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Modeling Main issues: What do we want to build How do we write this down
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 2 System Modeling Techniques Classic modeling techniques: Entity-relationship modeling Finite state machines Data flow diagrams CRC cards Object-oriented modeling: variety of UML diagrams
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 3 Entity-Relationship Modeling entity: distinguishable object of some type entity type: type of a set of entities attribute value: piece of information (partially) describing an entity attribute: type of a set of attribute values relationship: association between two or more entities
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 4 Example ER-diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 5 Finite state machines Models a system in terms of (a finite number of) states, and transitions between those states Often depicted as state transition diagrams: Each state is a bubble Each transition is a labeled arc from one state to another Large system large diagram hierarchical diagrams: statecharts
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 6 Example state transition diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 7 Data flow diagrams external entities processes data flows data stores
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 8 Example data flow diagram borrow title prelim. doc prelim. doc prelim. doc client catalog adm. management log file request log data return request borrow request title acknowledgement reportdirection log data
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 9 CRC: Class, Responsibility, Collaborators
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 10 Intermezzo: what is an object? Modeling viewpoint: model of part of the world Identity+state+behavior Philosophical viewpoint: existential absractions Everything is an object Software engineering viewpoint: data abstraction Implementation viewpoint: structure in memory Formal viewpoint: state machine
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 11 Objects and attributes Object is characterized by a set of attributes A table has a top, legs, … In ERM, attributes denote intrinsic properties; they do not depend on each other, they are descriptive In ERM, relationships denote mutual properties, such as the membership of a person of some organization In UML, these relationships are called associations Formally, UML does not distinguish attributes and relationships; both are properties of a class
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 12 Objects, state, and behavior State = set of attributes of an object Class = set of objects with the same attributes Individual object: instance Behavior is described by services, a set of responsibilities Service is invoked by sending a message
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 13 Relations between objects Specialization-generalization, is-a A dog is an animal Expressed in hierarchy Whole-part, has A dog has legs Aggregation of parts into a whole Distinction between ‘real-world’ part-of and ‘representational’ part of (e.g. ‘Publisher’ as part of ‘Publication’) Member-of, has A soccer team has players Relation between a set and its members (usually not transitive)
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 14 Specialization-generalization relations Usually expressed in hierarchical structure If a tree: single inheritance F a DAG: multiple inheritance Common attributes are defined at a higher level in the object hierarchy, and inherited by child nodes Alternative view: object hierarchy is a type hierarchy, with types and subtypes
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 15 Unified Modeling Language (UML) Controlled by OMG consortium: Object Management Group Latest version: UML 2 UML 2 has 13 diagram types Static diagrams depict static structure Dynamic diagrams show what happens during execution Most often used diagrams: class diagram: 75% Use case diagram and communication diagram: 50% Often loose semantics
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 16 UML diagram types Static diagrams: Class Component Deployment Interaction overview Object Package Dynamic diagrams: Activity Communication Composite structure Sequence State machine Timing Use case
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 17 UML class diagram depicts the static structure of a system most common example: subclass/superclass hierarchy also mutual properties between two or more entities (ER relationships, often called associations in OO)
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 18 Example class diagram (1): generalization
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 19 Example class diagram (2) association
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 20 Example class diagram (3): composition
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 21 Interface: class with abstract features
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 22 State machine diagram Resembles finite state machines, but: Usually allows for local variables of states Has external inputs and outputs Allows for hierarchical states
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 23 Example state machine diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 24 Example state machine diagram: global and expanded view
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 25 Interaction diagram Two types: sequence diagram and communication diagram Sequence diagram: emphasizes the ordering of events, using a lifeline Communication diagram emphasizes objects and their relationships
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 26 Example sequence diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 27 Example communication diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 28 Component diagram Class diagram with stereotype > Way to identify larger entities One way to depict a module view (see Software Architecture chapter) Components are connected by interfaces
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 29 Example component diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 30 Use case diagram
SE, Modeling, Hans van Vliet, ©2008 31 Summary Classic notations: Entity-relationship diagrams Finite state machines Data flow diagrams CRC cards Unified Modeling Language (UML) evolved from earlier OO notations 13 diagram types widely used
Modeling Main issues: What do we want to build How do we write this down ©2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. vliet.
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