement 1
18 International Call Signs International call sign prefixes assigned by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)Countries issue specific call signsExamples:XE – MexicoVE – CanadaVK – AustraliaZL – New ZealandPY – BrazilG – Great BritainF – FranceI – Italy4X – IsraelJA – Japan.Requirement 1
19 Station Identification Rules Broadcasters - Once per hour. Amateurs - Every ten minutes and at end of a conversation.Requirement 1
20 Example: “My name is Tom – tango, oscar, mike – Tom” Phonetic AlphabetAlfa AL fahBravo BRAH VOHCharlie CHAR leeDelta DELL tahEcho ECK ohFoxtrot FOX trotGolf GOLFHotel hoh TELLIndia IN dee ahJuliet JEW lee ETTKilo KEY lohLima LEE mahMike MIKENovember no VEM berOscar OSS cahPapa pah pahQuebec keh BECKRomeo ROW me oh Sierra see AIR rahTango TANG goUniform YOU nee formVictor VIK terWhiskey WISS keyX-Ray ECKS RAYYankee YANG keeZulu ZOO looExample: “My name is Tom – tango, oscar, mike – Tom”Requirement 1
21 How High Frequency (HF) Radio Waves Travel (Propagation) Ionosphere (80 km)Sky WavesGround WaveSkip ZoneGround WaveSky WaveIonosphereSkipLocalDX..Requirement 2
22 How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel (1) Requirement 2
23 How VHF & UHF Radio Waves Travel - Line of Sight
24 Radio Propagation Characteristics HF Wavelengths (160 – 10 meters)Generally utilizes skywave propagationAffected by solar activityVHF Wavelengths (6 meters – 2 meters)Generally utilize line-of-sightAffected very little by solar activityUHF Wavelengths (70cm and shorter)Generally utilize light-of-sight propagationAffected much by terrain, buildings.
25 WWV Provides accurate frequencies, time, and HF propagation forecasts. WWV & WWVH transmit on 5,10,15 and 20 MHzWWV is in Ft Collins, Colorado WWVH is in Kauai, HawaiiRequirement 2
26 Radio Station WWV Transmits on standard frequencies If you can hear WWV, the HF bands are open2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MhzFort Collins, CO..Requirement 2
27 Regulation of Radio ITU FCC International Telecommunications Union Meets every few years.Sets International Frequency assignments.Assigns prefixes to countries.FCCFederal Communication CommissionSet Frequency Assignments in US.Issues Licenses & Call Signs in US.Enforces Radio Laws in US.Requirement 2
28 Frequencies (One Hertz is cycle per second) DC PowerAC PowerAudio (Sound)LFMFHF or ShortwaveVHFUHFMicrowaveVisible Light0 Hertz (goes in one direction only)60 Hertz (Hz)100 Hz to 20 KHz ( ,000 Hz)kHz (30, ,000).3-3 MHz (300,000-3,000,000)3-30 MHz (3,000,000-30,000,000)MHz (30,000, ,000,000)300-3,000 MHz (well, you get the idea)Frequencies above 500 MHzTHz (400,000, ,000,000 MHz)Requirement 3
29 So, what frequencies are assigned to whom? AM Broadcast RadioFM Broadcast RadioShort Wave BroadcastTelevision BroadcastCB RadioPolice RadioAmateur RadiokHzMHzMHzChannel 2 = MHz27 MHzMHz3.5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 150 MHz80, 40, 30, 20, 15, 10, 6, 2 metersFreq=C/metersC=300,000,000 orFreq (MHz)= 300/metersRequirement 3
30 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Long Radio WavelengthsShort Radio WavelengthsSoundMicrowavesFrequency - Measured in Hertz (kilohertz, megahertz, gigahertz) Wavelength – Measured in meters (cm).Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc.
31 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Medium Frequency (MF)High Frequency (HF)Very High Frequency (VHF)Ultra High Frequency (UHF)Requirement 3
33 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 2Electronics, Safety & CareersBSA National Radio Scouting Committee2012
34 Class Format Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio Module 2 – Electronic Components & SafetyModule 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications..
35 Key Topics in This Module 4 – How Radio Carries Information5a – Radio Schematic Diagrams5a, 5b – Radio Block Diagrams5c – Types of Electrical Circuits5d – Electronic Components & Symbols6 – Radio Safety8 – Careers in Radio
36 ModulationModulation – Superimposing information (audio, data, video) onto a radio signalUn-modulated radio carrierCarrier modulated with audio.Requirement 4
37 How Do Radio Waves Carry Sounds or Information? FMAMPMRequirement 4
38 Continuous Wave (CW) The Oldest Digital Mode Works by simply turning the transmitteron and off in a pattern called Morse Code.Requirement 4
39 “CW” or Morse CodeNo longer required to know, but still popular among ham radio operators. Needs less power and bandwidth than other ‘modes”.Requirement 4
42 PropertiesRecord These InYour WorkbookResistor – opposes or “resists” current flow measured in ohms Capacitor – stores energy in electric field measured in farads Inductor – stores energy in a magnetic field measured in henries..
43 Conductors & Insulators Conductors conduct (carry) electricity.Most metals (gold, silver, aluminum, copper)Many liquids (water)Insulators insulate (don’t carry) electricity.AirMost rubbers and plasticsMost ceramicsWood and cloth (when dry and at low voltage)
44 Types of Electrical Current Direct Current (DC) – flows only one direction; produced by batteryAlternating Current (AC) – flows in first one direction then another; found in our home electrical outlets..
45 Schematic Diagram Shows how to build a radio from components. Requirement 5
46 Basic Electrical Terms Voltage – electrical pressure (volts)Current – the flow of electricity through a circuit (amps)Power – the ability to do work (watts).
47 Block Diagram vs. Schematic Radio TransmitterBlock Diagram: Outlines the various functions within an electronic deviceRFOscillatorCarrierSignalPreAmpFinalAmpInputOutputAudioSignalModulatedRF SignalMixerSwitch120 ohmSchematic Diagram: Uses standard electrical symbols to describe an electrical circuit in detail+3VLED flashlight.
48 Schematic Symbols Represent Individual Electronic Parts (“Components”) FuseContains a thin wire which is made to melt which protects the rest of the circuit from damage if there is too much current from a short circuit.BatteryStores electric energy.ResistorResists the flow of electric current, reducing its flow.Variable resistorLike a regular resistor, but adjustable. For example, the volume knob on your stereo.Earth groundA connection between the equipment (radio) and the earth, usually through a copper pipe driven into the soil.Chassis groundA connection of the negative side of the electronic circuit to the chassis, or steel frame, of the equipment.Requirement 5
49 Schematic Symbols (cont.) CapacitorGets and stores an electric charge. Lets alternating current (AC - like in your house) flow but stops direct current (DC - like from a battery).Variable capacitorSame as a regular capacitor, but adjustable.NPN transistorAmplifies a current.PNP transistorInductorAlso called a choke or coil, it works the opposite of a capacitor. It lets DC flow but stops AC.TubeA vacuum tube made of glass with wire filaments inside. Amplifies a current. It has been replaced by transistors in most home equipment, but is still found in some high power radio transmitters.Requirement 5
50 Schematic Symbols (cont.) AntennaSends radio frequency signals into the air.SPST switchSingle-pole single-throw switch. Has two positions, on and off. Like most light switchesDPDT switchDouble-pole double-throw switch. A double-throw switch has three positions. It can switch one input to one of two outputs - sort of like the switch you put on your television to switch between watching TV and playing your video game. The double-pole means it can switch a pair of inputs to either of two pairs of outputs.Requirement 5
51 Draw Schematic Symbols In Your Workbook +ResistorBatteryCapacitorInductorTransformerSPST SwitchLight-EmittingDiodeEarthGroundVariableResistor(Potentiometer)VariableCapacitorTransistorDiodeCircuitGround.
52 How Radio Waves Are Created Basic AM TransmitterRFOscillatorCarrierSignalFeed LinePreAmpFinalAmpAudioSignalModulatedRF SignalAntennaMixerMicTransmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signalAmplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed lineAntenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air.
53 How Radio Waves Are Created Basic AM TransmitterRFOscillatorCarrierSignalFeed LinePreAmpFinalAmpAudioSignalModulatedRF SignalAntennaMixerMicTransmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signalAmplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed lineAntenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air.
54 How Radio Waves Are Created Basic AM TransmitterRFOscillatorCarrierSignalFeed LinePreAmpFinalAmpAudioSignalModulatedRF SignalAntennaMixerMicTransmitter - Generates radio frequency (RF) signalAmplifier - Makes the signal stronger and drives feed lineAntenna - Launches the electromagnetic wave into the air.
55 How Radios Send and Receive Information MicrophoneTakes in Audio or Digital signal inputTransmitterCreates an RF “carrier”Modulates the carrierReceiverReceives a radio signalDemodulates the carrierTransceiverBoth a transmitter and receiver in one boxAmplifierIncreases RF signal powerTunerMatches transmitter to antennaFeed lineProvides path to antennaAntennaRadiates the RF signalKey or PaddleFor sending Morse codeTNC (Terminal Node Controller)A computers “Radio Modem”MicrophoneTransceiverAmplifierTunerKey/PaddleTNCComputerRequirement 4
56 Simplified Block Diagram AntennaMicrophoneTransceiverAmplifierTunerFeed LineKey/PaddleShows how station components are connected together.TNCComputerRequirement 5
57 Detailed Block Diagram Shows how the radio works.Requirement 5
58 Types of Electrical Circuits +3VS1120 ohmCurrent FlowLED flashlightOnClosed CircuitCircuit is complete.Electricity flows like it should.Open CircuitCircuit is incomplete.Electricity doesn’t flow.Short CircuitCircuit is complete through an unplanned shortcut.Electricity flows where it shouldn’t!Dangerous – parts can get hot, start fires or even explode!+3VS1120 ohmCurrent FlowLED flashlightOffFuseRequirement 5
59 Safety With RF Energy Never operate radios with the cover off. The case keeps the RF radiation in.Exposure to high levels of RF can cause burns and cancerHuman eyes especially sensitive to RF.Keep antennas out of reach.Hams required to conduct a “routine station evaluation” to verify safe operationUsually done by consulting a chart..
60 Radio Safety Make sure the power is disconnected before working. Electric shock can hurt or kill.Even with the power off, some parts inside the radio can hold a dangerous charge.If you don't know what you are doing, get help.Disconnect radios when not in useConnect antennas to ground when not in useRequirement 6
61 Antennas & Towers Make sure antennas cannot touch power lines you could be electrocuted when using the radio.NEVER OVER or UNDERpower linesWhere they could fall on a power line in any directionWhere a person could touch the antennaBe careful working on towers and roofsYou could fall or hurt someone on the ground..
62 Grounding AC Outlet Grounding Direct Current Grounding Ground wire connected to house wiring.Equipment uses 3 prong plugs to ground equipment case.If wire inside touches case, house circuit breaker is opened.Direct Current GroundingHams add another ground rod and connect all of their station equipment cases to it as well.Provides additional safety and grounds any stray RF.Antenna GroundingUse lightning protectors where antennas enter the house.These bleed off static electricity.No protection to a direct strike.Requirement 6
63 Lightning Protection Antenna pole connected to ground rod Disconnect radios if lightning is in the areaLightning can hit your antenna and travel down your lines to the radio.Make sure your antenna and radio are grounded to a good earth ground.Don’t operate in thunderstorms..
64 Safety With Electricity Minimum fatal voltage – 30 voltsMinimum fatal current if passed through the human heart – 1/10th of an ampPower lines are un-insulated and carry thousands of volts – never touch them!.
65 Radio Careers Broadcasting Technical Operators Announcer/Personality Station Manager/Program Director/ Music DirectorTechnicalRadio EngineerRadio TechnicianCellular Phone TechnicianOperatorsPublic Safety DispatcherMilitary Radio OperatorRequirement 8
66 Education for Radio Careers Most jobs require high school diploma.Colleges offer courses in broadcasting and communications.Gain broadcasting experience at college radio stations.Radio technicians attend trade schools or community colleges.Radio engineers study electrical engineering at college.Organizations such as APCO and NARTE offer radio licensing training courses and certifications.Requirement 8
67 Radio Merit Badge Boy Scouts of America Module 3 – Amateur RadioBSA National Radio Scouting Committee 2012
68 Class Format Three modules – any order Module 1 – Intro To Radio Module 2 – Electronic Components & SafetyModule 3 – Amateur Radio & Emergency Communications.
69 Key Topics in This Module 9.a.(1) – Why does the FCC have an Amateur Radio Service?9.a.(1) – Amateur Radio Activities9.a.(2) – Real / Simulated Radio Contact9.a.(3) – Q Signals & Abbreviations9.a.(4) – Amateur Radio Licenses9.a.(5) – Emergency Procedures9.a.(6) – Types of Amateur stations9.a.(6) – RepeatersNOAA Weather Radio
70 Why does the FCC have an Amateur Radio Service? Volunteer service - (community service and disaster help). A Scout does a good turn daily - here's another way.International goodwill - A great way to talk to people in far away lands.Experimentation - If you want, you can build your own radio equipment, and many hams build their own antennas. Some hams have come up with new inventions, such as FM, SSB, Packet Radio, Automatic Position Reporting Systems.Communication skills - Because only one person can talk at a time, you learn how to listen!Self-training - You can learn by doing.Requirement 9 a (1)
71 What is Amateur Radio?Voluntary, non-commercial radio service established to:Increase the number of radioand electronics expertsImprove international goodwillAssist with emergencycommunicationsExperiment with radio to improve technology.
72 Amateur Radio Activities 1 DXMany hams talk to other hams around the worldThey can collect QSL cards (postcards) to prove they did it. (Collect countries!)It's a great way to have fun and learn about geography.ContestsHeld many weekends to contact as many people from a certain place or in a certain way.Packet radioSome hams hook computers to radios to send electronic messages.Rather like wireless .Requirement 9 a (1)
73 Amateur Radio Activities 2 CampingCommunications are easy even in the backcountryCan summon help or report back how things are going.“Fox” hunting (Radio Direction Finding)Used to locate:Hidden transmittersTagged wildlifeDowned aircraftLife raftsStolen carsJamboree On The Air(JOTA) is the third weekend every October when Scouts all over the world talk to each other on ham radio.Requirement 9 a (1)
74 Amateur Radio Activities 3 Public ServiceAt parades & special events.From small carnivals all the way to the Tournament of Roses Parade.Ham radio operators are often the best to help with communication at large community eventsDisastersHams are often called on to help during fires, floods, earthquakes, and other disasters.At these times, telephone lines and cell phone sites are often damaged or overloaded,Ham radio is the only reliable communication.SkywarnNational Weather Service uses Hams to report severe weather .Requirement 9 a (1)
76 Cell Phones In The Wilderness From the BSA Field Book, page 78…“Likewise, wireless telephones can be a convenient means for groups to contact emergency response personnel, but phones are useless if they malfunction, the batteries are exhausted, or distance and terrain prevent clear reception of signals.Frivolous use of wireless phones can seriously diminish solitude, independence, and challenge in the outdoors. If you carry a portable telephone, stow it deep in your pack and bring it out only for emergency calls.”.
77 Cell Phones In The Wilderness Music PlayerBSA Field Book, p78Idle Chit-ChatVideo GameEmergency preparedness toolKeep packed away andturned offCarry extra batteryRespect serenity of outdoorsJust because Scoutmaster has one doesn’t mean YOU’RE prepared!.
78 Cell Phones In The Wilderness From the chapter entitled “Avoiding the Outdoor Emergency”…“Know how to increase your phone’s signal strength by pointing the antenna up, moving into a clearing, gaining elevation, and turning your body (you might be obstructing the signal)…cell phones should never replace preparedness.”Wilderness Survival Merit Badge Book, p 15..
79 Cellular During a Disaster WeaknessDuring widespread emergency, Such as 9-11 or the 2005 London train bombings, cell systems busy out and become unusable.TRY TEXT MESSAGES.
80 Technology In The Wilderness From the BSA Field Book, page 436…“Many SAR teams use ham radio technology, especially the two-meter band and the FCC Technician license, to facilitate communications.”.
81 Log Book Essentials Contact’s Name Contact’s Call Contact’s QTH (location)FrequencyModeRST Sent (signal report)RST Received (signal report)Comments_________________Requirement 9 a (2)
82 Q Signals and Amateur Terms QRMMan-made interferenceQRNNatural noise or interferenceQRPLow Power (< five watts)QRSSlow down Morse code speedQRTQuitting - off the airQSBSignal is fadingQSLAcknowledge receipt (card)QSOConversation ("cue-so")QSYChange frequencyQTHLocation (think H for Home)LogRecord of QSOsCWMorse code (means Continuous Wave)DXDistant (foreign stations)CQCalling any station ("seek you")OMOld man (male ham)YLYoung lady (female ham)RigRadioShackRoom the radio is inHILaugh in Morse code73, 88Best regards, love and kissesRequirement 9 a (3)
83 Licensing License required to transmit, but not to receive Tests given byvolunteer examinersNo age limitNo distance limit.
84 Amateur Radio License Classes Technician ClassStarter licenseSimple 35 question multiple-choice written testAll privileges above 30 MHz (VHF, UHF)Mostly line-of-sight (but includes repeaters and satellites)General ClassStandard licenseAdditional 35 question multiple-choice testAdds HF (long distance)Extra ClassHighest class of licenseDetailed 50 question Radio Theory TestA few more HF frequenciesShort Call SignRequirement 9 a (4)
85 Amateur Radio License Classes Requirement 9 a (4)
86 Technician Class License Entry level license.Full VHF & UHF usecommunicate around town and use repeaters,cannot use MOST of the HF bands which are used for world-wide contacts.This merit badge covers about half of the license test!Practice tests can be found at:QRZ web pageRequirement 9 a (4)
87 Emergency Communications QST, April 2008, p 13Athens Amateur Radio Club, Inc.
88 Sending Out An Emergency Call - Voice You may use any radio at any time to get help during an emergency“Break Break” followed by your call sign to interrupt a radio conversation in progress“Mayday Mayday Mayday” followed by your call sign to call on a clear frequency.
89 Emergency Radio Calls"MAYDAY" is the international word for requesting help by radio.In the US, "EMERGENCY“ works too.In Morse code, send SOS ” ( _ _ _ ) slowly.Speak clearly and give complete informationSimilar to a 911 telephone call.Give detailed location of the emergencyThe person helping you on the radio may be in another state or even in another country!Just because you have a radio doesn't mean someone will be able to hear you.You might have to climb higher up a hill.FRS radios and cell phones have less power than ham radios.Requirement 9 a (5)
90 Who Administers Amateur Radio Exams? Hams called “Volunteer Examiners” administer the exams for the FCC.Exam sessions and free study classes are run by local radio clubs such as:The Warminster Amateur Radio ClubThe Delaware Valley Radio AssociationLots of other information on ham radio can be found at the ARRL web page:Requirement 9 a (4)
91 Ham Radio Station Types Handheld Transceivers (HT): Small, light, portable, but not much power. Some can fit in your pocket. Using repeaters, they can be quite useful, and they can go on your hike easily.Base Station Transceivers : Permanent station in a building. More power, easier to use, more features.Mobile Transceivers : Permanent station in a vehicle. More power. That HT antenna doesn't work well inside a metal car.Repeaters: Located on high points (Mountains, tall buildings, satellites) to automatically relay signals. Some have connections to the telephone system or the internet.Which kind of radio is best? It depends on what you want to do. You wouldn’t backpack with a heavy base station radio, but that base station radio will let you talk farther when you are at home.Requirement 9 a (6)
92 Portable OperationFixed operation at a location other than your normal home station.CampField DayEmergency Drill.Requirement 9 a (6)
93 Types of Radios - Handhelds Bands – VHF / UHFPower – Up to 5 wattsRange – 1 to 5 miles without repeater, much more with repeaterPrice – $100 to $350Single Band or Dual Band..Requirement 9 a (6)
94 Types of Radios – Mobiles Single BandBands – VHF / UHFPower – Up to 50 wattsRange – 5 to 10 miles without repeater, much more with repeaterPrice – $150 to $500Dual Band.Requirement 9 a (6)
95 Base Station Operation Operation at a fixed location, usually your home..Requirement 9 a (6)
96 Types of Radios – Base Station Bands – HF (Sometimes VHF / UHF also)Power – Usually 100 wattsRange – WorldwidePrice – $700 to $10,000..Requirement 9 a (6)
97 Two-Way RadioThree Types Of RadioMore examples of radios that both transmit and receive (two-way)Police / fireUtilitiesBusinessesWiFiCellular.Requirement 9 a (6)
98 Mobile Operation The ability to operate while in motion . Requirement 9 a (6)
99 Family Radio Service (FRS) FRS is a radio service in the UHF band for use by the general public.14 channels ½ watt of output powerRange limited to couple of miles line-of-sightNo license requiredGeneral Mobile Radio Service (GMRS)22 channels higher output powerRange up to 10 miles, line of sightLicense required.
100 FRS + GPS = Garmin Rino GPS receiver for determining your location FRS radio for voice communicationsMap showing your location and your buddy’s locationRadio sends out periodic location data burst on voice channelCost – $250 to $400 depending on features..
101 Get On The Air For Free With Echolink Free software lets you link into distant repeater towers over an internet connectionOnly a computer, headset and internet connection required.This is called VoIP communications..Requirement 9 a (6)
102 Get On The Air For Free With Echolink .Requirement 9 a (6)
103 Repeaters Receive on one frequency and transmit on another. Usually in the VHF and UHF bandsAllow much longer range for small radios.Located on mountains, towers, buildings and in space.RepeaterMHzInputMHzOutputMHzOutputMHzInputRequirement 9 a (6)
104 NOAA Weather Radio Continuous Weather Forecasts & Warnings 162.55, , , , MHzEssential for boating, hiking and camping.Most Ham radios can also receive this.Special SAME (Specific Area Alert Encoding) receivers actually turn themselves on when a warning is sent for your county!