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**Buoyancy, Density, and Water**

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**Properties of Fluids Overview: Archimedes’ Principle**

Pascal’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle Boyle’s Law

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Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume (usually measured in grams per milliliters, g/ml). Buoyancy is the upward force that a fluid exerts on an object less dense than itself.

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Q: How do ships float?

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**A: A greater force is pushing up on the ship than the weight force pushing down.**

This supportive force is called buoyant force.

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**If the buoyant force is equal to the object’s weight, it will float.**

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**If the buoyant force is less than the object’s weight, it will sink.**

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Bouyant force was explained by Archimedes and it became known as Archimedes’ Principle. Archimedes was a Greek mathematician who lived around the 3rd century B.C.

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Archimedes’ Principle states that an objects weight will cause the object to sink while at the same time displacing the fluid.

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**If the weight of the water displaced becomes equal to weight of the object, it floats.**

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**If the weight of the water displaced becomes less than the weight of the object, it sinks.**

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**Q: Why is this principle important?**

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A: Properties of fluids ultimately determine the design of ships, airplanes, cars, and hydraulic machines.

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**Water exerts pressure in all direction.**

Consider swimming in a pool. The deeper you go the more pressure you feel.

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**Pressure is a force exerted on an object per unit area.**

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**As you know pressure is not exclusive to liquids**

As you know pressure is not exclusive to liquids. The earth’s atmosphere exerts pressure all around you.

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Pascal’s Principle Pascal was a French scientists who lived in the 1600’s. He discovered a property of fluids now known as Pascal’s Principle.

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**According to Pascal’s Principle pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.**

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**For example when you squeeze a tube of toothpaste at one end, what happens?**

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**Pressure is transmitted throughout the fluid toothpaste.**

Why? Pressure is transmitted throughout the fluid toothpaste.

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**Calculating Forces Using Pascal’s Principle**

Pressure = Force/Area = F/A In a system, P1 = P2:: F1 = F2 A1 A2

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Pressure System

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**Bernoulli’s Principle**

As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.

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**Bernoulli’s Principle**

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Boyle’s Law As a gas is squeezed into a smaller space, its particles will strike the walls more often, increasing its pressure. The opposite is also true.

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**Calculating Pressure Using Boyle’s Law**

P1 V1 = P2 V2

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