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The Principles of Design. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN The rules that govern how artists organize the elements of art. The principles are BALANCE, RHYTHM, REPETITION,

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Presentation on theme: "The Principles of Design. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN The rules that govern how artists organize the elements of art. The principles are BALANCE, RHYTHM, REPETITION,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Principles of Design

2 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN The rules that govern how artists organize the elements of art. The principles are BALANCE, RHYTHM, REPETITION, PATTERN, MOVEMENT, PROPORTION, EMPHASIS, VARIETY, CONTRAST, and UNITY.

3 BALANCE Principle of design concerned with equalizing the visual forces or elements in the work of art The types of BALANCE are Symmetry or Formal Balance Asymmetry or Informal Balance Radial Balance

4 Symmetry Also called Formal BALANCE Occurs when equal or very similar, elements are placed on opposite sides of a central axis

5 Examples of Symmetry or Formal BALANCE

6 Asymmetry Also called Informal BALANCE Occurs when there is a balance of unlike objects, such as a building on one side and a crowd or people on the other

7 Baby at Play by Thomas Eakins The Great Wave Off Kanagawa by Katsushika Hokusai Examples of Informal BALANCE or Asymmetry

8 Radial BALANCE Type of BALANCE in which forces or elements of a design come out or radiate from a central point

9 Examples of Radial BALANCE

10 RHYTHM Principle of Design that indicates movement by the repetition of elements There are four types of RHYTHM Random Regular Alternating Progressive or

11 Progressive RHYTHM Transformations By M. C. Escher

12 REPETITION Technique for creating RHYTHM and UNITY in which a single element appears again and again REPETITION is very similar to RHYTHM and they are usually used together. Sometimes there is RHYTHM without REPETITION (example, Progressive RHYTHM)

13 PATTERN A two-dimensional, visual REPETITION Examples of PATTERN are fabric, wallpaper, bed spreads.

14 PATTERN Work by Henri Matisse that uses a lot of PATTERN

15 MOVEMENT Principle of design that deals with creating the illusion of action or physical change in position

16 MOVEMENT Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash By Giacomo Balla 1912 Oil on Canvas The many REPETITIONs of the legs, feet, tail, and chain in this work give it the appearance of actual MOVEMENT.

17 Nude Descending a Staircase by Marcel Duchamp Captures the feeling of MOVEMENT that occurs when someone is walking down the stairs.

18 Most art does not really move, but these are some examples of mobiles by Alexander Calder that do move. Mobile from National Gallery of Art Lobster Trap and Fish Tail

19 PROPORTION The principle of design concerned with the size relationship of one part to another If you have ever tried to draw a human figure and realized that the head was too big or small compared to the rest of the body, you were already using the principle of PROPORTION.

20 Facial PROPORTIONs

21 Body PROPORTION The basic rule of thumb is that the body is 71/2 or 8 times the size of the head.

22 Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, ), Study of proportions, from Vitruvius's De Architectura, pen and inkStudy of proportions penink Leonardo, inspired by the mathematician Vitruvius (Roman, 1st century BCE), drew this famous picture of Vitruvian Man -- a sort of ideal figure -- whose arm span is equal to his height -- a ratio of one, or 1:1.inspiredidealfigure heightratio

23 An artist can change the actual PROPORTION at any time. In this work by Michelangelo, he made Mary much larger than the body of Jesus. If Mary could stand up, she would be about nine feet tall! He did this so that she wouldnt look crushed by the weight of the body. The Pieta by Michelangelo

24 Examples of contemporary artwork with distorted PROPORTION

25 EMPHASIS A portion of a work that is dominant over the other parts The Focal Point is the first part of the work to attract the viewers attention.

26 EMPHASIS by Location In the Dining Room by Berthe Morisot The young woman appears to be in the center of this painting. A lot of times, we naturally look in the center of the picture first like we would with a photo or camera.

27 EMPHASIS by Contrast Rembrandt. Self- Portrait. c Oil on canvas. Rembrandt uses value contrast to create a focal point in this work. Only the head and the area immediately around it are painted in light values. The background sinks into darkness.

28 EMPHASIS by Convergence Baptism in Kansas By John Steuart Curry In this painting all the people are staring at the preacher and the girl. The viewer becomes one of the crowd and stares too.

29 EMPHASIS with the Unusual Time Transfixed, 1939 Artist: Rene Magritte ( ) Surrealist By placing very unusual objects or impossible activities in a work, an artist can also create a focal point.

30 CONTRAST or VARIETY Principle of Design concerned with difference or CONTRAST. An artwork which makes use of many different hues, values, lines, textures, and shapes would reflect the artist's use of variety.differenthuesvalues linestexturesshapes

31 CONTRAST or VARIETY Variety – how an artist adds interest to the artwork. May be created through use of transition and gradation. Transition moves the eye from one part of the work to the next. Gradations create illusions of space or distance.

32 This Art work contains different colors, shapes, and vegetables to make the picture more interesting.

33 Unity: the arrangement of the elements to create a coherent whole The elements work together to produce a sense of order.


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