Presentation on theme: "Run, Hide, Fight December 18, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1Run, Hide, Fight December 18, 2012 September 19, 2013
2Definition of an Active Shooter An active shooter is a person actively engaged in killing and wounding people in a populated building or area using a firearm as a weaponThe threat is not contained and there is an immediate risk of injury or deathShooter may be suicidalSummarize definition in your own words using the bullet points on the screen. The majority of the recent active shooters in schools and institutions of higher education have been male. This does not mean that a female is not capable of committing an act of mass violence similar to the situations that have occurred. The key point to remember is that the shooter’s intent is generally not on taking hostages and entering in a negotiation phase with law enforcement. Most active shooter incidents end with the shooter taking his own life or with law enforcement intervention.AA
3How Great is the Threat?Incidents of this type invariably receive intense and extended media coverage, giving them a very high profile. However, despite the attention given to isolated instances of extreme violence, the chances of this type of incident occurring in educational facilities and houses of worship is actually quite low, and the odds against such an attack occurring in any particular location are enormous.For example, according to the U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education, the odds are one in 1 million that a student will die at school as a result of a violent act.
4The Challenge and Down-and-Dirty No Standard Profile of an Active ShooterIdentifying the problem before it becomes violent.When in doubt, report:Immediate Threat or Concern – GTPDStudent – Dean of StudentsFaculty/Staff – Office of Human ResourcesShooting time period v. Police Response.<5 minutes – Shooting>5 minutes – Police into buildingActions by those in the line of fire.RunHideFight!<iframe width="560" height="315" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/5VcSwejU2D0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>AA
5Mentality of Active Shooter Desire is to kill and injure without concern for his safety or threat of captureNormally has intended victims and will seek them outAccepts targets of opportunity while looking for or after finding intended victimsWill continue until stopped by law enforcement, suicide, or other violent interventionThere are many reasons why someone would do this. Many victims do no realize they are a target until the violence starts to take place. The bottom line is that for whatever the reason, these offenders will not stop until they are stopped by either law enforcement or by taking their own lives. Most active shooter situations occur in a matter of minutes, generally prior to the arrive of law enforcement. For this reason, it is important that persons involved in an active shooter situation react immediately as time is of the essence.AA
6Three Main Categories of Mass Murderers Family AnnihilatorsSet-and-Run or Hit-and-RunPseudocommandosThere are "family annihilators," who, as the name suggests, turn on their families.There are "set-and-run" or "hit-and-run" killers, who usually hide and try to avoid capture.Then there are "pseudocommandos," a category that would seem to include James Holmes, the suspected shooter in the July movie theater massacre in Aurora, Colo., and Seung-Hui Cho, who in 2007 killed 32 people during a rampage at Virginia Tech. The pseudocommando can be defined as followed, according to Joni E. Johnston at Psychology Today:The term "pseudocommando" was first used to describe the type of mass murderer who carefully and methodically plans his actions and who kills indiscriminately in public. This is not a person who "snaps"; he comes prepared with a powerful arsenal of weapons, typically has no escape planned, and is pursing a highly personal and well-thought-out agenda of "payback.“According to research, these revenge mass murderers tend to have been bullied or socially excluded as children. As adults, they tend to be highly sensitive to any slight or rejection and to spend time dwelling on past humiliations. Given the right circumstances, these obsessive thoughts turn into violent revenge fantasies to protect a fragile — sometimes overly inflated — ego. In fact, it is when the perpetrator is feeling most powerless that he is likely to justify acting on his fantasies and begin the transition from obsessive thought to devastating action. The meticulous plans he make not only distract him from a reality that he finds increasingly intolerable, they give him a false sense of power and omnipotence.The tipping point for pseudocommandos is usually a major personal loss or rejection of some kind. Holmes, an excellent student growing up, saw his grades decline in a more competitive Ph.D. atmosphere. Cho was reportedly bullied and mocked, and saw himself as an avenger for the weak. We don't know what, if anything, set off Lanza, but we do know that his parents divorced in 2009 and that he was reportedly an outcast.AA
7Key Findings of 154 Cases 2002-2012 1 of 5 Shooter after incident43% committed suicide8% shot and killed by responders45% arrested4% unidentifiedAA
8Key Findings of 154 Cases 2002-2012 2 of 5 Motivation40% never clearly determined21% workplace retaliation14% domestic disputes7% academic retaliationAA
9Key Findings of 154 Cases 2002-2012 3 of 5 The Shooter96% - Male96% - Alone37% - Workplace Environment17% - Academic SettingAA
10Key Findings of 154 Cases 2002-2012 4 of 5 The Shooter – many described as:Social isolates, harbored feelings of hate and anger, and/or had some reported contact with mental health professionals.Mental illness is commonly referenced as a potential contributing factor.Very few had previous arrests for violent crimes.AA
11Key Findings of 154 Cases 2002-2012 5 of 5 Common Catalysts or Triggers:Loss of significant relationshipsChanges in financial StatusLoss of a JobChanges in living arrangementsMajor adverse changes to life circumstancesFeeling of humiliation or reject on the part of the shooterAA
12The Shooter (in general) Desire is to kill and seriously injure without concern for his safety or threat of captureNormally has intended victims and will search them outAccepts targets of opportunity while searching for or after finding intended victimsWill continue to move throughout building/area until stopped by law enforcement, suicide, or other interventionAA
13Indicators of Potential Violence: Students No one behavior fits all!Most are maleMost were affiliated with the school and/or students targetedOften, disciplinary, legal, or other action (i.e., being fired by an employer) had taken place before the attackForewarning, either through internet media or through comments to other students, was common before the attack.AA
14Indicators of Potential Violence: Students The most distinctly repeated factor in the case of most active shooters is a change in personality.These changes trend toward withdrawal from other students, work, and life in general.Increased substance useMood swingsDepression, hopelessness, isolation, rage, or despairAA
15Indicators of Potential Violence: Students Noticeable change in academic performanceDecrease in hygiene, personal appearanceExplosive, uncontrollable outburstsLack of emotionSuicidal, speaking of “setting things right”Loss of interest in previous activitiesEmpathy for or excessive interest in past violent actsIncreased discussion of weapons, firearms, violent acts, especially unsolicitedAA
16Precipitory EventsCatalyst…final straw – with underlying theme of loss of face, humiliation, injured pride, shame.May be in the form of bullying incident, loss of romantic relationship, administrative or disciplinary investigation.AA
17PATHWAY TO VIOLENCE ATTACK Breach Preparation Research/Planning IdeationGrievanceATTACKAA
18Shooter SummaryThere is no single profile or stereotype of the assailants or their motivations. The attackers varied substantially in personality, social characteristics, background, age, home situation, mental health history, prior encounters with law enforcement, and other factors.Profiling on the basis of these factors, therefore, is not effective for identifying those who may pose a risk for targeted violence. It is much more productive to focus on behaviors and communications—warning signs that someone might be planning or preparing for an attack.
19Warning Signs Are Common Most attackers engaged in some troubling behaviors prior to the incident that caused concern or indicated a need for help. Such behaviors included:Research, planning, and preparation (for example, researching how to build a bomb, sketching maps and diagrams, trying to obtain a gun).Suicidal threats and attempts.Difficulty coping with significant losses or personal failures such as death of a loved one, loss of status, job loss, divorce, or academic failure.History of being bullied, threatened, harassed, or attacked by others.Inappropriate interest in accounts of mass violence, or violent themes in movies, books, video games, or their own writings.
20Attackers Make PlansIncidents of targeted violence are rarely impulsive. In almost all incidents, the attacker developed the idea to harm the target before the attack. In many cases, the person formulated the idea for the attack at least 2 weeks in advance and planned out the incident.Targeted violence is typically the end result of an understandable, often discernible, process of thinking and behavior.Example—Virginia Tech: The student responsible for killing at least 30 people at Virginia Tech appeared to have planned his attack for weeks—purchasing weapons, testing campus security, and preparing documentation.
21Attackers Talk About Their Plans Most attackers didn’t threaten their targets directly before the attack. But prior to most incidents, the attacker told someone—a friend, schoolmate, sibling—and sometimes many people, about the idea or plan before taking action.In nearly every case of school attacks, the person who was told was a peer and rarely did anything to bring the information to an adult’s attention. In fact, in many cases, friends or fellow students actually encouraged the attacker to act.
22Attackers Often Have Easy Access to Weapons In past incidents, most attackers had used guns previously and had access to guns. In nearly two-thirds of school incidents, for example, the attackers obtained the weapons from their own home or that of a relative.Remember, however, that although guns have been the weapon of choice in many incidents, it is unwise to focus only on “active shooter” scenarios. Past assailants have used guns, knives, improvised explosive devices, fire, and other types of weapons, and they have used firearms and explosives in combination. Future attackers could very well expand their methods to include weapons of terror not seen in past incidents.
23K-12 Schools vs. University Setting Unlike most K-12 public schools, college and university facilities and classrooms typically do not feature:1. Two-way intercom systems in buildings and classrooms2. A centralized administrative office3. Visitor sign in areas or procedures4. Access control technologiesDespite what the media has relayed to the American public, lock-downs on college campuses are virtually impossible. There presence of many buildings and open spaces that do not have access controls such as fences and visitor management systems make a lock-down on a college campus difficult to implement. The majority of buildings on college campuses do not have intercoms allowing announcements to be made throughout the building. Also, there is no centralized point where visitors are required to sign in. College campuses are generally open to the public and it is difficult to distinguish between faculty, staff and visitors.RB
24Personal Emergency Planning Be aware of your environment and any possible dangersMentally rehearse how you would react in various types of emergency situationsBe familiar with two exits whenever you enter a building or roomAsk about building emergency action plansProgram local and campus emergency numbers into your cell phoneParticipate in campus emergency notification systemsThere are a number of individual preparedness measures that students, faculty and staff can implement before an active shooter situation or any emergency occurs. One of the most important safety and prevention methods is to always be aware of your surroundings and environment. For example, a student who walks around campus listening to their I-Pod while talking on the phone is not practicing good situational awareness. Trust your gut feeling…if something does not feel right then likely it is not right and danger may be near.Visualization is a great technique of mentally rehearsing your options during an emergency. Practice thinking about how you would react if there were a fire in your dorm room, apartment or house. Would you evacuate out the window? How would you notify others in the area? It works the same way for an active shooter situation. Practice makes perfect. Always know two ways out of any academic building, residence hall, dining hall, movie theater, restaurant, business, etc. Make it one of the first things that you do when you enter a structure and it will become habit.Thousands of lives were saved in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001 at Morgan Stanley Investments because their Security Director had an evacuation plan and had everyone practice it. He even blocked some routes during the drills to make his employees think about alternate evacuation routes. As a result, the Security Director saved over 2,700 lives because the Morgan Stanley employees practiced their plan and new several exits out of their areas.Ask your professor, building manager, Dean or other administrator about emergency plans for your building. Make sure that the building has an emergency plan.Program 911 and campus police or security numbers into your cell phone or office phone to ensure that you have only one or two buttons to push to reach emergency dispatchers. Often, in emergency situations, logic and finger dexterity are limited and you may find it difficult to perform simple tasks.Mass emergency notification systems are making it easier to reach students, staff and faculty on their preferred methods of receiving information. Be sure to participate in your campus emergency notification systems if they are optional and make sure that you have multiple ways of receiving emergency messages about severe weather and other emergencies.RB
25Your Options in an Active Shooter Incident RunHideFightDuring an active shooter situation, you may have to make a quick decision about what action to take. No one can really make this decision for you as it will be based on the information presented to you during the incident. Generally, you have three options. Run in the direction away from the shooter if you feel it is safe to do so. Remember, there could be multiple shooters in the area. The second option would be to barricade yourself in a room or hide out in area where you feel the shooter may not be able to locate you. The third option is a difficult one to think about and discuss. It involves fighting back if there is no other option and your life is in imminent danger. No one really knows how they will react in a very traumatic, life or death situation. Most people react in one of three ways – they freeze up and wait for others to act and direct them, in some circumstances, some people may have an emotional overload and lock down, cry, get angry, etc. Others will emerge as leaders and react. This program is attempting to create “emergency leaders.”RB
26Run (Escape) If it is safe to do so RUN! Drop and leave your personal belongings (books, book bag, purse)Exit the immediate areaProceed cautiously as there may be more than one shooterKeep your hands visible and not in your pocketsCall 911 or your campus police and provide as much information as you can as soon as it is safe to do soOne option that you can employ if it is safe to do so is to run away from the threat. Drop all of your belongings and escape out the nearest exit and get out of the building to a safe area.Remember, proceed cautiously as there may be another shooter or other dangers in the building like possible explosive devices (Note: there were over 90 improvised explosive devices on theColumbine H.S. campus). You may encounter law enforcement officers on your way out of the building or area. Do not present a threat to them and obey their commands. You will be searched to eliminate you as a potentialsuspect. Keep your hands out of your pockets and visible at all times as you make your escape. Call 911 as soon as it is safe to do so.RB
27Outdoor Areas/Hallways If you are located outside a building, seek cover immediatelyPut something between you and the shooterIf you are in a hallway, escape out the nearest exit if it is safe to do soIf any doubt exists, find a safe area and barricade the door with any available itemsIf you are outside when a shooting begins seek shelter immediately. Try and put something substantial and solid between you and the shooter. If possible get out of the area and call 911 or campus police as soon as it is safe to do so. You may be in the hallway or in the restroom when a shooting incident occurs in your building. Restrooms are generally not safe places to be in this type of situation. Most restroom doors cannot be locked and the shooter will likely check this area initially. In fact, in several active shooter incidents, the shooter has changed and prepared to initiate their plans in a restroom in the facility that they were targeting. Escape out of the area if it is safe to do so or barricade and hide in a nearby room or area. It is important to remember that you may not be able to seek refuge in your classroom or office space as these areas may have already been secured and barricaded. Your classmates or co-workers may not beable to let you back in for fear that you may be a suspect or the shooter may use you as a ruse to enter the classroom. Quickly find a room or area that you can secure and get out of sight. Call 911.RB
28Hide (Barricade)Locate the nearest classroom/closet/office with a doorLock or barricade the door with any available itemsBlock or cover windows to the hallway and close blindsTurn off the room lightsCall 911 or campus public safetySilence your cell phone and other electronics in the roomPlace signs in exterior windows so responders will know where you are locatedAfter securing the room, position people out of sight as best as possibleLook for possible window exits if you are on or near the ground floorThe actions listed on the slide need to be accomplished quickly and quietly. Use tables and desks to block the entrance to the room. If you are on a ground floor consider using a window as an escape route.Read responses off the slide and discuss with class participants. Time may not permit you to accomplish all of the actions listed on the slide. The main goal when hiding/barricading is to put something between you and the shooter which prevents bullets from striking you and prevents the shooter from entering the area you are located in. Use any and all available furniture and other items to block the door. Do not let anyone in the room until law enforcement gives you the all clear from public address systems, emergency mass notification systems that you are registered on, or from a phone call from emergency dispatchers. You may wish to verify with 911 communications that the officer outside the doorway is legitimate. Exit windows only if you can do so safely or if you make the personal decision that your life is in imminent danger.It is wise to develop a plan with the other room occupants on how you will respond if the shooter enters the room.RB
29Organize others and formulate a plan FightFight back only as a last resort and when your life is in imminent dangerOrganize others and formulate a planThrow books, chairs, book bags, etc. at the shooterOverpower the shooter and disarm himCommit to your actionsDon’t be a victim!This option is a last resort option if you have no other recourse. Typically, this situation would be if you are face-to-face with the shooter and he is actively shooting others in the room or area where you are located. This is a personal decision that you will have to make and no one can make this decision for you. Again, it would be wise to formulate a plan before the shooter enters the room or area that you are occupying to ensure that all the room occupants have thought about this last resort option. Also, it makes better sense that you would coordinate your attack in numbers instead of possibly creating more chaos. Use any and all available items to throw at the shooter like desks, books, bags, paper weights, shoes, etc. Attempt to overpower the shooter and disarm him if possible. Again, this is a personal decision that you may have to make. Think about how you would react before this situation.RB
30Techniques that Could Save You! The 2 to 3 second rush.This is for if you're really close to the shooter and feel he's either shooting at you or will as you make your move.Determine a route to safety that includes as much cover and concealment on the way.Use it by sprinting in brief rushes that last 2 to 3 seconds at a time from one hiding place to the next. The average marksman can only sight on a target within 3 to 4 seconds.Try to stay low and dodge and weave if you miscalculate the distance. It isn't perfect, but it is a proven infantry technique.Cover vs ConcealmentAA
31Techniques that Could Save You! Fighting back with an improvised weapon!Scissors!Attack the shooter’s vitals (eyes, nose, throat, head, groin or solar plexus). Pencil in deep into the eye socket works particularly well.A backpack, briefcase or suitcase stuffed with phone books can serve as a small arms impromptu bullet proof vest..AA
32Techniques that Could Save You! Fighting back with an improvised weapon!The center pole from a clothes rack, stiletto or wedge heel, and leg from a desk or chair can serve as an impact weapon.A belt can serve as a flexible weapon to strike (belt buckle) or to strangle..AA
33Techniques that Could Save You! Fighting back with an improvised weapon!If trapped with multiple people, work together to improve chances for surviving.Your goal is to get the shooter on the ground and neutralized..AA
34Once the Door is Breached! Typically, when a person breaches a door he will look straight ahead first.Those who are in direct line or across from the shooter should move away from the team members who are positioned next to the door, to distract the shooter.Team members who are positioned on the side of the doors or at an ambush area should attack the shooter.One person forces the perpetrator’s weapon down and to the side.Another person attacks the shooter’s lower body, typically behind the knee taking him to the ground.AA
35Once the Door is Breached! Do whatever necessary to neutralize the attacker.Other team members should secure something to bound and gag the shooter while awaiting law enforcement.The most well trained person should secure the weapon and be prepared to help defend others.Move others into a position of cover away from the initial line of fire and prepare to defend.AA
36Techniques that Could Save You! A 6 year old boy at Sandy Hooks Elementary School survived by playing dead.Play Dead!AA
37Assisting Other People Call 911 or campus law enforcement as soon as possibleAttempt to calm others down and plan options should the shooter enter your areaDo not let others in the room if you do not feel it is safe to do so or if you cannot identify/recognize the person or officialAttempts to rescue people should only be made if it can be done without further endangering the persons inside the secure areaAssist injured people in secure areas with available equipment and supplies (advise 911 of injured persons)Stay Calm as best you can. Of course, this is easier said than done. If you can remain reasonably calm it will help you to think through the situation and to come up with a response plan that is more likely to be successful. If you can do so without being heard call 911. Don’t assume that others have called. Try to get in a room that is lockable but if one is not near by use whatever you can to barricade the door. Only let others in the room if it is safe to do so. If you are not sure then don’t open it! Think about the safety of the majority. Treat injured persons to your level, ability and experience. Use blankets, shirts, jackets and other available items to stop wounds that are bleeding.RB
38What Information Should Be Reported to 911? Your Specific Location (Building, floor, room number)Number of people at your location, number of injuries and type of injuriesSuspect(s) Information:-Location (if known)-Number of shooters-Name of shooter (if known)-Overall description (physical/clothing)-Type of weapons (rifle, shotgun or handgun)-Explosives-Backpack or other items-Other important informationKeep trying to notify emergency personnel either by calling 911 or your local campus police department. The more information that can be provided to them the better their response will be. If the situation allows consider placing a sign in the exterior window of the room that you are in stating number of persons in the room and if there are any injuries.The dispatcher will immediately want to know where you are located, a description of the shooter, what type of weapons are involved in the incident, last direction of travel of the shooter. Let the dispatcher know if you observed or heard any possible explosive devices that have produced a fire. Be patient with the emergency dispatcher as likely he/she is dealing with multiple emergency calls.Emergency lines will likely be busy so continue calling to report the incident as you may have critical information first responders may need.RB
39How Will Law Enforcement Respond? Law enforcement will immediately respond to area and form a team to enter the buildingLaw enforcement’s goal is to locate, contain, & stop the shooterLaw enforcement will bypass injured people initially to locate the shooter(s)Stay inside a secure room until instructed to exitLaw Enforcement has been trained to respond to the scene and stop the threat. Let others know that help is on the way. Remain in a safe location until the threat has ended.Officers may bypass injured people in order to get to the shooter or shooters to end the situation. Their immediate goal is to prevent the shooter from harming additional people.Teams may be composed of officers wearing different uniforms, Kevlar vests, helmets and some may be carrying assault rifles. Remember, police responses will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.Some agencies may only be able to send one or two officers who will head toward the threat. Please consult your campus public safety or local law enforcement agency for more information.RB
40Your Response When Law Enforcement Arrives Remain in place until instructed to moveFollow officers’ instructionsDo not have any items in your handsImmediately raise your hands and do not present a threat to the responding officersAvoid quick movements around the officers, don’t try to hug or hold on to themAvoid pointing, screaming or yellingLimit your questions to officers regarding the suspect, others in the building or other incident informationStay where you are if you feel you are in a safe location. If the room that you are occupying is entered by law enforcement follow all their commands. Remember, they do not know who is a suspect and who is not at this point so they may search you or otherwise confine you until everyone is sorted out. Follow the officer’s instructions and do not ask questions about the shooter, the status of your friends/co-workers, etc.It is very important to keep your hands visible so that you do not present a threat to the officers.RB
41Quick Review Have a plan Take immediate action Find a secure area or runCalm, reassure, and quiet othersCall 911 or campus policeTreat injured people if it is safe to do soWhen in doubt, call GTPD or report…Student/Dean of StudentsEmployee/Human ResourcesInstructor: please review points to ensure that your audience recognizes some basic “take away” points from the program. Remind the participants that they should always be aware of their surroundings all the time and not just when they are on campus. Emergencies (and active shooter incidents) occur in movie theaters, restaurants, stores, malls, and even at church. No element of society is immune to emergencies.Have a plan – Your survival in any emergency depends on how you plan and mentally rehearse various types of emergencies. Always think about how you would react in various situations.Take immediate action – React and don’t just stand there and wait on others to tell you what to do. Think about self preservation and what is the best option based on the knowledge that you have about the emergency.Find a secure area or run – Utilize the option that you think works best for you based on the incident. No one can tell you what to do in every emergency because every emergency is different.Calm, reassure and quiet others – Attempt to minimize the chaos related to the incident. People will react in a variety of ways. Remind them that if you work together then you can all work to survive together.Call 911 or campus police – Call 911 and relay as much critical information about your location, the shooter and the incident . Remember, you may have to call several times to get through. Keep trying.Treat injured people if it is safe to do so – Treat others to your level of expertise and training. Use any and all available resources to assist in your treatment of any wounded individuals.RB
42EP Certificate Program The program consists of 5 required classes and 2 electives. Classes are offered throughout the year, but can also be requested for departmental and/or building specific locations, including over a shorter time period. Offered through OHR Learning and Professional Development.
43EP Certificate Program Required CoursesCampus Fire SafetyEmergency Preparedness 101Intro to the Incident Command System for Higher EdPlan, Prep, React -- Active Shooter Response OptionsWhat Is In Your Building: Hazards AwarenessElective Courses (pick 2)Awareness for Initial Response to Hazardous Materials IncidentsBomb Threat ManagementChematix - Chemical ManagementContinuity of Operations PlanningCPR/AED/First AidCrime Prevention 101Drill It! Planning and Conducting an Emergency Exercise in Your AreaSafety AbroadSee Something, Say SomethingWeather Hazards and Precautions
44Additional Resource Information GT Emergency Procedures and Action PlanSign up for GTENS!Regular Refresher Courses & VideosActive Shooter – What You Can Do (http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is907.asp)Preparing for Mass Casualty Incidents: A Guide for Schools, Higher Education, and Houses of WorshipActive Shooter Situation: Options for Consideration (Video): https:cs.hsin.gov/Workplace Security AwarenessIED Threat Awareness and Detection (www.dhs.gov/cfsector)GT-Campus Emergency Response Team.AA
45Are You Ready?The Georgia Tech Office of Emergency Preparedness encourages you to stay informed.Scan for Appqrs.ly/8z3hev3
46Questions & Discussion Trust Your InstinctsSee Something, Say SomethingDo Something!RunHideFightSeek questions and feedback on the training program. Be sure to carefully explain that there are only options available to students, staff and faculty in active shooter situations due to the fact that all emergencies are different. Everyone needs to begin to think about how they would respond in any emergency situation whether it occurs in an academic building, at the mall, in a restaurant or at home.Advise the participants that additional information about campus law enforcement and/or security resources and specific emergency plans may be obtained from their campus public safety (or security or law enforcement agency depending on how things are structured) and/or local law enforcement/emergency management agencies.Catherine Hubbard, 6AA/RB/JK