Presentation on theme: "mankiw's macroeconomics modules"— Presentation transcript:
1mankiw's macroeconomics modules A PowerPointTutorialto Accompany macroeconomics, 5th ed.N. Gregory MankiwMannig J. SimidianCHAPTER SIXTEENConsumption
2and the Consumption Function John Maynard Keynesand the Consumption FunctionThe consumption function was central to Keynes’ theory of economicfluctuations presented in The General Theory in 1936.Keynes conjectured that the marginal propensity to consume-- the amount consumed out of an additional dollar of income-- is betweenzero and one. He claimed that the fundamental law is that out ofevery dollar of earned income, people will consume part of it and savethe rest.Keynes also proposed the average propensity to consume-- the ratio of consumption to income-- falls as income rises.Keynes also held that income is the primary determinant of consumption and that the interest rate does not have an important role.
3The Consumption Function YThe slope of the consumption function is the MPC.C = C + c YC = C + c YMarginalPropensity toconsume (MPC)incomeconsumptionspending byhouseholdsdependsonAutonomousconsumption
4The Average Propensity to Consume This consumption functionexhibits three properties thatKeynes conjectured. First,the marginal propensity toconsume c is between zeroand one. Second, the averagepropensity to consume fallsas income rises. Third,consumption is determined bycurrent income.APC = C/Y = C/Y + cCAPC1CAPC211YAs Y rises, C/Y falls, and so the average propensity to consume C/Y falls. Notice that the interest rate is not included in this function.
5The Marginal Propensity to Consume To understand the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) consider a shopping scenario. A person who loves to shop probably has a large MPC, let’s say (.99). This means that for every extra dollar he or she earns after tax deductions, he or she spends $.99 of it. The MPC measures the sensitivity of the change in one variable (C) with respect to a change in the other variable (Y).
6Simon Kuznets, and the Consumption Puzzle Secular Stagnation,Simon Kuznets, and the Consumption PuzzleDuring World War II, on the basis of Keynes’ consumption function,economists predicted that the economy would experience what theycalled secular stagnation-- a long depression of infinite duration--unless fiscal policy was used to stimulate aggregate demand. It turned outthat the end of the war did not throw the U.S. into another depression, butit did suggest that Keynes’ conjecture that the average propensity toconsume would fall as income rose appeared not to hold.Simon Kuznets constructed new aggregate data on consumption andinvestment dating back to 1869 and whose work would later earn aNobel Prize. He discovered that the ratio of consumption to income wasstable over time, despite large increases in income; again, Keynes’conjecture was called into question.This brings us to the puzzle…
7Long-run consumption function (constant APC) Consumption PuzzleThe failure of the secular-stagnation hypothesis and the findings ofKuznets both indicated that the average propensity to consume is fairlyconstant over time. This presented a puzzle: why did Keynes’ conjectures hold up well in the studies of household data and in the studies of short time-series, but fail when long time series were examined?Studies of household data and short time-series found a relationship between consumption and income similar to the one Keynes conjectured-- this is called the short-run consumption function. But, studies using long time-series found that the APC did not vary systematically with income--this relationship is called the long-run consumption function.Long-run consumption function (constant APC)CShort-runconsumptionfunction(falling APC)Y
8Irving Fisher and Intertemporal Choice The economist Irving Fisher developed the model with which economists analyze how rational, forward-looking consumers make intertemporal choices-- that is, choices involving different periods of time. The model illuminates the constraints consumers face, the preferences they have, and how these constraints and preferences together determine their choices about consumption and saving.When consumers are deciding how much to consume today versus how much to consumein the future, they face an intertemporalbudget constraint, which measures the total resources available for consumption today and in the future.
9Here is an interpretation of the consumer’s budget constraint: The consumer’s budget constraint implies that if the interestrate is zero, the budget constraint shows that totalconsumption in the two periods equals total incomein the two periods. In the usual case in which theinterest rate is greater than zero, future consumption and future incomeare discounted by a factor of 1 + r. This discounting arises from theinterest earned on savings. Because the consumer earns interest oncurrent income that is saved, future income is worth less than currentincome. Also, because future consumption is paid for out of savingsthat have earned interest, future consumption costs less than currentconsumption. The factor 1/(1+r) is the price of second-periodconsumption measured in terms of first-period consumption; it is theamount of first-period consumption that the consumer must forgo toobtain 1 unit of second-period consumption.
10The Consumer's Budget Constraint Here are the combinations of first-period and second-period consumptionthe consumer can choose. If he chooses a point between A and B, heconsumes less than his income in the first period and saves the rest forthe second period. If he chooses between A and C, he consumes more thathis income in the first period and borrows to make up the difference.Consumer’s budget constraintconsumptionSecond-periodBSavingVertical intercept is(1+r)Y1 + Y2ABorrowingY2Horizontal intercept isY1 + Y2/(1+r)CY1First-period consumption
11Consumer PreferencesThe consumer’s preferences regarding consumption in the two periods can be represented by indifference curves. An indifference curve shows the combination of first-period and second-period consumption that makes the consumer equally happy. The slope at any point on the indifference curve shows how much second-period consumption the consumer requires in order to be compensated for a 1-unit reduction in first-period consumption. This slope is the marginal rate of substitution between first-period consumption and second-period consumption. It tells us the rate at which the consumer is willing to substitute second-period consumption for first-period consumption.
12Consumer Preferences consumption Second- period Y Z IC2 X W IC1 First-period consumptionIndifference curves represent the consumer’s preferences over first- period and second-period consumption. An indifference curve gives the combinations of consumption in the two periods that make the consumer equally happy. Higher indifferences curves such as IC2 are preferred to lower ones such as IC1. The consumer is equally happy at points W, X, and Y, but prefers Z to all the others-- Point Z is on a higher indifferencecurve and is therefore not equally preferred to W, X and Y.
13Optimization consumption Second- period O IC3 IC2 IC1 First-period consumptionThe consumer achieves his highest (or optimal) level of satisfactionby choosing the point on the budget constraint that is on the highestindifference curve. At the optimum, the indifference curve is tangentto the budget constraint.
14How Changes in Income Affect Consumption Second-periodOIC2IC1First-period consumptionAn increase in either first-period income or second-period incomeshifts the budget constraint outward. If consumption in period one andconsumption in period two are both normal goods-- those that aredemanded more as income rises, this increase in income raisesconsumption in both periods.
15How Changes in the Real Interest Rate Affect Consumption Economists decompose the impact of an increase in the real interestrate on consumption into two effects: an income effect and asubstitution effect. The income effect is the change in consumptionthat results from the movement to a higher indifference curve. Thesubstitution effect is the change in consumption that results from thechange in the relative price of consumption in the two periods.An increase in the interest raterotates the budget constraint around the point C, where C is (Y1, Y2). The higher interest rate reduces first period consumption (move to point A) and raises second-period consumption (move to point B).New budgetconstraintconsumptionSecond-periodBOld budget constraintACY2IC2IC1Y1First-period consumption
16Constraints on Borrowing The inability to borrow prevents current consumption from exceedingcurrent income. A constraint on borrowing can therefore be expressedas C1 < Y1.This inequality states that consumption in period one must be less thanor equal to income in period one. This additional constraint on theconsumer is called a borrowing constraint, or sometimes, a liquidityconstraint.The analysis of borrowing leads us to conclude that there are twoconsumption functions. For some consumers, the borrowingconstraint is not binding, and consumption in both periods dependson the present value of lifetime income. For other consumers, theborrowing constraint binds. Hence, for those consumers who wouldlike to borrow but cannot, consumption depends only on current income.
17Franco Modigliani and the Life-Cycle Hypothesis In the 1950’s, Franco Modigliani, Ando and Brumberg used Fisher’smodel of consumer behavior to study the consumption function. One oftheir goals was to study the consumption puzzle. According to Fisher’smodel, consumption depends on a person’s lifetime income. Modigliani emphasized that income varies systematically over people’slives and that saving allows consumers to move income from thosetimes in life when income is high to those times when income is low.This interpretation of consumer behavior formed the basis of hislife-cycle hypothesis.
18Milton Friedman and the Permanent-Income Hypothesis In 1957, Milton Friedman proposed the permanent-income hypothesisto explain consumer behavior. Its essence is that current consumption isproportional to permanent income. Friedman’s permanent-incomehypothesis complements Modigliani’s life-cycle hypothesis: both useFisher’s theory of the consumer to argue that consumption should notdepend on current income alone. But unlike the life-cycle hypothesis,which emphasizes that income follows a regular pattern over a person’slifetime, the permanent-income hypothesis emphasizes that peopleexperience random and temporary changes in their incomes from yearto year.Friedman suggested that we view current income Y as the sum of twocomponents, permanent income YP and transitory income YT.
19Robert Hall and the Random-Walk Hypothesis Robert Hall was first to derive the implications of rational expectationsfor consumption. He showed that if the permanent-income hypothesisis correct, and if consumers have rational expectations, then changesin consumption over time should be unpredictable. When changes in avariable are unpredictable, the variable is said to follow a random walk.According to Hall, the combination of the permanent-incomehypothesis and rational expectations implies that consumption followsa random walk.
20David Laibson and the Pull of Instant Gratification Recently, economists have turned to psychology for further explanationsof consumer behavior. They have suggested that consumption decisionsare not made completely rationally.Laibson notes that many consumers judge themselves to be imperfectdecision-makers. Consumers’ preferences may be time-inconsistent: theymay alter their decisions simply because time passes.Pull of InstantGratification
21Key Concepts of Ch. 16 Marginal propensity to consume Average propensity to consumeIntertemporal budget constraintDiscountingIndifference curvesMarginal rate of substitutionNormal goodIncome effectSubstitution effectBorrowing constraintLife-cycle hypothesisPrecautionary savingPermanent-income hypothesisPermanent incomeTransitory incomeRandom walk