Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Conquering Complex and Changing Systems Object-Oriented Software Engineering OOMPA 2000 Föreläsning 9 Systemdesign med bla mönster Innehåll Vi lånar två.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Conquering Complex and Changing Systems Object-Oriented Software Engineering OOMPA 2000 Föreläsning 9 Systemdesign med bla mönster Innehåll Vi lånar två."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conquering Complex and Changing Systems Object-Oriented Software Engineering OOMPA 2000 Föreläsning 9 Systemdesign med bla mönster Innehåll Vi lånar två av fyra uppsättningar av Bruegges OH-bilder till kapitel 6 System Design Design Patterns s 2-42 System Design Design Patterns II s

2 Conquering Complex and Changing Systems Object-Oriented Software Engineering Chapter 6, System Design Design Patterns

3 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 3 OOMPA 2000, F9 Outline Design Patterns Usefulness of design patterns Design Pattern Categories Patterns covered in this Lecture Composite: Model dynamic aggregates Facade: Interfacing to subsystems Adapter: Interfacing to existing systems (legacy systems) Bridge: Interfacing to existing and future systems

4 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 4 OOMPA 2000, F9 Finding Objects The hardest parts in system development: Identifying objects Decomposing a system into objects Requirements Analysis focuses on application domain: Object identification System Design addresses both, application and implementation domain: Subsystem Identification Object Design focuses on implementation domain: More object identification

5 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 5 OOMPA 2000, F9 Techniques for Finding Objects Requirements Analysis Start with Use Cases. Identify participating objects Textual analysis of flow of events (find nouns, verbs,...) Extract application domain objects by interviewing client (application domain knowledge) Find objects by using general knowledge System Design Subsystem decomposition Try to identify layers and partitions Object Design Find additional objects by applying implementation domain knowledge

6 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 6 OOMPA 2000, F9 Another Source for Finding Objects : Design Patterns Observation [Gamma et al 95]: Strict modeling of the real world leads to a system that reflects todays realities but not necessarily tomorrows. There is a need for reusable and flexible designs Design knowledge complements application domain knowledge and implementation domain knowledge. What are Design Patterns? A design pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use the this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same twice

7 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 7 OOMPA 2000, F9 Design Patterns Notation Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides, Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Addison Wesley, 1995 Based on OMT Notation Notational issues Attributes come after the Operations Associations are called acquaintances Multiplicities are shown as solid circles Inheritance shown as triangle Dashed line : Instantiation Association (Class can instantiate objects of associated class) (In UML it denotes a dependency UML Note is called Dogear box (connected by dashed line to class operation): Pseudo-code implementation of operation

8 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 8 OOMPA 2000, F9 Review: Modeling Typical Aggregations UniversitySchool Department Organization Chart (variable aggregate): Dynamic tree (recursive aggregate): Car Fixed Structure: DoorsWheels BatteryEngine Compound Statement Simple Statement Program Block

9 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 9 OOMPA 2000, F9 Review: Modeling Typical Aggregations UniversitySchool Department Organization Chart (variable aggregate): Car Fixed Structure: DoorsWheels BatteryEngine Compound Statement Simple Statement Program Block Dynamic tree (recursive aggregate): Composite Pattern

10 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 10 OOMPA 2000, F9 Composite Pattern Composes objects into tree structures to represent part-whole hierarchies with arbitrary depth and width. The Composite Pattern lets client treat individual objects and compositions of these objects uniformly Client Component Leaf Operation() Composite Operation() AddComponent RemoveComponent() GetChild() Children

11 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 11 OOMPA 2000, F9 Graphic Applications use Composite Patterns Client Graphic Circle Draw() Picture Draw() Add(Graphic g) RemoveGraphic) GetChild(int) Children Line Draw() The Graphic Class represents both primitives (Line, Circle) and their containers (Picture)

12 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 12 OOMPA 2000, F9 Modeling Software Development with Composite Patterns Software Lifecycle: Definition: The software lifecycle consists of a set of development activities which are either other activities or collection of tasks Composite: Activity (The software lifecycle consists of activities which consist of activities, which consist of activities, which....) Leaf node: Task Software System: Definition: A software system consists of subsystems which are either other subsystems or collection of classes Composite: Subsystem (A software system consists of subsystems which consists of subsystems, which consists of subsystems, which...) Leaf node: Class

13 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 13 OOMPA 2000, F9 Modeling the Software Lifecycle with a Composite Pattern Manager Software Lifecycle Task Activity Children

14 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 14 OOMPA 2000, F9 Modeling a Software System with a Composite Pattern Developer Software System Class Subsystem Children

15 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 15 OOMPA 2000, F9 Ideal Structure of a Subsystem: Façade, Adapter, Bridge A subsystem consists of an interface object a set of application domain objects (entity objects) modeling real entities or existing systems Some of the application domain objects are interfaces to existing systems one or more control objects Realization of Interface Object: Facade Provides the interface to the subsystem Interface to existing systems: Adapter or Bridge Provides the interface to existing system (legacy system) The existing system is not necessarily object-oriented!

16 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 16 OOMPA 2000, F9 Facade Pattern Provides a unified interface to a set of objects in a subsystem. A facade defines a higher-level interface that makes the subsystem easier to use (i.e. it abstracts out the gory details) Facades allow us to provide a closed architecture

17 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 17 OOMPA 2000, F9 Open vs Closed Architecture Open architecture: Any client can see into the vehicle subsystem and call on any component or class operation at will. Why is this good? Efficiency Why is this bad? Cant expect the caller to understand how the subsystem works or the complex relationships within the subsystem. We can be assured that the subsystem will be misused, leading to non-portable code Vehicle Subsystem VIP Subsystem AIM Card SA/RT Seat

18 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 18 OOMPA 2000, F9 Realizing a Closed Architecture with a Facade The subsystem decides exactly how it is accessed. No need to worry about misuse by callers If a façade is used the subsystem can be used in an early integration test We need to write only a driver VIP Subsystem AIM Card SA/RT Seat Vehicle Subsystem API

19 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 19 OOMPA 2000, F9 Realizing a Compiler with a Facade pattern Compiler compile(s) ParseNode create() Lexer getToken() CodeGenerator create() Parser generateParseTree() Optimizer create() Compiler

20 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 20 OOMPA 2000, F9 UML Notation for subsystems: Package Package = Collection of classes that are grouped together Packages are often used to model subsystems Notation: A box with a tab. The tab contains the name of the package In Together-J, every class is assigned to a default package When you create a class, the class is assigned to the default package directly containing the class diagram. You can create other packages, but cannot delete the default package Compiler compile(s) ParseNode create() Lexer getToken() CodeGenerator create() Parser generateParseTree() Optimizer create() Compiler

21 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 21 OOMPA 2000, F9 Class Adapter Pattern (based on Multiple Inheritance) Client Target Request() Adaptee (Legacy Object) ExistingRequest() Adapter Request()

22 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 22 OOMPA 2000, F9 Some Additional Definitions Before we go to the next pattern lets review the goal and some terms

23 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 23 OOMPA 2000, F9 Reuse Main goal: Reuse knowledge from previous experience to current problem Reuse functionality already available Composition (also called Black Box Reuse) New functionality is obtained by aggregation The new object with more functionality is an aggregation of existing components Inheritance (also called White-box Reuse) New functionality is obtained by inheritance. Three ways to get new functionality: Implementation inheritance Interface inheritance Delegation

24 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 24 OOMPA 2000, F9 Implementation Inheritance vs Interface Inheritance Implementation inheritance Also called class inheritance Goal: Extend an applications functionality by reusing functionality in parent class Inherit from an existing class with some or all operations already implemented Interface inheritance Also called subtyping Inherit from an abstract class with all operations specified, but not yet implemented

25 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 25 OOMPA 2000, F9 Implementation Inheritance A very similar class is already implemented that does almost the same as the desired class implementation. Problem with implementation inheritance: Some of the inherited operations might exhibit unwanted behavior. What happens if the Stack user calls Remove() instead of Pop()? Example: I have a List class, I need a Stack class. How about subclassing the Stack class from the List class and providing three methods, Push() and Pop(), Top()? Add() Remove() List Push() Pop() Stack Top() Already implemented

26 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 26 OOMPA 2000, F9 Delegation Delegation is a way of making composition (for example aggregation) as powerful for reuse as inheritance In Delegation two objects are involved in handling a request A receiving object delegates operations to its delegate. The developer can make sure that the receiving object does not allow the client to misuse the delegate object Client Receiver Delegate Delegates to calls

27 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 27 OOMPA 2000, F9 Delegation or Inheritance? Delegation Pro: Flexibility: Any object can be replaced at run time by another one (as long as it has the same type) Con: Inefficiency: Objects are encapsulated. Inheritance Pro: Straightforward to use Supported by many programming languages Easy to implement new functionality Con: Inheritance exposes a subclass to the details of its parent class Any change in the parent class implementation forces the subclass to change (which requires recompilation of both)

28 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 28 OOMPA 2000, F9 Delegation instead of Inheritance Delegation: Catching an operation and sending it to another object. +Add() +Remove() List Stack +Push() +Pop() +Top() Stack Add() Remove() List +Push() +Pop() +Top()

29 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 29 OOMPA 2000, F9 Many design patterns use a combination of inheritance and delegation

30 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 30 OOMPA 2000, F9 Adapter Pattern Convert the interface of a class into another interface clients expect. Adapter lets classes work together that couldnt otherwise because of incompatible interfaces Used to provide a new interface to existing legacy components (Interface engineering, reengineering). Also known as a wrapper Two adapter patterns: Class adapter: Uses multiple inheritance to adapt one interface to another Object adapter: Uses single inheritance and delegation We will mostly use object adapters and call them simply adapters

31 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 31 OOMPA 2000, F9 Delegation is used to bind an Adapter and an Adaptee Interface inheritance is use to specify the interface of the Adapter class. Target and Adaptee (usually called legacy system) pre-exist the Adapter. Target may be realized as an interface in Java. Adapter pattern Client Target Request() Adaptee ExistingRequest() Adapter Request() adaptee

32 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 32 OOMPA 2000, F9 Adapter pattern example public class ServicesEnumeration implements Enumeration { public boolean hasMoreElements() { return this.currentServiceIdx <= adaptee.numServices(); } public Object nextElement() { if (!this.hasMoreElements()) { throw new NoSuchElementException(); } return adaptee.getService(this.currentSerrviceIdx++); } Client Enumeration hasMoreElements() nextElement() RegisteredServices numServices(); getService(int num); ServicesEnumeration hasMoreElements() nextElement() adaptee

33 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 33 OOMPA 2000, F9 Bridge Pattern Use a bridge to decouple an abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently. (From [Gamma et al 1995]) Also know as a Handle/Body pattern. Allows different implementations of an interface to be decided upon dynamically.

34 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 34 OOMPA 2000, F9 Using a Bridge The bridge pattern is used to provide multiple implementations under the same interface. Examples: Interface to a component that is incomplete, not yet known or unavailable during testing JAMES Project (WS 97-98): if seat data is required to be read, but the seat is not yet implemented, not yet known or only available by a simulation, provide a bridge: VIP Seat (in Vehicle Subsystem) SeatImplementation Stub Code SARTSeat AIMSeat imp GetPosition() SetPosition()

35 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 35 OOMPA 2000, F9 JAMES Bridge Example public interface SeatImplementation { public int GetPosition(); public void SetPosition(int newPosition); } public class AimSeat implements SeatImplementation { public int GetPosition() { // actual call to the AIM simulation system }... } public class SARTSeat implements SeatImplementation { public int GetPosition() { // actual call to the SART seat simulator }... }

36 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 36 OOMPA 2000, F9 Bridge Pattern(151)

37 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 37 OOMPA 2000, F9 Adapter vs Bridge Similarities: Both used to hide the details of the underlying implementation. Difference: The adapter pattern is geared towards making unrelated components work together Applied to systems after theyre designed (reengineering, interface engineering). A bridge, on the other hand, is used up-front in a design to let abstractions and implementations vary independently. Green field engineering of an extensible system New beasts can be added to the object zoo, even if these are not known at analysis or system design time.

38 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 38 OOMPA 2000, F9 Example for Combination of Adapters and Bridges in JAMES Seat Preferences Seat Seat Impl ActualSeat SLBRDR32 PreferencesCardlet Bridge Adapter SetSeatPos() GetSeatPos() SLBAPISendIsoOutT0 AIMSeat SARTSeat Existing SmartCard Library from Schlumberger Seats for the Car

39 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 39 OOMPA 2000, F9 Design Patterns encourage good Design Practice A facade pattern should be used by all subsystems in a software system. The façade defines all the services of the subsystem. The facade will delegate requests to the appropriate components within the subsystem. Adapters should be used to interface to any existing proprietary components. For example, a smart card software system should provide an adapter for a particular smart card reader and other hardware that it controls and queries. Bridges should be used to interface to a set of objects where the full set is not completely known at analysis or design time. Bridges should be used when the subsystem must be extended later (extensibility).

40 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 40 OOMPA 2000, F9 Other Design Heuristics Never use implementation inheritance, always use interface inheritance A subclass should never hide operations implemented in a superclass If you are tempted to use implementation inheritance, use delegation instead

41 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 41 OOMPA 2000, F9 Summary Composite Pattern: Models trees with dynamic width and dynamic depth Facade Pattern: Interface to a Subsystem Closed vs Open Architecture Adapter Pattern: Interface to Reality Bridge Pattern: Interface Reality and Future Read and Reread Design Patterns Book Learn how to use it as a reference book

42 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 42 OOMPA 2000, F9 Patterns covered in next lecture Creational Patterns Abstract Factory Pattern (Device Independence) Structural Patterns Proxy (Location Transparency) Behavioral Patterns Command (Request Encapsulation, unlimited undos) Observer (Publish and Subscribe) Strategy (Policy vs Mechanism, Encapsulate family of algorithms)

43 Conquering Complex and Changing Systems Object-Oriented Software Engineering Chapter 6, System Design Design Patterns II

44 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 44 OOMPA 2000, F9 Outline A little discourse on Advanced Object modeling Sequence Diagrams: Tie together use cases and participating objects Object types: Entity objects, boundary objects, control objects Review of design pattern concepts What is a design pattern? Modifiable designs More patterns: Abstract Factory Proxy Command Observer Strategy

45 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 45 OOMPA 2000, F9 I found all my use cases and participating objects. Now what?

46 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 46 OOMPA 2000, F9 Sequence Diagrams Use cases and participating objects are found. What now? Sequence diagram - A diagram that shows object interactions arranged in time sequence for a specific use case or scenario. A sequence diagram includes time but does not include object relationships. Sequence diagrams are used to describe use cases (i.e., all possible interactions between participating objects) and scenarios (i.e., one possible interaction, see next slide) In other words: A sequence diagram is useful to model a use case or scenario with its participating objects. It often leads to the detection of new participating objects.

47 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 47 OOMPA 2000, F9 Drawing Sequence Diagrams Each column represents an object that is participating in the interaction. The vertical axis represents time (from top to bottom). Messages are shown by full arrows. Labels on full arrows represent message names and arguments. Activations (i.e., the time it takes to perform an operation) are depicted by a rectangle attached to an object. The height of the rectangle is indicative for the duration of the operation The vertical rectangle shows that an object is active, that is, it is handling a request made by another object. The operation can itself send other requests to other objects An object can request an operation from itself (looping arrow)

48 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 48 OOMPA 2000, F9 Sequence Diagrams vs Interaction Diagrams In the Design Pattern book sequence diagrams are called interaction diagrams.. A solid vertical line indicates the lifetime of a particular object If the object does not get instantiated until after the beginning of time as recorded in the diagram, then its vertical line is dashed until the point of creation, where it becomes solid.

49 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 49 OOMPA 2000, F9 Example of a Sequence Diagram FieldOfficer Report EmergencyButton Report Emergency_Control ReportEmergency Form Emergency Report Manage Emergency_Control press() create() submit() fillContents() submitReport() create() submitReportToDispatcher()

50 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 50 OOMPA 2000, F9 Increase the Reuse of your Model even more: Structuring the Participating Objects Boundary ObjectsEntity Objects Control Objects

51 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 51 OOMPA 2000, F9 Different Object Types Boundary objects Implement the interaction with the user Constructed from UI components Subject to most modification Entity objects Represent the domain model Often represent persistent data Least often modified Control objects Implement the transactions with the user Constructed with Command objects Modified frequently but less often than boundary objects

52 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 52 OOMPA 2000, F9 Identifying Boundary Objects Boundary objects model the system interface with the actors. In each use case, each actor interacts at least through one boundary object. The boundary object collects the information from the actor and translates it into an interface neutral form that can be used by the control and entity objects.

53 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 53 OOMPA 2000, F9 Identifying Control Objects Control objects are responsible for coordinating boundary and entity objects. There is often a close relationship between a use case and a control object. A control object is usually created at the beginning of a use case and ceases to exist at its end. It is responsible for collecting information from the boundary objects and dispatching it to entity objects. For example, control objects describe the behavior associated with the sequencing of forms, undo and history queues, and dispatching information in a distributed system

54 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 54 OOMPA 2000, F9 Some Heuristics for Identification of Interface and Control Objects Identify one control object per use case or more if the use case is complex and can be divided into shorter flows of events, Identify one control object per actor in the use case, The life span of a control object should be extent of the use case or the extent of a user session. If it is difficult to identify the beginning and the end of a control object activation, the corresponding use case may not have a well define entry and exit condition.

55 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 55 OOMPA 2000, F9 Some Heuristics for Good Sequence Diagrams Column 1 models the actor who initiated the use case Column 2 should be a boundary object (that the actor used to initiate the use case) Column 3 should be the control object that manages the rest of the use case Control objects are created by boundary objects initiating use cases Boundary objects are created by control objects Entity objects are accessed by control and boundary objects Entity objects never access boundary or control objects. This makes it easier to share them across use cases.

56 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 56 OOMPA 2000, F9 Back to the main topic: Design patterns A design pattern is… …a template solution to a recurring design problem Look before re-inventing the wheel just one more time …reusable design knowledge Higher level than classes or datastructures (link lists,binary trees...) Lower level than application frameworks …an example of modifiable design Learning to design starts by studying other designs

57 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 57 OOMPA 2000, F9 Why are modifiable designs important? A modifiable design enables… …an iterative and incremental development cycle concurrent development risk management flexibility to change …to minimize the introduction of new problems when fixing old ones …to deliver more functionality after initial delivery

58 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 58 OOMPA 2000, F9 What makes a design modifiable? Low coupling and high coherence Clear dependencies Explicit assumptions How do design patterns help? They are generalized from existing systems They provide a shared vocabulary to designers They provide examples of modifiable designs Abstract classes Delegation

59 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 59 OOMPA 2000, F9 Interface Inheritance vs Implementation inheritance Interface inheritance (i.e., subtyping): describes when different types of objects can be used in place of each other Implementation inheritance: an objects implementation is defined in terms of the implementation of another. PutAt() RemoveAt() HashTable Add() Remove() Set PutAt() RemoveAt() HashTable PutAt() RemoveAt() Table PutAt() RemoveAt() BTree

60 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 60 OOMPA 2000, F9 Interface inheritance vs. implementation inheritance Interface inheritance separates interface and implementation implementations may be transparently substituted decreases coupling Implementation inheritance (class inheritance) introduces dependencies among an ancestor and its descendents (inherited state) mixes interface specification and implementation can be achieved with delegation instead The Design Patterns book shows how to avoid implementation inheritance with a mix of interface inheritance and delegation

61 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 61 OOMPA 2000, F9 Interface and class inheritance in Java An interface defines constants and abstract methods. An interface can extend (i.e., inherit from) zero, one, or many interfaces. An interface does not define any behavior or attributes A class defines attributes and methods. A class can extend (i.e., inherit behavior and attributes from) zero or one class. A class can implement (i.e., comply with) zero, one, or many interfaces in addition to extending a super class. Abstract classes should be realized by interfaces in Java. Concrete classes should be realized by classes in Java.

62 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 62 OOMPA 2000, F9 On to More Patterns! Structural pattern Proxy Creational Patterns Abstract Factory Builder Behavioral pattern Command Observer Strategy

63 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 63 OOMPA 2000, F9 Proxy Pattern: Motivation It is 15:00pm. I am sitting at my 14.4 baud modem connection and retrieve a fancy web site from the US, This is prime web time all over the US. So I am getting 10 bits/sec. What can you do?

64 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 64 OOMPA 2000, F9 Proxy Pattern What is expensive? Object Creation Object Initialization Defer object creation and object initialization to the time you need the object Proxy pattern: Reduces the cost of accessing objects Uses another object (the proxy) that acts as a stand-in for the real object The proxy creates the real object only if the user asks for it

65 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 65 OOMPA 2000, F9 Proxy pattern (207) Interface inheritance is used to specify the interface shared by Proxy and RealSubject. Delegation is used to catch and forward any accesses to the RealSubject (if desired) Proxy patterns can be used for lazy evaluation and for remote invocation. Proxy patterns can be implemented with a Java interface. Subject Request() RealSubject Request() Proxy Request() realSubject

66 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 66 OOMPA 2000, F9 Proxy Applicability Remote Proxy Local representative for an object in a different address space Caching of information: Good if information does not change too often (PAID!) Virtual Proxy Object is too expensive to create or too expensive to download Proxy is a stand-in Protection Proxy Proxy provides access control to the real object Useful when different objects should have different access and viewing rights for the same document. Example: Grade information for a student shared by administrators, teachers and students.

67 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 67 OOMPA 2000, F9 Virtual Proxy example Images are stored and loaded separately from text If a RealImage is not loaded a ProxyImage displays a grey rectangle in place of the image The client cannot tell that it is dealing with a ProxyImage instead of a RealImage A proxy pattern can be easily combined with a Bridge Image boundingBox() draw() realSubject RealImage boundingBox() draw() ProxyImage boundingBox() draw()

68 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 68 OOMPA 2000, F9 Before

69 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 69 OOMPA 2000, F9 Controlling Access

70 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 70 OOMPA 2000, F9 After

71 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 71 OOMPA 2000, F9 Towards a Pattern Taxonomy Structural Patterns Adapters, Bridges, Facades, and Proxies are variations on a single theme: They reduce the coupling between two or more classes They introduce an abstract class to enable future extensions Encapsulate complex structures Behavioral Patterns Concerned with algorithms and the assignment of responsibilies between objects: Who does what? Characterize complex control flow that is difficult to follow at runtime. Creational Patterns Abstract the instantiation process. Make a system independent from the way its objects are created, composed and represented.

72 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 72 OOMPA 2000, F9 A Pattern Taxonomy Pattern Structural Pattern Behavioral Pattern Creational Pattern AdapterBridgeFacade Proxy Command ObserverStrategy Abstract Factory Builder Pattern Command

73 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 73 OOMPA 2000, F9 Command Pattern: Motivation You want to build a user interface You want to provide menus You want to make the user interface reusable across many applications You cannot hardcode the meanings of the menus for the various applications The applications only know what has to be done when a menu is selected. Such a menu can easily be implemented with the Command Pattern

74 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 74 OOMPA 2000, F9 Command pattern Client creates a ConcreteCommand and binds it with a Receiver. Client hands the ConcreteCommand over to the Invoker which stores it. The Invoker has the responsibility to do the command (execute or undo). Command execute() Receiver action() Client Invoker ConcreteCommand execute() binds

75 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 75 OOMPA 2000, F9 Menu Example Command execute() Document action() Application Menu Item Copy execute() binds Menu * Paste execute() Client Invoker: Asks the Command object To carry out the request Concrete Command Receiver *

76 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 76 OOMPA 2000, F9 Command pattern Applicability Encapsulate a request as an object, thereby letting you parameterize clients with different requests, queue or log requests, and support undoable operations. Uses: Undo queues Database transaction buffering

77 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 77 OOMPA 2000, F9 Command pattern: Editor with unlimited undos

78 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 78 OOMPA 2000, F9 Structuring the objects Menu MoveCommand Rectangle Editor UndoQueue Invoker (Boundary objects) ConcreteCommands (Control objects) Receiver (Entity objects) Triangle Circle

79 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 79 OOMPA 2000, F9 Command pattern: typical sequence aRectangle: Rectangle anEditor moveCommandundoQueue newCommand(info) store(MoveCommand1) execute() move(x, y) aUser Drags mouse MoveCommand1

80 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 80 OOMPA 2000, F9 A Pattern Taxonomy Pattern Structural Pattern Behavioral Pattern Creational Pattern AdapterBridgeFacade Proxy Command ObserverStrategy Abstract Factory Builder Pattern Command Observer

81 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 81 OOMPA 2000, F9 Observer pattern (293) Define a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically. (p. 293) Also called Publish and Subscribe Uses: Maintaining consistency across redundant state Optimizing batch changes to maintain consistency

82 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 82 OOMPA 2000, F9 Observer pattern (continued) 9DesignPatterns2.ppt Observers Subject

83 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 83 OOMPA 2000, F9 Observer pattern (continued) Observer update() Subject attach(observer) detach(observer) notify() ConcreteSubject getState() setState(newState) subjectState ConcreteObserver update() observerState observers subject * The Subject represents the actual state, the Observers represent different views of the state. Observer can be implemented as a Java interface. Subject is a super class (needs to store the observers vector) not an interface.

84 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 84 OOMPA 2000, F9 Sequence diagram for scenario: Change filename to foo getState() update() aListViewanInfoViewaFile setState(foo) notify() Attach() foo Subject goes through all its observers and calls update() on them, asking for the new state is decoupled from the notification

85 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 85 OOMPA 2000, F9 Animated Sequence diagram getState() aListViewanInfoViewaFile notify() Attach() foo setState(foo) update()

86 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 86 OOMPA 2000, F9 Observer pattern implementation in Java // import java.util; public class Observable extends Object { public void addObserver(Observer o); public void deleteObserver(Observer o); public boolean hasChanged(); public void notifyObservers(); public void notifyObservers(Object arg); } public abstract interface Observer { public abstract void update(Observable o, Object arg); } public class Subject extends Observable{ public void setState(String filename); public string getState(); }

87 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 87 OOMPA 2000, F9 Example from a Real Project: JAMES Project Nonfunctional Requirements Foundation for wide range of smartcard applications Bonus system, vehicle personalization, travel planning, Flexibility and extendability for future applications Integration of various computing platforms and devices Central database hosts, home and dealership PCs, onboard computer, speech system, device controllers, smartcards Scalability Support for large number of mobile clients and servers Openness Use of open standards and commercial components These requirements lead to the use of the observer pattern -> JAMES Event Service

88 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 88 OOMPA 2000, F9 currently, only used for onboard communication between various subsystems in vehicle Event channels are the main means of communication in James James Event Service however, could be used also for wide-area communication Card Reader Onboard Computer Speech Recognition Speech Synthesis Seat Control Mirror Control

89 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 89 OOMPA 2000, F9 JAMES Event Service Requirements Peers can be created and deleted dynamically Peers can subscribe dynamically as publishers or subscribers A peer can subscribe to many event channels at the same time A peer can be publisher and subscriber on a event channel at the same time Publishers do not know their subscribers (only the event channel) Event channels allow plug-and-play with cardlets Use of the Observer Pattern leads to scalable and extensible architecture

90 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 90 OOMPA 2000, F9 James Event Service as a set of objects View (Boundary objects):Viewlets Controller (Control Object):Event Channel Model (Entity Objects): Cardlets and Vehicle Subsystem Cardlets and Viewlets act as peers on the onboard software bus cardlets are applications running on a Java smartcard viewlets are the corresponding GUI frontends on the onboard computer

91 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 91 OOMPA 2000, F9 Cardlets and Viewlets On Board Bus Onboard GUI (Touchscreen) VIP Viewlet Travel Viewlet Card Reader Smartcard VIP Cardlet Travel Cardlet

92 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 92 OOMPA 2000, F9 Controller Travel Cardlet VIP Cardlet Cardlet Communication in James Onboard Bus Onboard GUI VIP Viewlet Travel Viewlet Smartcard Bonus Viewlet Bonus Cardlet variable number of arbitrary cardlets download new cardlets in the field generic controller standard events variable number of arbitrary viewlets download new viewlets in the field

93 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 93 OOMPA 2000, F9 A Pattern Taxonomy Pattern Structural Pattern Behavioral Pattern Creational Pattern AdapterBridgeFacade Proxy Command ObserverStrategy Abstract Factory Builder Pattern Command Strategy

94 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 94 OOMPA 2000, F9 Strategy Pattern Many different algorithms exists for the same task Examples: Breaking a stream of text into lines Parsing a set of tokens into an abstract syntax tree Sorting a list of customers The different algorithms will be appropriate at different times Rapid prototyping vs delivery of final product We dont want to support all the algorithms if we dont need them If we need a new algorithm, we want to add it easily without disturbing the application using the algorithm

95 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 95 OOMPA 2000, F9 Strategy Pattern Strategy AlgorithmInterface Context ContextInterface() ConcreteStrategyC AlgorithmInterface() Strategy * ConcreteStrategyB AlgorithmInterface() ConcreteStrategyA AlgorithmInterface()

96 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 96 OOMPA 2000, F9 Applying a Strategy Pattern in a Database Application Strategy Sort() Database Search() Sort() ShellSort Sort(CustomerList) Strategy * QuickSort Sort(CustomerList) BubbleSort Sort(CustomerList)

97 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 97 OOMPA 2000, F9 Applicability of Strategy Pattern Many related classes differ only in their behavior. Strategy allows to configure a single class with one of many behaviors Different variants of an algorithm are needed that trade-off space against time. All these variants can be implemented as a class hierarchy of algorithms

98 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 98 OOMPA 2000, F9 A Pattern Taxonomy Pattern Structural Pattern Behavioral Pattern Creational Pattern AdapterBridgeFacade Proxy Command ObserverStrategy Abstract Factory Builder Pattern Command Strategy Abstract Factory

99 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 99 OOMPA 2000, F9 Abstract Factory Motivation Consider a user interface toolkit that supports multiple looks and feel standards such as Motif, Windows 95 or the finder in MacOS. How can you write a single user interface and make it portable across the different look and feel standards for these window managers? Consider a facility management system for an intelligent house that supports different control systems such as Siemens Instabus, Johnson & Control Metasys or Zumtobes proprietary standard. How can you write a single control system that is independent from the manufacturer?

100 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 100 OOMPA 2000, F9 Abstract Factory CreateProductA CreateProductB CreateProductA CreateProductB AbstractProductA ProductA1 ProductA2 AbstractProductB ProductB1 ProductB2 ConcreteFactory1 CreateProductA CreateProductB ConcreteFactory2 Client

101 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 101 OOMPA 2000, F9 Applicability for Abstract Factory Pattern Independence from Initialization or Representation: The system should be independent of how its products are created, composed or represented Manufacturer Independence: A system should be configured with one of multiple family of products You want to provide a class library for a customer (facility management library), but you dont want to reveal what particular product you are using. Constraints on related products A family of related products is designed to be used together and you need to enforce this constraint Cope with upcoming change: You use one particular product family, but you expect that the underlying technology is changing very soon, and new products will appear on the market.

102 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 102 OOMPA 2000, F9 OWL System for the The Intelligent Workplace at Carnegie Mellon University IntelligentWorkplace InitLightSystem InitBlindSystem InitACSystem InitLightSystem InitBlindSystem InitACSystem LightBulb InstabusLight Controller ZumbobelLight Controller Blinds InstabusBlind Controller ZumtobelBlind Controller SiemensFactory InitLightSystem InitBlindsystem InitACSystem ZumtobelFactory Facility Mgt System

103 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 103 OOMPA 2000, F9 Builder Pattern Motivation Conversion of documents Software companies make their money by introducing new formats, forcing users to upgrades But you dont want to upgrade your software every time there is an update of the format for Word documents Idea: A reader for RTF format Convert RTF to many text formats (EMACS, Framemaker 4.0, Framemaker 5.0, Framemaker 5.5, HTML, SGML, WordPerfect 3.5, WordPerfect 7.0, ….) Problem: The number of conversions is open-ended. Solution Configure the RTF Reader with a builder object that specializes in conversions to any known format and can easily be extended to deal with any new format appearing on the market

104 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 104 OOMPA 2000, F9 Builder Pattern (97) Construct() Director For all objects in Structure { Builder->BuildPart() } BuildPart() Builder BuildPart() GetResult() ConcreteBuilderB Represen- tation B BuildPart() GetResult() ConcreteBuilderA Represen- tation A

105 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 105 OOMPA 2000, F9 Example Parse() RTFReader While (t = GetNextToken()) { Switch t.Type { CHAR: builder->ConvertCharacter(t.Char) FONT: bulder->ConvertFont(t.Font) PARA: builder->ConvertParagraph } ConvertCharacter() ConvertFontChange ConvertParagraph() TextConverter ConvertCharacter() ConvertFontChange ConvertParagraph() GetASCIIText() AsciiConverter AsciiText ConvertCharacter() ConvertFontChange ConvertParagraph() GetASCIIText() TexConverter TeXText ConvertCharacter() ConvertFontChange ConvertParagraph() GetASCIIText() HTMLConverter HTMLText

106 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 106 OOMPA 2000, F9 Applicability for Builder Pattern The creation of a complex product must be independent of the particular parts that make up the product In particular, the creation process should not know about the assembly process (how the parts are put together to make up the product) The creation process must allow different representations for the object that is constructed. Examples: A house with one floor, 3 rooms, 2 hallways, 1 garage and three doors. A skyscraper with 50 floors, 15 offices and 5 hallways on each floor. The office layout varies for each floor.

107 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 107 OOMPA 2000, F9 Abstract Factory vs Builder Abstract Factory Focuses on product family The products can be simple (light bulb) or complex The abstract factory does not hide the creation process The product is immediately returned Builder The underlying product needs to be constructed as part of the system but is very complex The construction of the complex product changes from time to time The builder patterns hides the complex creation process from the user: The product is returned after creation as a final step Abstract Factory and Builder work well together for a family of multiple complex products

108 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 108 OOMPA 2000, F9 Summary Structural Patterns Focus: How objects are composed to form larger structures Problems solved: Realize new functionality from old functionality, Provide flexibility and extensibility Behavioral Patterns Focus: Algorithms and the assignment of responsibilities to objects Problem solved: Too tight coupling to a particular algorithm Creational Patterns Focus: Creation of complex objects Problems solved: Hide how complex objects are created and put together

109 Bernd Bruegge & Allen Dutoit Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Conquering Complex and Changing Systems 109 OOMPA 2000, F9 Conclusion Design patterns Provide solutions to common problems. Lead to extensible models and code. Can be used as is or as examples of interface inheritance and delegation. Apply the same principles to structure and to behavior. Design patterns solve all your software engineering problems My favorites: Composite, Bridge, Builder and Observer


Download ppt "Conquering Complex and Changing Systems Object-Oriented Software Engineering OOMPA 2000 Föreläsning 9 Systemdesign med bla mönster Innehåll Vi lånar två."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google