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Types Of Refrigeration Systems Two Primary Types An open system that uses the refrigerant once and then vents it into the atmosphere. Examples: A freezing.

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Presentation on theme: "Types Of Refrigeration Systems Two Primary Types An open system that uses the refrigerant once and then vents it into the atmosphere. Examples: A freezing."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Types Of Refrigeration Systems Two Primary Types An open system that uses the refrigerant once and then vents it into the atmosphere. Examples: A freezing system using liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). A sealed system that uses the same refrigerant over and over. Examples: A system that uses Ammonia (NH 3 ) or Freon as the refrigerant. Well focus on mechanical systems today.

4 How Does Mechanical Refrigeration Work? 1.To cool the air or liquid, it moves through a heat exchanger (evaporator), transferring its heat into the refrigerant. 2.The refrigerant inside the evaporator must be maintained at a lower temperature than the air or liquid. Heat (high energy) moves to cold (low energy). 3.Temperature of refrigerant is controlled by the pressure inside the evaporator. (Pressure-Temperature relationship) 4.The liquid refrigerant inside the evaporator absorbs the heat, changing state to vapor. (boiling) How It Works

5 How Does Mechanical Refrigeration Work? How It Works Examples: At 33.5 PSIG, Ammonia boils at +20°F. At 3.6 PSIG, it boils at -20°F. All fluids have a Pressure – Temperature Relationship.

6 By maintaining the desired pressure inside the evaporator we get the desired temperature. The temperature at that boiling point determines how much heat is absorbed into the refrigerant, changing the liquid refrigerant to a vapor. That means… How It Works

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8 Evaporator: This is where the heat from the product or space is transferred into the refrigerant. Its main function is to remove heat from air or liquid. There are several types of evaporators used in food processing industry. Primary Components Four Primary Components Of A Mechanical System

9 Primary Components Types of Evaporators Air Units: a common type of evaporator found in cold storages, pre-coolers, and mechanical freezers. They are a combination of fans and a coil. Air is blown over the tubes which contains refrigerant. Other names: evaporators, coils

10 Shell And Tube Heat Exchangers: primarily used to cool fluids. Fluid being cooled is pumped through the tubes while the liquid refrigerant is in the shell. Applications: chill glycol, wine, water Types of Evaporators Primary Components

11 Types of Evaporators Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers: plates stacked together containing refrigerant or product in alternating plates. These have extremely good heat transfer characteristics. Applications: chill glycol, wine, water Primary Components

12 Compressor: the largest electrical user in a food storage facility is the compressor. It maintains the evaporator refrigerant pressure required to give desired evaporator temperature and to compress the refrigerant gas from the evaporator to a higher pressure. There are primarily three types of compressors… Primary Components Four Primary Components Of A Mechanical System

13 Rotary Screw Compressor: The most common type used. These units are typical 100 HP to 1,000 HP. Wide range of applications and can be used in a single stage system or as the high stage or booster in a two- stage system. Primary Components Types of Compressors

14 Reciprocating Compressor: these units have pistons going up and down compressing gas, similar to a car engine. Typically 50 HP to 200 HP and can be used in a single stage system or as the high stage or booster in a two- stage system. Limited compression ratio. Types of Compressors Primary Components

15 Rotary Booster Compressor: These are no longer manufactured but there are still many in operation. They are used only as boosters in two stage systems. Types of Compressors Primary Components

16 Condenser: high pressure gas is cooled and condenses back to liquid. This is where all of the heat from the cold storage and from the food product is transferred out of the refrigeration system. Fans blow air through coils as water is pumped over them. The water evaporates, absorbing the heat in the refrigerant gas, and the energy is rejected into the atmosphere. Four Primary Components Of Any Refrigeration System Primary Components

17 Expansion Device: function is to control the flow of refrigerant from high (condensing pressure) to low (evaporating pressure) and controls the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator. Several Types: hand expansion valve, motorized modulating valve, thermal expansion valve, etc. Primary Components Four Primary Components Of Any Refrigeration System Hand Expansion Valve Motorized Modulating Valve Thermal Expansion Valve

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19 Refrigeration System

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21 Ex: supermarkets, convenience stores, and small cold storages Commercial System - Freon Only Condensing Unit: The outdoor condensing unit contains both the compressor and condenser. Air Unit: Standard air unit with thermal expansion valve and electric defrost. Refrigeration System

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23 Cold Storage: Large rooms/buildings, typically 0°F to -20°F, for storing frozen foods. Found in large processing plants and as food distribution centers. Refrigeration systems can be shut off, sometimes for hours, without temperature gain that damages frozen food. Applications Cold Storage

24 Cooler: Typically +32°F to +40°F for storing perishable, refrigerated food products. Because product temperature has a very tight tolerance, length of time the refrigeration can be off is very limited. Cooler Applications

25 IQF Belt Freezer: A long tunnel type freezer with one or two belts. To freeze mostly small, IQF products such as peas, cut corn, French fries, onions, pizza topping, shredded cheese, etc. Usual retention time is under 20 minutes. Types Of Mechanical Freezers Applications

26 Spiral Freezer: spiral wound belt with many tiers to freeze items requiring a longer retention time such as chicken parts, fish fillets, hamburger patties, potato co-products, entrees, pizzas, etc. Usual retention time is minutes. Types Of Mechanical Freezers: Applications

27 Variable Retention Freezer: also called a carton freezer, is a large unit with moving conveyors or trays. For long retention time products like pies, tubs of ice cream, or turkeys and cartooned (boxed) products like chicken parts, turkey parts, meat. Retention time 2-12 hours or possibly longer. Types Of Mechanical Freezers: Applications

28 Blast Freezer: small room with large coil inside. This is a batch operation with racks, loaded with product, manually put into and removed from the freezer. Retention time more than an hour, sometimes up to 20 hours. Applications Types Of Mechanical Freezers:

29 Plate Freezer: vertical or horizontal plates. Also called contact freezers because the product is in direct contact with the heat exchange plate surface. Product is pumped or placed between the movable plates and refrigerant is pumped through the plates. Vertical plate freezers are used to freeze meat, offal, and fruit products into lb blocks. Usual retention time is 2-4 hours. Horizontal Types Of Mechanical Freezers: Vertical Applications

30 Flat Product Freezer: specific type freezer for quickly freezing thin product like hamburgers and fish fillets. Designed specifically to replace LN 2 freezers. Types Of Mechanical Freezers: Applications

31 Product: Green Peas Quantity: 10,000 lbs/hr Temperature: Entering +70 F Exiting: 0 F (equilibrated) Food Freezing Load Calculation: Applications

32 Food Freezing Load Calculation: Applications 1)Product Load Specific Heat above freezing is 0.79 btu/lb F 39 F (+70 F F) x 0.79 = 30.8 btu/lb Latent Heat (from chart) = btu/lb Specific Heat below freezing is 0.42 btu/lb F +31 F (+31 F - 0 F) x.42 = 13.0 btu/lb TOTAL: = btu/lb 10,000 lb/hr x BTU/lb = TR 12,000 BTU/TR

33 2)Base Load Motors (116 HP x 3,000 btu/h/HP) = 348,000 btu/h Enclosure = 60,000 btu/h Other (lights, etc.) = 84,000 btu/h TOTAL: = 492,000 btu/h 492,000 btu/h = 41.0 TR 12,000 btuh/TR Food Freezing Load Calculation: Applications 3) Safety Factor 5% (water, uneven product feed): = 6.0 TR TOTAL LOAD = TR

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