2Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Life & Character Born at Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire (England)entered Cambridge University in 1661Professor of Mathematics in 1669 and Natural PhilosopherPresident of the Royal Society of London in 1703 until death.
3Scientific achievements OPTICSdiscovered measurable, mathematical patterns in the phenomenon of color, found white light as mixture of infinitely varied colored rays,…book: Opticks (1692).MATHEMATICS discovered general methods of resolving problems of curvature, embraced in his "method of fluxions" and "inverse method of fluxions",..books: Principia I and II (1687)
4Scientific achievements GRAVITATIONcalculated the relative masses of heavenly bodies from their gravitational forces, calculated the force needed to hold the Moon in its orbit book: Principia I and III (1687)MECHANICScalculated the centripetal force needed to hold a stone in a sling, and the relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its swing book: Principia I (1687)
5Newton’s First law of motion Also known as law of inertia,States,An object will remain at rest, or uniform motion in a straight line, with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
6Newton’s First law of motion CommentsThis means that if you leave a book on a bench over night, when you return in the morning, unless an outside force moved it, it will be in the same placeNo external forces applied-> the book remains at rest
7Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesBut what is an unbalanced force? first consider a book at rest on a bench. There are two forces acting upon the book. - the Earth's gravitational force, and the push of the bench on the book (sometimes referred to as a Fn). Since these two forces are of equal magnitude and in opposite directions, they balance each other. The book is said to be at equilibrium.The bench pushes upward on the bookGravity pulls downward on the book
8Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesConsider another example of a balanced force. There are two forces acting upon this person; The force of gravity and the force of the floor. these two forces are equal magnitude and in opposite directions, The person is at equilibrium.The floor pushes upward on the personGravity pulls downward on the person
9Newton’s First law of motion Involving Friction Comments & ExamplesNow consider a book sliding from right to left across a bench. Sometime in the prior history of the book, it may have been given a shove. The force of gravity and the force of the bench on the book balance each other. Yet there is no force present to balance the force of friction. As the book moves to the left, friction acts to the right to slow the book down. There is an unbalanced force. The book is not at equilibrium and subsequently acceleratesThe bench pushes upward on the bookForce of friction between the bench/bookGravity pulls downward on the book
10Newton’s First law of motion Involving Friction Let’s exerciseConsider that the book weighs 0.2 kg. As it slides across the bench with a constant velocity, its coefficient of friction is What force must be exerted on the book, so that it maintains its constant velocity? (go to the next slide for the answer)FnFob = ?FfrFg
11Newton’s First law of motion Involving Friction Answer & explanationsWe know that the magnitude of the force of gravity is mg. We recognize that the two object in contact are in relative motion (kinetic friction = Ffr = μkFn).Solving with the y-direction equation gives Fn = mg, and solving for the x-direction, F = μkmg)The force that must be used on the book is F = μkmg = (0.2)(0.15)(9.80 m/s) = N
12Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesConsidering a soccer ball in the middle of a field with no external forces exerted (kicking, moving, high winds,…) on it.Normal force of the ground on the ballNo external forcesConsider that the book weighs 2 kg. As it slides accros the bench with a constant velocity, its coefficient of friction is What force must be exerted on the book, so that it maintains its constant velocity?Force of gravity on the ball
13Newton’s First Law of Motion The floor pushes upward on the personComments & ExamplesIf you kick the soccer ball, it will continue moving until it hits something.Newton’s First Law of MotionFnComments & ExamplesThis also means that if you kick a soccer ball, it will continue moving until it hits something. However, the ball will eventually stop even if it does not hit a wall (the friction between the ball and the ground, and between the ball and the air).FgGravity pulls downward on the person
14Newton’s First Law of Motion The floor pushes upward on the personComments & ExamplesYour foot can only interact with the ball through forces of contact (there is a gravitational force between your foot and the ball, but it is so tiny that it is completely negligible), so once the ball is not in contact with your foot, it no longer exerts any force on the ball.FnComments & ExamplesThis also means that if you kick a soccer ball, it will continue moving until it hits something. However, the ball will eventually stop even if it does not hit a wall (the friction between the ball and the ground, and between the ball and the air).Force of contact between the foot and the ballFgGravity pulls downward on the person
15Newton’s First law of motion involving Friction Comments & ExamplesOnce the ball is not in contact with the foot, the only object interacting with the ball is the ground. The ball will eventually stop even if it does not hit a wall (the friction between the ball and the ground, and between the ball and the air)Newton’s First law of motionFnFnFgFriction between the ball and the airFfrFg
16Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesWe feel the effects of Newton's First Law every day, but usually don't notice them because other forces interfere. If it was not for other forces we will be in constant motion.
17Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesOn earth, the atmosphere will eventually slow down all moving objects, but in a vacuum (basically an empty space with no air or atmosphere), like space, it will be more obvious that objects obey Newton's Laws.Direction of the force due to the reactorsFriction between the wind and the planeDirection of the force from the reactorsFg
18Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesIn space, the First Law is much more obvious. Objects will follow their natural trajectories until they are stopped by an outside force.
19Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesOne of the most common places people feel the First Law is in a fast moving vehicle, such as a car or a bus, that comes to a stop. An outside force stops the vehicle, but the passengers, who have been moving at a high speed, are not stopped and continue to move at the same speed
20Newton’s First law of motion Comments & ExamplesIf the car hits a cement road divider it is stopped (outside force). The crash dummy, however is not so lucky. Since he is not wearing a seat belt, and is not connected to the car, he will continue to move at 60 mph, flying out through the front windshield.
21Newton’s First Law of Motion Comments & ExamplesThe dummy will fly through the air until he hits the ground. This is because the earth's gravity stopped him from moving any further. If this collision had happened in zero-g, in a vacuum, the dummy would theoretically keep on hurtling away from the car at 60 mph.
22Newton’s Second law of motion States,The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and is inversely proportional to its mass.The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the net force acting on the object
23Newton’s Second law of motion shortened => ΣF = mawhere f is a push or pull that gives energy to an object the motion of the object. a is the rate of change of velocity.
24Newton’s Second law of motion Heavy mass, needs more forceComment & ExampleNewton's Second Law is more abstract than the first. The greater the mass, the greater the amount of force needed to accelerate the object.Mike's car, which weighs 1,000 kg, is out of gas. Mike is trying to push the car to a gas station, and he makes the car go 0.05 m/s/s. Using Newton's Second Law, you can compute how much force Mike is applying to the car. Now that you areSmall mass, needs less force
25Newton’s Second law of motion Example:Betty is developing her muscles by pushing this car that weighs 1500 kg. She makes it go 0.02 m/s/s. Using Newton's Second Law, can you compute how much force I applied to the car? (the answer in the next slide)Not really who you expect to push the car !!!Force exerted by the ground on the carF = mass car x g
26Newton’s Second law of motion Fn30 Newton appliedFgComments & ExamplesBetty has not really move that much consider she has only exerted 30 Newton of force. (F=MA, so you plug in the data and get F = 1500kg x .02 m/s/s. This comes out to 30 kg m/s/s, which is equal to 30 Newton.
27Newton’s Second law of motion Example:Here Betty is trying to do the impossible. She wants to push this 2500 kg van to a gas station. She computes 125 Newton on the car. How fast will she make it go?She’s trying hard !!!Force exerted by the ground on the carStatementAnytime an object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.125 NA = ?F = 2500 x g
28Newton’s Second law of motion Fn125 N0.05 m/s/sFgAnswer & ExplanationsIt may seem impossible but Betty will make it go 0.5 m/s/s. Because using Newton's Second Law, we found that… (F=MA, => A=F/M. So you plug in the data and get A = 125/2500kg. This comes out to 0.05 m/s/s.
29Newton’s Third law of motion Comments:Anytime an object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.
30Newton’s Third law of motion CommentsNewton's Third Law is probably the most famous of his laws.The Third Law at first seems simple, but is a very important law.Every time we interact with our surroundings we feel the Third Law.
31Newton’s Third law of motion Comments & ExamplesIf use the convention that F means the force on object A from object B, then Newton's third law can be writtenFAB = - FBAObject AObject B
32Newton’s Third law of motion Comments & Examples:When you punch someone in his face your hand not only applies a force to the person's face, the person's face applies a force to your hand.Force exerted on his face by the punchForce exerted on the hand by his face
33Newton’s Third law of motion Comments & ExamplesThe magnitude of the force on each body is identical and the forces on the on the two bodies are in the opposite directions to each other.Ffp-Fpf
34Newton’s Third law of motion Comments & Examples:The only reason why a rocket is able to launch, is that when its engine pushes out the gases, the gases exert an equal and opposite force back on the rocket, which accelerate.Force exerted on the rocket by the engineForce exerted on the engine by the rocket
35Newton’s Third law of motion Comments & Examples:One of the most unnoticeable Newton’s third law, is when we walk.We can walk forward because, when one foot pushes backward against the ground, the ground pushes forward on that foot.Force exerted on her foot by the floorForce exerted on the floor by her foot
36Newton’s Third law of motion The floor pushes upward on the personComments & Examples:Newton first law still applying in this case.Her mass has also in influence on her walking.Force exerted on her foot by the floorForce exerted on the floor by her footGravity pulls downward on the person
37Newton’s Third law of motion Comments & Examples:Even in the most unthinkable moment, we do exert Newton’s third law.We cannot be touched without being touched
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