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REPORTED BY: Xela Alexis S. Ibarra III - NEWTON

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Hydrostatics – it is the study of this branch of fluid mechanics. Pressure on the walls and dams, and buoyancy is the one it comprises the examination of forces on immersed bodies.

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Pressure – is a force exerted over an area and is measured in Pascals (Pa). The force acting on a surface divided by the area over which it acts. Formula: P(in Pa) = Force (in newtons) Area ( in m²)

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Pressure can be measured in various ways and it is found that the difference of unknown pressure and atmospheric pressure is the gauge pressure, whereas the true pressure called absolute pressure which includes atmospheric pressure. Formula: p = p gauge + p atm Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure

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1. The forces of fluids at rest exert on the walls of its container, and vice versa, and always act perpendicular to the walls. 2. An external pressure exerted on a fluid is transmitted uniformly throughout the volume of the fluid. This statement is known as Pascals Principle. A familiar example is the hydraulic jack. 3. The pressure on small surface in a fluid is the same regardless of the orientation of the surface.

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The pressure in a fluid becomes greater with increasing depth because of the weight of the overlaying material. Formula: Suppose we have a tank of height h and cross sectional area A that is filled with a fluid density p. V = Ah W = mg =(pV)g = pgAh

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The pressure p fluid the fluid that exerts on the bottom of the tank is its weight divided by the area of the bottom, with the result that, p fluid = F/A = w/A = pgh The total pressure within a fluid also depends on the pressure p external on its surface by atmosphere. Thus, p = p external + pgh

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It is also called atmospheric pressure. The downward pressure exerted by the weight of the overlying atmosphere. It has a mean value of one atmosphere at sea level but decreases as elevation increases. Barometer – is an instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure, which changes with your altitude and with the weather. It has a mercury pool which is under the pressure due to the air and will make a column of mercury whose height and weight pressure equal to the air pressure on the mercury pool.

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1. Dams – it generates electricity by releasing a controlled flow of high0-pressure water from a reservoir through a channel called the penstock. 2. Hydraulics – is the application of fluid mechanics to engineering devices involving liquids, usually water and oil. The hydraulic lift works on the principle that the effort to move something is the product of the force and the distance the object is moved.

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3. Pneumatic Machines – it is a robotic hand that is capable of performing delicate task of picking up and holding an egg without breaking it. A tactile array sensor sends information to the robot's control computer about the pressure the robotic hand exerts. 4. Blood Pressure check – it is checks through sphygmomanometer. An instrument used to measure blood pressure in an artery that consists of a pressure gauge, an inflatable cuff placed around the upper arm, and an inflator bulb or pressure pump.

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A Greek philosopher Archimedes discovered the relationship between buoyancy )tendency to float) and displaced liquid when he climbed into his bathtub. It is called the Archimedes Principle. Archimedes principle of Buoyancy – an immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

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Buoyant force = weight of displaced fluid F buoyant = weight of displaced fluid where F = pgV Buoyuancy in Water Sink : d block > d water Float : d block < d water Buoyancy in Air - the same buoyancy happens in the air. By heating the air and lowering the density in the balloon, the balloon floats in the unheated (more dense) air. Thats how the hot air balloon works.

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Archimedes’ and Pascal’s Principles. Archimedes' principle states that the apparent loss in weight of a body that is totally or partially immersed in.

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