Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Stocking rate pasture production = animal production / ha = animal production / head * no of animal / ha = animal production / head * stocking rate.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Stocking rate pasture production = animal production / ha = animal production / head * no of animal / ha = animal production / head * stocking rate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stocking rate pasture production = animal production / ha = animal production / head * no of animal / ha = animal production / head * stocking rate

2 Animal unit 400 kg Steer= 1 AU. Calf (1-8 mo)= 0.35 AU. Weaner (8-12 mo) = 0.4 AU. Steer (1-2 yr)= 0.87 AU. Breeder Cow= 2.0 AU. Bull= 2.0 AU 40 kg Merino= 1 dse. Wether= 1 dse. Maiden ewe= 1 dse. Lamb= 0.5 dse. Breeding ewe= 1.7 dse. Ram= 1.7 dse dse. = dry sheep equivalent 1AU. = 8 dse.

3 F Carrying capacity = F Grazing pressure = utilise / production = feed demand / pasture mass = feed demand / head * no. of animal / ha pasture mass / ha = no. of animal / pasture area ?

4 The relationship between grazing pressure or stocking rate on animal production per head and per area. Grazing pressure Animal production / head animal production / ha

5 Factors control optimum stocking rate F pasture growth rate F availability of pasture mass to animal (allowance) F nutritional quality F botanical composition & ground cover F seasonal variation F type of enterprise and animal products

6 Pasture growth rate F rainfall (seasonal) F soil fertility F farm management LWG (kg/head/wk) Pasture availability (allowance; kg/head) Pasture availability Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) sward

7 LWG vs N availability F N < 4 kg/head LWG is negative F optimum N = 36 kg/head LWG = 0.8 kg/head/d LWG (kg/head) LWG (kg/ha) Stocking rate (AU/ha) N0N134N336N672

8 Fertilizer management on botanical composition and carrying capacity of pasture F Heteropogon contortus + Stylosanthes humilis carrying capacity = 0.7 AU./ha F if SR = 1.1 AU./ha less pasture mass and more weed (Fimbristylis dichotoma) F if kg P / ha of Super Phosphate more pasture mass and carrying capacity = 1.2 AU./ha

9 Accessibility of forage to animal (Pasture allowance) F Road & walk way F Shelter & pen feeding F Continuous grazing systems vs. working hour grazing time F Drinking water : 5km for cattle, 1.5 km for small ruminants F Fencing

10 Nutritive value of pasture Selective grazing = F Intake and digestibility are limited by nutritive value F Fertilizer input will enhance intake and nutritive value of pasture F Supplementary feed

11 Stocking rate vs botanical composition SpeciesStocking rate (head/ha) Chloris gayana 717 Digitaria decumbens2030 Paspalum commersonii 5 3 Paspalum dilatatum3313 Desmodium uncinatum 0 1 Desmodium intortum 114 Lotononis binensii 2 1 Trifolium repens 9 5 others2216

12 Effect of SR on BC of shade intorelant spp. Attribute SR (AU./ha) LWG (kg/ha) Pasture yield (kg/ha) Total S. humilis % legume N yield (kg/ha) % N in pasture

13 Mott (1960)s model Grazing pressure Animal production / head Animal production / ha Low SROptimumOver Under grazingOptimumOver

14 LWG = a - b (SR) a reflect to nutritive value of pasture and genetic potential of animal b reflect to pasture mass or yield or allowance or response of pasture to stocking rate LWG (kg/ha) Stocking rate (AU./ha) Y h = a SR - b SR 2

15 Sward structure F Intake, Eadible or utilizable = < pasture mass or yield F Sward density = structure = bulk density = yield/area/height of pasture F Animal will selective graze at top of sward, then if forced by high SR or longer interval it will graze pasture of lower quality hence bite size and rate will be affected, since these depend on bulk or sward density

16 Pasture utilization period F Rest period –regrowth –weed control –irrigation –fertilizer application –flowering and seed production –altering life cyle of parasite F Grazed / cut period –defoliation regimes –trampling –excretion –seasonal –continuous parasite cycle

17 General guide for optimum stocking rate (after Jones, et al. 1984) Total SubtropicalTropical rainfalltropical temperate N short wet long wet N (mm/yr)legume legume fertilizer season season fertilizer

18 Grazing systems Continuous Rotational Repeated seasonal Strip Creep Defered Zero

19 Stocking rate & grazing system F Set stock F Variable stock –buying –selling F Continuous grazing system F Rotational grazing system

20 Continuous vs rotational grazing system on LWG (kg/ha/d) of beef grazed Panicum maximum and Macroptilium atropurpureum cv.Siratro sward Continuous 14 days on 7 days on 28 days off 35 days off Dry season Wet season days on 7 days on 14 days off 28 days off Dry season Wet season

21 When to graze / rest ? F Stock in (graze) –high pasture growth rate –not in poor conditions –have longest rest period F Stock out (rest) –low pasture mass harmful to the regrowth –low nutitional status –poor animal growth –invasion of weeds

22 Why rest or rotation the pasture ? F to control botanical composition F to have seed set and seed soil reserved F to control parasite life cycle F for other animal management eg. vaccination, sanitation, reproductive management (AI) F for easier farm amnagement eg. fertlizer application, hay or silage making, fencing

23 Electric fence F Three types of fencing : perimeter, permanent subdivision, and temporary subdivision F voltage generator (energizer) F wire fencing, Polywire, Hot-tape, Electric netting, Hi-tensile wire, Barbed wire F post F is it cheap ? F design of the fencing and paddock system

24 Electric fence Energizer (voltage generator) Joule = 1 watt/sec 220 v. in corner postgate post controller switch

25 ( ) ? (2526) ( / / ) ( / ) ( / / ) (3% )

26 How to determine paddock size and number for rotational grazing system (After Gerrisk, JR. 1992) F How many animal and what are their size ? F Feed requirement (cow / bull = 2.5% of body weight, and calf = 3.0% of body weight) F What is the desired % of pasture utilization (eg. 70%) F What is the pasture yield (eg kg/rai) F How would you like the paddock to be rotated (eg. 7 days graze 35 days rest) F Determine the size and number of required paddock

Download ppt "Stocking rate pasture production = animal production / ha = animal production / head * no of animal / ha = animal production / head * stocking rate."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google