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Sep 2012 Lesson 4.9 Meteorology Weather Reports & Forecasts.

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Presentation on theme: "Sep 2012 Lesson 4.9 Meteorology Weather Reports & Forecasts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sep 2012 Lesson 4.9 Meteorology Weather Reports & Forecasts

2 Reference From the Ground Up Chapter & : Aviation Weather Reports & Forecasts Pages

3 Introduction Weather reports and forecasts tell what the weather is like and predict what it will be.Weather reports and forecasts tell what the weather is like and predict what it will be. This is very important, as pilots must check the weather before and during every flight.This is very important, as pilots must check the weather before and during every flight.

4 Outline Weather ReportsWeather Reports Weather ForecastsWeather Forecasts

5 Weather Reports Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) –Actual observation of current weather –Issued on the hour, every hour –Cloud heights are AGL (above ground) –Issued as a SPECI when a significant weather change occurs off the hour

6 METAR METAR CYYZ Z CCA 30015G25KT 3/4SM R33/4000FT/D -SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 VV010 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY33 RMK SF5 SC3 VIS 3/8 TO NW SLP134 METARReport name – METAR or SPECIMETARReport name – METAR or SPECI CYYZStation identifier – Toronto Pearson International AirportCYYZStation identifier – Toronto Pearson International Airport ZObservation date and time – Issued on the 29 th day of the month at 20:00 UTC292000ZObservation date and time – Issued on the 29 th day of the month at 20:00 UTC CCACorrected reportCCACorrected report 30015G25KTWind and gusts – 300 degrees true at 15 knots gusting to 25 knots30015G25KTWind and gusts – 300 degrees true at 15 knots gusting to 25 knots 3/4SMVisibility – ¾ statute mile3/4SMVisibility – ¾ statute mile R33/4000FT/DRunway visual range – Runway 33 has 4000 feet visibility with a downward tendencyR33/4000FT/DRunway visual range – Runway 33 has 4000 feet visibility with a downward tendency

7 METAR METAR CYYZ Z CCA 30015G25KT 3/4SM R33/4000FT/D -SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 VV010 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY33 RMK SF5 SC3 VIS 3/8 TO NW SLP134 -SN BLSNWeather – Light snow showers and blowing Snow-SN BLSNWeather – Light snow showers and blowing Snow BKN008 OVC040Sky condition – Clouds (and ceiling) are broken at 800 feet and also overcast at 4000 feetBKN008 OVC040Sky condition – Clouds (and ceiling) are broken at 800 feet and also overcast at 4000 feet VV010Vertical Visibility – 1000 feetVV010Vertical Visibility – 1000 feet M05/M08Temperature and dewpoint – Minus 5°C and dewpoint minus 8°CM05/M08Temperature and dewpoint – Minus 5°C and dewpoint minus 8°C A2992Altimeter setting – HgA2992Altimeter setting – Hg REFZRARecent weather – Freezing rainREFZRARecent weather – Freezing rain WS RWY33Wind shear – On runway 33WS RWY33Wind shear – On runway 33

8 METAR METAR CYYZ Z CCA 30015G25KT 3/4SM R33/4000FT/D -SN BLSN BKN008 OVC040 VV010 M05/M08 A2992 REFZRA WS RWY33 RMK SF5 SC3 VIS 3/8 TO NW SLP134 RMKRemarks:RMKRemarks: SF5Stratus Fractus covering 5 oktasSF5Stratus Fractus covering 5 oktas SC3Stratocumulus covering 3 oktasSC3Stratocumulus covering 3 oktas VIS 3/8 TO NWVisibility is statute mile to the northwestVIS 3/8 TO NWVisibility is statute mile to the northwest SLP 134Sea level pressure is hPaSLP 134Sea level pressure is hPa

9 Weather Codes Intensity and proximity:Intensity and proximity: –-Light –(no sign)Moderate –+Strong –VCWithin vicinity Descriptors:Descriptors: –MIShallow –BCPatches –DRDrifting –BLBlowing –SHShower(s) –TSThunderstorm –PRPartial –FZFreezing Precipitation:Precipitation: –DZDrizzle –RARain –SNSnow –SGSnow grains –PLIce pellets –GRHail –GSSnow pellets –ICIce crystals –UPUnknown precipitation (auto)

10 Weather Codes Obscuration:Obscuration: –HZHaze –FUSmoke –SASand –DUDust –FGFog –BRMist –VAVolcanic Ash Other phenomena:Other phenomena: –PODust/sand whirls –SSSandstorm –DSDuststorm –SQSqualls –FCFunnel cloud –+FCTornado/waterspout Sky condition (clouds):Sky condition (clouds): –CLRSky Clear (auto) –SKCSky Clear –FEWFew (1-2 oktas) –SCTScattered (3-4 oktas) –BKNBroken (5-7 oktas) –OVCOvercast (8 oktas) Note: The lowest BKN or OVC cloud layer is the ceiling

11 Weather Codes Cloud TypesCloud Types –CICirrus –STStratus –CSCirrostratus –SFStratus fractus –CCCirrocumulus –SCStratocumulus –ASAltostratus –CUCumulus –ACAltocumulus –CFCumulus fractus –ACCAltocumulus castellanus –TCUTowering cumulus –NSNimbostratus –CBCumulonimbus

12 METAR Examples:Examples: –METAR CYTZ Z AUTO 07007KT 5SM BR CLR 05/04 A3043 RMK SLP307 –SPECI CYBN Z AUTO 18006KT 5/8SM OVC001 02/02 A3042 –METAR CYKZ Z 07003KT 6SM BR OVC004 03/02 A3044 RMK ST8 VIS N LWR SLP316 –SPECI CYYZ Z 02002KT 3/4SM R05/P6000FT/D R06R/P6000FT/N BR OVC002 04/ RMK FG4ST4

13 Weather Forecasts Graphic Area Forecast (GFA)Graphic Area Forecast (GFA) –Prediction of upcoming weather –Issued four times a day, every six hours –Two types: Clouds and weatherClouds and weather Icing, turbulence and freezing levelIcing, turbulence and freezing level Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) –Prediction of upcoming weather –Issued four times a day, every six hours –Valid for up to 24 hours –Cloud heights are AGL (above ground)

14 GFA

15 GFA

16 TAF TAF AMD CYTZ Z 0316/0416 VRB03KT P6SM SCT030 TEMPO 0318/ KT 1/2SM FG VV002 FM SM BKN020 BECMG 0323/ KT OVC020 PROB /0413 2SM BR BKN015 RMK NXT FCST BY Z TAFReport name – Aerodrome forecastTAFReport name – Aerodrome forecast AMDReport has been amendedAMDReport has been amended CYTZStation identifier – Billy Bishop Toronto City AirportCYTZStation identifier – Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport ZObservation date and time – Issued on the 3 rd day of the month at 15:30 UTC031530ZObservation date and time – Issued on the 3 rd day of the month at 15:30 UTC 0316/0416Coverage period - Valid on 3 rd day of the month from 16:00 UTC until 16:00 UTC of following day0316/0416Coverage period - Valid on 3 rd day of the month from 16:00 UTC until 16:00 UTC of following day VRB03KTWind and gusts – Variable at 3 knotsVRB03KTWind and gusts – Variable at 3 knots P6SMVisibility – Plus 6 statute milesP6SMVisibility – Plus 6 statute miles

17 TAF TAF AMD CYTZ Z 0316/0416 VRB03KT P6SM SCT030 TEMPO 0318/ KT 1/2SM FG VV002 FM SM BKN020 BECMG 0323/ KT OVC020 PROB /0413 2SM BR BKN015 RMK NXT FCST BY Z SCT030Sky condition – Clouds scattered at 3000 feetSCT030Sky condition – Clouds scattered at 3000 feet TEMPO 0318/0319 Forecast change – Following conditions will occur between 18:00 and 19:00 UTC:TEMPO 0318/0319 Forecast change – Following conditions will occur between 18:00 and 19:00 UTC: 18005KTWinds 180 degrees at 5 knots18005KTWinds 180 degrees at 5 knots 1/2SM FGVisibility ½ statute mile due to fog1/2SM FGVisibility ½ statute mile due to fog VV002Vertical visibility – 200 feetVV002Vertical visibility – 200 feet FM From 21:00 UTC, the following will occur:FM From 21:00 UTC, the following will occur: 5SMVisibility 5 statue miles5SMVisibility 5 statue miles BKN020Clouds broken at 2000 feetBKN020Clouds broken at 2000 feet

18 TAF TAF AMD CYTZ Z 0316/0416 VRB03KT P6SM SCT030 TEMPO 0318/ KT 1/2SM FG VV002 FM SM BKN020 BECMG 0323/ KT OVC020 PROB /0413 2SM BR BKN015 RMK NXT FCST BY Z BECMG 0323/0401Between 23:00 and 01:00 UTC, becoming:BECMG 0323/0401Between 23:00 and 01:00 UTC, becoming: 19010KTWinds 190 degrees at 10 knots19010KTWinds 190 degrees at 10 knots OVC020Clouds overcast at 2000 feetOVC020Clouds overcast at 2000 feet PROB / percent probability that between 12:00 and 13:00 UTC, the following will occur:PROB / percent probability that between 12:00 and 13:00 UTC, the following will occur: 2SM BRVisibility 2 statute miles due to mist2SM BRVisibility 2 statute miles due to mist BKN015Clouds broken at 1500 feetBKN015Clouds broken at 1500 feet RMK NXT FCST BYRemarks – Next forecast by 22:00 UTC on the Z3 rd day of the monthRMK NXT FCST BYRemarks – Next forecast by 22:00 UTC on the Z3 rd day of the month

19 TAF Examples:Examples: –TAF CYTZ Z 1914/ KT 6SM BR SCT012 TEMPO 1914/1915 2SM BR BKN008 PROB /1915 1/2SM FG VV002 FM KT 6SM BR SCT240 TEMPO 1915/1916 3SM BR BKN009 FM KT P6SM FEW220 FM KT 6SM BR BKN120 BKN240 PROB /2014 2SM BR RMK FCST BASED ON AUTO OBS. NXT FCST BY Z –TAF AMD CYBN Z 1913/ KT 3/4SM BR VV001 BECMG 1914/1916 P6SM NSW SCT120 RMK FCST BASED ON AUTO OBS. NXT FCST BY Z

20 TAF Examples:Examples: –TAF AMD CYKZ Z 1914/1924 VRB03KT 11/2SM BR OVC003 TEMPO 1914/1915 3SM BR SCT004 FM KT 11/2SM BR BKN004 BECMG 1915/1916 6SM BR SCT240 RMK NXT FCST BY Z –TAF CYYZ Z 1915/ KT 2SM BR BKN004 BECMG 1915/1916 6SM BR SCT240 FM KT P6SM FEW220 FM KT 6SM BR BKN150 BKN240 PROB /2012 2SM BR RMK NXT FCST BY Z

21 Next Lesson 5.1 – Navigation Latitude & Longitude From the Ground Up Chapter 7.1: Latitude & Longitude Pages


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