2The following Heat Index Chart is for your information which shows how hot it really feels when the humidity is combined with the actual air temperature.Information obtained from National Weather Service and USAF
3Course Objectives Upon completion students will be able to: Identify the three methods the body uses to cool itself.Recognize three types of heat related illnesses.Name three hot weather mitigation factors.
4HOT WEATHER FACTSAccording to the National Safety Council, over 30,000 people died from heat related illnesses between 1936 and 2009.The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) report that approximately 400 people die each year from excessive natural heat.
5Two Ways Body Heat is Generated Metabolic Heat- heat generated by the body during the digestion of food and during exerciseEnvironmental Heat- this is the heat the body absorbs from the surrounding environment, whether it is the hot sun, a hot room or other sources heat
6How Our Bodies Accomplish Cooling Convection- the transfer of heat through the circulation of airRadiation- Heat is naturally emitted from the surface of our bodiesEvaporation-a process that occurs when liquid changes to a vapor
7Factors that Affect Our Cooling Systems Acclimation- when we adapt to the environment, “getting used to the heat”.Air Temperature- heat flows from warmer objects to cooler objects.Air Movement- moving air helps to speed up the evaporation process.Humidity- the amount of water vapor in the air affects the rate of evaporation.
8ContinuedClothing- the type of clothing affects the amount of heat our bodies absorb.
9Heat Related Health Issues Heat Rash- humidity prevents rapid evaporation, produces a rash which can cause severe pain. To minimize rest frequently, wash skin regularly.Heat Cramps- painful spasms from the loss of salt and electrolytes. Treat through electrolyte rich fluids promptly. This condition usually escalates to heat exhaustion quickly.
10ContinuedHeat Exhaustion- created a rapid loss of fluids through excessive sweating. Extreme weakness, nausea and headache. Clammy, moist skin, pale appearance and elevated body temperature. Immediately move to cooler place, apply cool compresses and provide fluids promptly.
11Health Issues Continued Heat Stroke- core temperature becomes so high that the body can no longer cool itself. Severe medical condition that can result in death. Victim may demonstrate irrational or confused behavior or become comatose. Hot dry skin, high pulse rate and falling blood pressure. Must be treated by immediately cooling the body with water, wet towels and trained medical attention.
12Preventive MeasuresAcclimation- become accustomed to the weather before exertion.Fluid Intake- Thirst is not an honest indicator of need. Maintain intake throughout activity.Diet- Light meals/ Snacks. Avoid heavy meals.Dress Lightly- Lightweight, light colored clothing. Loose fitting. Wide brimmed hats.Frequent Rest Periods- Pace your activity.
13RESOURCESCenters for Disease Control-www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheatFEMA- Incident Safety Officer,ISO Student ManualU.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services-drmanso.com/patient-guide/heat-prevention/