2Lesson 1. The Mammalian Heart Applied GCE in ScienceUnit 3 Monitoring the activity of the human body
3Blood via vena cavaRight atriumTendons on tricuspid valveRight ventricleLeft ventricleLeft atriumBlood via pulmonary veinBlood via aortaBlood via pulmonary artery
4What is the cardiovascular system? What does our heart do?What is the cardiovascular system?The cardiovascular system:The heart- which is the pump supplying the force to propel the blood around the body.The blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), in which the blood is transported.The blood, which is the transport system for nutrients and other substances to and from the body organs and systems.
5What type of circulation do mammalian hearts have? In mammals, the blood leaving the lung capillaries is returned to the heart before being pumped to the rest of the body. Mammals have a double circulation, the blood passing twice through the heart in each complete circuit.Systemic circulation - oxygenated blood is pumped from the left side of the heart to the organs of the body, and the pulmonary circulation - in which deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right side of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
6Double circulatory system Because of this our circulatory system is in two parts. It is in fact called a double circulatory system.This section of the system including the right side of the heart, deals with the deoxygenated blood.LungsBody cellsThis section of the system including the left side of the heart, deals with the oxygenated blood.
8In this first lesson we are going to focus on the heart.. This is the pump at the centre of the circulatory system.Not all living organisms have hearts.Also, the shape of the heart can change, depending on what species you look at.
9Oxygenated blood is carried to the heart by the coronary arteries. The heart is made almost entirely of muscle. It is unlike any other muscle in your body because it never tires. And even though it is full of blood it still needs it own blood supply.Oxygenated blood is carried to the heart by the coronary arteries.Each side of the heart has two chambers.A top chamber or atrium andA bottom chamber or ventricleEach of these chambers has its own function.Look at the diagram on the next slide to see what that is.
10The heart Pulmonary artery Aorta Vena cava Pulmonary vein Name the 4 blood vessels?
11Do you notice anything different about the two sides of the heart? Well, the left ventricle wall is clearly thicker than the right ventricle wall.Why is this?To answer this question, think about where the blood is going when it leaves the right and left ventricles.
12lungsThis journey is far less demanding. The right ventricle only has to pump blood from the heart to the adjacent lungs.This journey is enormous. The left ventricle has to pump blood all over the body!body cellsTherefore, the left ventricle needs a thicker wall to generate a stronger ‘squeeze’ on the blood.
14Besides the chambers there is also another very important part of the heart – the valves. These valves are found between the top and bottom chambers on both sides of the heart.These valves are rather like doors that only open in one direction.bloodvalve
15As the atrium fills with blood, the valves are closed. When the atrium contracts and squeezes the blood, the valves are pushed open.These valves are connected to the side wall of the heart by tough tendons.These tendons allow the valves to close but not invert.
16valvetendonwall of ventricleThese tendons can be compared to an arm holding onto the handle of a door.
17When the door is closed the arm is fully extended. The arm bends as the door is opened.It would be impossible for the door to open in the other direction without the person moving with it.The tendon (represented by the arm) is held in a fixed position and therefore the valve (door) can only open in one direction.
18However, the valves remain firmly shut. The blood will naturally push against the valve.In this way, the blood can be moved from chamber to chamber quite efficiently.The valves prevent the blood from moving in the wrong direction.
19we also find valves here ...and here!These extra valves stop the blood from re-entering the heart when it is pumped from the ventricles.
20The blood ‘slaps’ against the valve and then passes along the artery. When the blood knocks against the first heart valves, it makes a ‘lub’ like sound.When the blood knocks against the second set of heart valves, it makes a ‘dub’ like sound.The blood ‘slaps’ against the valve and then passes along the artery.valveventriclearteryThese two sounds – lub and dub – are actually what we hear as our heartbeat. So our heartbeat is in fact the sound of the valves opening and closing.
21Now that we can name all of the parts of the heart it is time to see how they work to push blood around the body.The heart pumps blood when its muscle contracts. As the muscle contracts the chamber gets smaller and squeezes the blood out.The two sides of the heart work together. The atria contract and relax at the same time, as do the ventricles.The next two slides describe what occurs inside the heart during one heart cycle.
22blood from the bodyblood from the lungs1. The heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria.The atria then contract and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles.
23The staged cycle then repeats itself. The ventricles contract forcing the blood to leave the heart. At the same time, the atria are relaxing and once again filling with blood.The staged cycle then repeats itself.
25Activities to complete A.. Read through lesson 1 notes you have made (covers structure of heart).B. Use the internet or an A level Biology textbook to do the following:Describe the internal structure of the human heart mention all major blood vessels, valves and tendons.Describe in detail the cardiac cycle – labelled diagrams of atrial and ventricular systole and diastole.Look for a diagram and more information on the external structure of the heart and the structure of the cardiac muscle.