2PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNThe rules that govern how artists organize the elements of art.The principles are BALANCE, RHYTHM, REPETITION, PATTERN, MOVEMENT, PROPORTION, EMPHASIS, VARIETY, CONTRAST, and UNITY.
3BALANCE The types of BALANCE are Symmetry or Formal Balance Principle of design concerned with equalizing the visual forces or elements in the work of artThe types of BALANCE areSymmetry or Formal BalanceAsymmetry or Informal BalanceRadial Balance
4Symmetry Also called Formal BALANCE Occurs when equal or very similar, elements are placed on opposite sides of a central axis
10RHYTHMPrinciple of Design that indicates movement by the repetition of elementsThere are four types of RHYTHMRandomRegularAlternatingProgressiveor
11Progressive RHYTHMTransformationsBy M. C. Escher
12REPETITIONTechnique for creating RHYTHM and UNITY in which a single element appears again and againREPETITION is very similar to RHYTHM and they are usually used together. Sometimes there is RHYTHM without REPETITION (example, Progressive RHYTHM)
13PATTERN A two-dimensional, visual REPETITION Examples of PATTERN are fabric, wallpaper, bed spreads.
14PATTERNWork by Henri Matisse that uses a lot of PATTERN
15MOVEMENTPrinciple of design that deals with creating the illusion of action or physical change in position
16MOVEMENT Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash By Giacomo Balla 1912 Oil on CanvasThe many REPETITIONs of the legs, feet, tail,and chain in this work give it the appearanceof actual MOVEMENT.
17Nude Descending aStaircaseby Marcel DuchampCaptures the feelingof MOVEMENT thatoccurswhen someoneis walking down thestairs.
18Lobster Trap and Fish Tail Mobile from National Gallery of ArtLobster Trap and Fish TailMost art does not really move, but these are some examples of mobiles byAlexander Calder thatdo move.
19PROPORTIONThe principle of design concerned with the size relationship of one part to anotherIf you have ever tried to draw a human figure and realized that the head was too big or small compared to the rest of the body, you were already using the principle of PROPORTION.
21Body PROPORTION The basic rule of thumb is that the body is 71/2 or 8 times the size ofthe head.
22Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, ), Study of proportions, from Vitruvius's De Architectura, pen and inkLeonardo, inspired by the mathematician Vitruvius (Roman, 1st century BCE), drew this famous picture of Vitruvian Man -- a sort of ideal figure -- whose arm span is equal to his height -- a ratio of one, or 1:1.
23The Pieta by Michelangelo An artist can changethe actual PROPORTIONat any time. In thiswork by Michelangelo,he made Mary much larger than the body of Jesus. If Mary could stand up, shewould be about nine feet tall! He did this so that she wouldn’t look crushed bythe weight of the body.The Pieta by Michelangelo
24Examples of contemporary artwork with distorted PROPORTION
25EMPHASIS A portion of a work that is dominant over the other parts The Focal Point is the first part of the work to attract the viewer’s attention.
26EMPHASIS by Location In the Dining Room by Berthe Morisot The young woman appears to be in the center of this painting. A lot of times, we naturally look in the center of the picture first like we would with a photo or camera.
27EMPHASIS by Contrast Rembrandt. Self-Portrait. c. 1629. Oil on canvas. Rembrandt uses value contrast to create a focal point in this work. Only the head and the area immediately aroundit are painted in lightvalues. The background sinks into darkness.
28EMPHASIS by Convergence Baptism in KansasBy John Steuart CurryIn this painting allthe people arestaring at the preacher and the girl. The viewer becomes oneof the crowd andstares too.
29EMPHASIS with the Unusual Time Transfixed, 1939Artist: Rene Magritte( )SurrealistBy placing veryunusual objects orimpossible activities in awork, an artist can alsocreate a focal point.
30CONTRAST or VARIETYPrinciple of Design concerned with difference or CONTRAST.An artwork which makes use of many different hues, values, lines, textures, and shapes would reflect the artist's use of variety.
31CONTRAST or VARIETYVariety – how an artist adds interest to the artwork.May be created through use of transition and gradation. Transition moves the eye from one part of the work to the next. Gradations create illusions of space or distance.
32This Art workcontainsdifferentcolors,shapes, andvegetables tomake thepicture moreinteresting.
33Unity: the arrangement of the elements to create a coherent whole The elements work together to produce a sense of order.