2 Class 8 (Recap) and 9 - Weather & Weather Services, Beginning the Flight Plan -- scenario-based flight plans to include, self, weather, and performance considerationsE6B Day!
3 Objective: To finish the flight planning process from weather through charts, pilot calculations necessary for safe flight, and introduction to the E6B.
4 Weather Reports and Published Forecasts (DUATS) http://www.duats.com/
5 Weather Briefings by Phone (800-WX BRIEF) Good Morning, I’d like to get a STANDARD VFR briefing for AIRCRAFT n15FA, A Grumman Trainer, AA-1B, taking off out of KUNV (University Park) at 9AM EDT, to KJST, DIRECT, at 6500.
6 METARWinds reference TRUE NorthPeak Gusts are denoted by “G”Cloud Heights or visibility into an obscuration are reported with three digits in hundreds of feet. Visibility in Statute Miles (SM)CIG is the lowest broken or overcast obscuration in feet AGLVFR is 3 Miles vis, CIG 1000 or greater.RMK is Remarks considered significant to aviation operations.
9 PIREP - Pilot Reports:UASky = SK with the base and top.Wind Direction and Velocity are shown as “WV” and the direction, then speed. The last digit of the wind direction is dropped.Turbulence is “TB” followed by “SVR”, “MDT”, or “LGT”. With the altitude of the layerIcing is reported as “IC” followed by its intensity.
11 TAF’sValid for 24 hours, usually, but scheduled for 4 times a day. (00z, 06z, 12z and 18z)SHRA (rain showers) BECMG (becoming gradually) and the Zulu time. Or if sudden, (FM Zulu time)NSW = No Significant Weather.TAF utilizes the same descriptors and abbreviations as used in the METAR report.
12 (Refer to figure 14.) The intensity of the turbulence reported at a specific altitude is moderate at 5,500 feet and at 7,200 feet.moderate from 5,500 feet to 7,200 feet.light from 5,500 feet to 7,200 feet.
13 (Refer to figure 14.) The base and tops of the overcast layer reported by a pilot are 1,800 feet MSL and 5,500 feet MSL.5,500 feet AGL and 7,200 feet MSL.7,200 feet MSL and 8,900 feet MSL.
14 (Refer to figure 14.) If the terrain elevation is 1,295 feet MSL, what is the height above ground level of the base of the ceiling?505 feet AGL.1,295 feet AGL.6,586 feet AGL.
15 (Refer to figure 14.) The intensity and type of icing reported by a pilot is light to moderate.light to moderate clear.light to moderate rime.
16 (Refer to figure 14.) The wind and temperature at 12,000 feet MSL as reported by a pilot are 090° at 21 MPH and -9 °F.080° at 21 knots and -7 °C.090° at 21 knots and -9 °C.
17 (Refer to figure 15.) What is the valid period for the TAF for KMEM? 1200Z to 1200Z.1200Z to 1800Z.1800Z to 1800Z.
18 (Refer to figure 15.) In the TAF from KOKC, the clear sky becomes overcast at 2,000 feet during the forecast period between 2200Z and 2400Z.overcast at 200 feet with a 40 percent probability of becoming overcast at 600 feet during the forecast period between 2200Z and 2400Z.overcast at 200 feet with the probability of becoming overcast at 400 feet during the forecast period between 2200Z and 2400Z.
19 (Refer to figure 15.) During the time period from 0600Z to 0800Z, what visibility is forecast for KOKC?Greater than 6 statute miles.Possibly 6 statute miles.Not forecasted.
20 (Refer to figure 15.) The only cloud type forecast in TAF reports is Nimbostratus.Cumulonimbus.Scattered cumulus.
21 (Refer to figure 15.) Between 1000Z and 1200Z the visibility at KMEM is forecast to be? 1/2 statute mile.3 statute miles.6 statute miles.
22 First two digits represent the wind direction to true north First two digits represent the wind direction to true north. 2nd two are speed.Temps above 24,000 feet are assumed negativeWinds of 100 to 199 knots have a 50 added to the direction. (If wind direction is ABOVE 360, then subtract 50 to get the direction, and add 100 to the speed.)“Light and Variable” winds are coded as 9900 and less than 5 knots.
23 (Refer to figure 17.) What wind is forecast for STL at 9,000 feet? 230° true at 32 knots.230° true at 25 knots.230° magnetic at 25 knots.
25 WEATHER DEPICTION CHART details surface conditions as derived from METAR and other surface observations.Displays major fronts or areas of high and low pressure. Provides a graphic display of IFR, VFR, and MVFR (marginal VFR) weather.
26 Areas of IFR conditions(ceilings less than 1,000 feet and visibility less than 3 miles) are shown by a hatched area outlined by a smooth line. MVFR regions (ceilings 1,000 to 3,000 feet, visibility 3 to 5 miles) are shown by a non-hatched area outlined by a smooth line. Areas of VFR (no ceiling or ceiling greater than 3,000 feet and visibility greater than 5 miles) are not outlined.
27 (Refer to figure 18.) What weather phenomenon is causing IFR conditions in central Oklahoma? Low visibility only.Low ceilings and visibility.Heavy rain showers.
28 (Refer to figure 18.) The marginal weather in central Kentucky is due to low ceiling.visibility.ceiling and visibility.
29 (Refer to figure 18.) Of what value is the Weather Depiction Chart to the pilot? For determining general weather conditions on which to base flight planning.For a forecast of cloud coverage, visibilities, and frontal activity.For determining frontal trends and air mass characteristics.
30 (Refer to figure 18.) The IFR weather in northern Texas is due to intermittent rain.low ceilings.dust devils.
31 (Refer to figure 18.) What is the status of the front that extends from Nebraska through the upper peninsula of Michigan?Stationary.WarmCold.
32 (Refer to figure 18.) According to the Weather Depiction Chart, the weather for a flight from southern Michigan to north Indiana is ceilingsless than 1,000 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles.greater than 3, 000 feet and visibility greater than 5 miles.1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles.
34 RADAR SUMMARY CHART is a graphically depicted collection of radar weather reports (SDs). Published hourly at 35 minutes past the hour.Displays areas of precipitation as well as information regarding the characteristics of the precipitation.
35 • Precipitation Intensity • Height of Tops• Movement of Cells• Type of Precipitation(No Cloud Info!)
41 SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHARTS Significant Weather Prognostic Charts are available for low-level significant weather from the surface to FL240 (24,000 feet), also referred to as the 400 millibar level, and high-level significant weather from FL250 to FL600 (25,000 to 60,000 feet).
43 (Refer to figure 20.) Interpret the weather symbol depicted in Utah on the 12-hour Significant Weather Prognostic Chart.Moderate turbulence, surface to 18,000 feet.Thunderstorm tops at 18,000 feet.Base of clear air turbulence, 18,000 feet.
44 (Refer to figure 20.) How are Significant Weather Prognostic Charts best used by a pilot? For overall planning at all altitudes.For determining areas to avoid (freezing levels and turbulence).For analyzing current frontal activity and cloud coverage.
45 (Refer to figure 20.) At what altitude is the freezing level over the middle of Florida on the12-hour Significant Weather Prognostic Chart?4,000 feet.8,000 feet.12,000 feet.
46 (Refer to figure 20.) What weather is forecast for the Florida area just ahead of the stationary front during the first 12 hours?Ceiling 1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles with continuous precipitation.Ceiling 1,000 to 3,000 feet and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles with intermittent percipitation.Ceiling less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility less than 3 miles with continuous precipitation.
47 TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST (TWEB) A transcribed weather broadcast is a weather report transmitted continuously over selected navaids. On a sectional chart, a “T” in the upper right-hand corner of the navaid box indicates TWEB availability. TWEB weather usually consists of route-orientated data.
51 (Refer to figure 22, area 2.) Which airport is located at approximately 47° 39 minutes 30 seconds N latitude and 100° 53 minutes 00 seconds W longitude?Linrud.Crooked Lake.Johnson.
52 (Refer to figure 21, area 3.) Determine the approximate latitude and longitude of Currituck County Airport.36°24'N - 76°01'W.36°48'N - 76°01'W.47°24'N - 75°58'W.
53 Because a pilot may cross several time zones during a flight, a standard time system has been adopted. It is called Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) and is often referred to as Zulu time. UTC is the time at the 0°line of longitude which passes through Greenwich,
54 England. All of the time zones around the world are based on this reference.
55 To convert to this time, a pilot should do the following: Eastern Standard Time Add 5 hours Central Standard Time Add 6 hours Mountain Standard Time......Add 7 hours Pacific Standard Time Add 8 hoursFor daylight saving time, 1 hour should be subtracted from the calculated times.
61 (Refer to figure 22.) What is the estimated time en route from Mercer County Regional Airport (area 3) to Minot International (area 1)? The wind is from 330° at 25 knots and the true airspeed is 100 knots. Add 3-1/2 minutes for departure and climb-out.44 minutes.48 minutes.52 minutes.
63 (Refer to figure 26.) What is the estimated time en route for a flight from Denton Muni (area 1) to Addison (area 2)? The wind is from 200° at 20 knots, the true airspeed is 110 knots, and the magnetic variation is 7° east.13 minutes.16 minutes.19 minutes.
65 (Refer to figure 22.) An airship crosses over Minot VORTAC (area 1) at 1056 and over the creek 8 nautical miles south-southeast on Victor 15 at What should be the approximate position on Victor 15 at 1211?Over Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge.Crossing the road east of Underwood.Over the powerlines east of Washburn Airport.
66 (Refer to figure 22.) Determine the magnetic heading for a flight from Mercer County Regional Airport (area 3) to Minot International (area 1). The wind is from 330° at 25 knots, the true airspeed is 100 knots, and the magnetic variation is 10° east.002°.012°.352°.
67 (Refer to figure 25). Determine the magnetic course from Airpark East Airport (area 1) to Winnsboro Airport (area 2). Magnetic variation is 6°30'E.075°.082°.091°.
68 (Refer to figure 21.) Determine the magnetic course from First Flight Airport (area 5) to Hampton Roads Airport (area 2).141°.321°.331°.
69 (Refer to figure 21.) En route to First Flight Airport (area 5), your flight passes over Hampton Roads Airport (area 2) at 1456 and then over Chesapeake Municipal at At what time should your flight arrive at First Flight?1516.1521.1526.
70 (Refer to figure 23.) What is the magnetic heading for a flight from Priest River Airport (area 1) to Shoshone County Airport (area 3)? The wind is from 030° at 12 knots, and the true airspeed is 95 knots.118°.143°.136°.
71 (Refer to figure 23.) What is the estimated time en route from Sandpoint Airport (area 1) to St. Maries Airport (area 4)? The wind is from 215° at 25 knots, and the true airspeed is 125 knots.30 minutes.34 minutes.38 minutes.