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Arquitetura da Internet atual Michael Stanton 22/8/2011.

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1 Arquitetura da Internet atual Michael Stanton 22/8/2011

2 Fontes V. Cerf, and R. Kahn, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 22, No. 5, May 1974, pp A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication Saltzer, Reed e Clark, End-To-End Arguments In System Design, ACM Transactions in Computer Systems 2, 4, November, 1984, pages End-To-End Arguments In System Design Clark, The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols, Proc. SIGCOMM 88, Computer Communication Review Vol. 18, No. 4, August 1988, pp. 106–114.The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols Carpenter, Architectural Principles of the Internet, RFC 1958, June 1996.Architectural Principles of the Internet Floyd, General Architectural and Policy Considerations, RFC 3426, November 2002.General Architectural and Policy Considerations

3 Cern e Kahn, 1974 A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication Define uma interrede – redes, interconectadas por gateways – um protocolo de interredes, chamado TCP, que inclui as funções de transporte confiável fim a fim entre sistemas Abstract A protocol that supports the sharing of resources that exist in different packet switching networks is presented. The protocol provides for variation in individual network packet sizes, transmission failures, sequencing, flow control, end-to-end error checking, and the creation and destruction of logical process-to- process connections. Some implementation issues are considered, and problems such as internetwork routing, accounting, and timeouts are exposed.

4 Saltzer, Reed e Clark, 1984 End to End Arguments in System Design Justificativa por separação de IP e TCP – adotada em 1978 (entre outros assuntos) Abstract: This paper presents a design principle that helps guide placement of functions among the modules of a distributed computer system. The principle, called the end-to-end argument, suggests that functions placed at low levels of a system may be redundant or of little value when compared with the cost of providing them at that low level. Examples discussed in the paper include bit error recovery, security using encryption, duplicate message suppression, recovery from system crashes, and delivery acknowledgement. Low level mechanisms to support these functions are justified only as performance enhancements.

5 Clark, 1988 The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols Primeira formulação pública de uma arquitetura Abstract. The Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP, was first proposed fifteen years ago. It was developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and has been used widely in military and commercial systems. While there have been papers and specifications that describe how the protocols work, it is sometimes difficult to deduce from these why the protocol is as it is. For example, the Internet protocol is based on a connectionless or datagram mode of service. The motivation for this has been greatly misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture some of the early reasoning which shaped the Internet protocols.

6 Carpenter, 1996 RFC1958: Architectural Principles of the Internet Abstract: The Internet and its architecture have grown in evolutionary fashion from modest beginnings, rather than from a Grand Plan. While this process of evolution is one of the main reasons for the technologys success, it nevertheless seems useful to record a snapshot of the current principles of the Internet architecture. This is intended for general guidance and general interest, and is in no way intended to be a formal or invariant reference model.

7 Carpenter 1996: mudança constante 1/2 In searching for Internet architectural principles, we must remember that technical change is continuous in the information technology industry. The Internet reflects this. Over the 25 years since the ARPANET started, various measures of the size of the Internet have increased by factors between 1000 (backbone speed) and (number of hosts). In this environment, some architectural principles inevitably change. Principles that seemed inviolable a few years ago are deprecated today. Principles that seem sacred today will be deprecated tomorrow. The principle of constant change is perhaps the only principle of the Internet that should survive indefinitely.

8 Carpenter 1996: mudança constante 2/2 The purpose of this document is not, therefore, to lay down dogma about how Internet protocols should be designed, or even about how they should fit together. Rather, it is to convey various guidelines that have been found useful in the past, and that may be useful to those designing new protocols or evaluating such designs. Some current technical triggers for change include the limits to the scaling of IPv4, the fact that gigabit/second networks and multimedia present fundamentally new challenges, and the need for quality of service and security guarantees in the commercial Internet.

9 Carpenter 1996: assuntos tratados Is there an Internet Architecture? General Design Issues Name and address issues External Issues Related to Confidentiality and Authentication

10 Carpenter 1996: existe uma arquitetura da Internet? the [Internet] community believes that the goal is connectivity, the tool is the Internet Protocol, and the intelligence is end to end rather than hidden in the network. The key to global connectivity is the inter-networking layer. The key to exploiting this layer over diverse hardware providing global connectivity is the "end to end argument". It is generally felt that in an ideal situation there should be one, and only one, protocol at the Internet level. It is also generally felt that end-to-end functions can best be realised by end-to-end protocols. Nobody owns the Internet, there is no centralized control, and nobody can turn it off. Its evolution depends on rough consensus about technical proposals, and on running code. Engineering feed- back from real implementations is more important than any architectural principles.

11 Carpenter 1996: princípios gerais do desenho 1/2 1.Heterogeneity is inevitable and must be supported by design. 2.If there are several ways of doing the same thing, choose one. 3.All designs must scale readily to very many nodes per site and to many millions of sites. 4.Performance and cost must be considered as well as functionality. 5.Keep it simple. When in doubt during design, choose the simplest solution. 6.Modularity is good. If you can keep things separate, do so. 7.In many cases it is better to adopt an almost complete solution now, rather than to wait until a perfect solution can be found. 8.Avoid options and parameters whenever possible. Any options and parameters should be configured or negotiated dynamically rather than manually.

12 Carpenter 1996: princípios gerais do desenho 2/2 9.Be strict when sending and tolerant when receiving. 10.Be parsimonious with unsolicited packets, especially multicasts and broadcasts. 11.Circular dependencies must be avoided. 12.Objects should be self decribing (include type and size), within reasonable limits. Only type codes and other magic numbers assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) may be used. 13.All specifications should use the same terminology and notation, and the same bit- and byte-order convention. 14.And perhaps most important: Nothing gets standardised until there are multiple instances of running code.

13 Carpenter 1996: nomes e endereços 1.Avoid any design that requires addresses to be hard coded or stored on non-volatile storage (except of course where this is an essential requirement as in a name server or configuration server). In general, user applications should use names rather than addresses. 2.A single naming structure should be used. 3.Public (i.e. widely visible) names should be in case-independent ASCII. Specifically, this refers to DNS names, and to protocol elements that are transmitted in text format. 4.Addresses must be unambiguous (unique within any scope where they may appear). 5.Upper layer protocols must be able to identify end-points unambiguously. In practice today, this means that addresses must be the same at start and finish of transmission.

14 Carpenter 1996: assuntos externos 1.Prefer unpatented technology, but if the best technology is patented and is available to all at reasonable terms, then incorporation of patented technology is acceptable. 2.The existence of export controls on some aspects of Internet technology is only of secondary importance in choosing which technology to adopt into the standards. All of the technology required to implement Internet standards can be fabricated in each country, so world wide deployment of Internet technology does not depend on its exportability from any particular country or countries. 3.Any implementation which does not include all of the required components cannot claim conformance with the standard. 4.Designs should be fully international, with support for localisation (adaptation to local character sets). In particular, there should be a uniform approach to character set tagging for information content.

15 Carpenter 1996: confidencialidade e autenticação 1.All designs must fit into the IP security architecture. 2.It is highly desirable that Internet carriers protect the privacy and authenticity of all traffic, but this is not a requirement of the architecture. Confidentiality and authentication are the responsibility of end users and must be implemented in the protocols used by the end users. 3.Wherever a cryptographic algorithm is called for in a protocol, the protocol should be designed to permit alternative algorithms to be used and the specific algorithm employed in a particular implementation should be explicitly labeled. Official labels for algorithms are to be recorded by the IANA. 4.In choosing algorithms, the algorithm should be one which is widely regarded as strong enough to serve the purpose. Among alternatives all of which are strong enough, preference should be given to algorithms which have stood the test of time and which are not unnecessarily inefficient. 5.To ensure interoperation between endpoints making use of security services, one algorithm (or suite of algorithms) should be mandated to ensure the ability to negotiate a secure context between implementations. Without this, implementations might otherwise not have an algorithm in common and not be able to communicate securely.

16 Floyd, 2002 RFC 3426: General Architectural and Policy Considerations Abstract: This document suggests general architectural and policy questions that the IETF community has to address when working on new standards and protocols. We note that this document contains questions to be addressed, as opposed to guidelines or architectural principles to be followed.

17 Floyd 2002: motivação This document is motivated in part by concerns about a growing lack of coherence in the overall Internet architecture. We have moved from a world of a single, coherent architecture designed by a small group of people, to a world of complex, intricate architecture to address a wide-spread and heterogeneous environment. Because individual pieces of the architecture are often designed by sub-communities, with each sub-community having its own set of interests, it is necessary to pay increasing attention to how each piece fits into the larger picture, and to consider how each piece is chosen. For example, it is unavoidable that each of us is inclined to solve a problem at the layer of the protocol stack and using the tools that we understand the best; that does not necessarily mean that this is the most appropriate layer or set of tools for solving this problem in the long-term.

18 Floyd 2002: objetivo In contrast [to Carpenter, 1996], this document serves a slightly different purpose, by suggesting additional architectural questions to be addressed. Thus, one question suggested in this document is the following: "Is this proposal the best long-term solution to the problem? If not, what are the long-term costs of this solution, in terms of restrictions on future development, if any?" This question could be translated to a roughly equivalent architectural guideline, as follows: "Identify whether the proposed protocol is a long-term solution or a short-term solution, and identify the long-term costs and the exit strategy for any short-term solutions.

19 Floyd 2002: questões sobre desenho Justifying the Solution: – Why are you proposing this solution, instead of proposing something else, or instead of using existing protocols and procedures? Interactions between Layers: – Why are you proposing a solution at this layer of the protocol stack, rather than at another layer? Are there solutions at other layers of the protocol stack as well? – Is this an appropriate layer in terms of correctness of function, data integrity, performance, ease of deployment, the diagnosability of failures, and other concerns? – What are the interactions between layers, if any? Long-term vs. Short-term Solutions: – Is this proposal the best long-term solution to the problem? – If not, what are the long-term costs of this solution, in terms of restrictions on future development, if any? What are the requirements for the development of longer-term solutions? The Whole Picture vs. Building Blocks: – Have you considered the larger context, while appropriately restricting your own design efforts to one part of the whole? – Are there parts of the overall solution that will have to be provided by other IETF Working Groups or by other standards bodies?

20 Floyd 2002: questões sobre avaliação 1/2 Weighing Benefits against Costs: – How do the architectural benefits of a proposed new protocol compare against the architectural costs, if any? Have the architectural costs been carefully considered? Robustness: – How robust is the protocol, not just to the failure of nodes, but also to compromised or malfunctioning components, imperfect or defective implementations, etc? – Does the protocol take into account the realistic conditions of the current or future Internet (e.g., packet drops and packet corruption; packet reordering; asymmetric routing; etc.)? Tragedy of the Commons: – Is performance still robust if everyone is using this protocol? Are there other potential impacts of widespread deployment that need to be considered? Protecting Competing Interests: – Does the protocol protect the interests of competing parties (e.g., not only end-users, but also ISPs, router vendors, software vendors, or other parties)?

21 Floyd 2002: questões sobre avaliação 2/2 Designing for Choice vs. Avoiding Unnecessary Complexity: – Is the protocol designed for choice, to allow different players to express their preferences where appropriate? At the other extreme, does the protocol provide so many choices that it threatens interoperability or introduces other significant problems? Preserving Evolvability? – Does the protocol protect the interests of the future, by preserving the evolvability of the Internet? Does the protocol enable future developments? – If an old protocol is overloaded with new functionality, or reused for new purposes, have the possible complexities introduced been taken carefully into account? – For a protocol that introduces new complexity to the Internet architecture, how does the protocol add robustness and preserve evolvability, and how does it also introduce new fragilities to the system? Internationalization: – Where protocols require elements in text format, have the possibly conflicting requirements of global comprehensibility and the ability to represent local text content been properly weighed against each other?

22 Floyd 2002: questão sobre implantação Is the protocol deployable?

23 Floyd 2002: conclusão This document suggests general architectural and policy questions to be addressed when working on new protocols and standards in the IETF. The case studies in this document have generally been short illustrations of how the questions proposed in the document have been addressed in working groups in the past. However, we have generally steered away from case studies of more controversial issues, where there is not yet a consensus in the IETF community. Thus, we side-stepped suggestions for adding a case study for IKE (Internet Key Exchange) as an possible example of a protocol with too much negotiation, or of adding a case study of network management protocols as illustrating the possible costs of leaving things to the marketplace to decide. We would encourage others to contribute case studies of these or any other issues that may shed light on some of the questions in this document; any such case studies could include a careful presentation of the architectural reasoning on both sides. We would conjecture that there is a lot to be learned, in terms of the range of answers to the questions posed in this document, by studying the successes, failures, and other struggles of the past.

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