Presentation on theme: "Proper Wear and Maintenance of Cold Weather Clothing and Equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Proper Wear and Maintenance of Cold Weather Clothing and Equipment Presenter’s NamePresenter’s CommandLocal Contact InformationIntroduce yourself and the topic of the class.Ensure all soldiers understand that this is mandatory annual training.Prepared by:U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine(800) / DSN /(410)
2 Introduction Cold makes tasks more difficult, not impossible Prevention of cold injuries is a Command ResponsibilityALL COLD WEATHER INJURIES ARE PREVENTABLE!!!While cold makes military tasks more difficult, it does not make them impossible. Viewing cold as a challenge to be overcome is the key to the positive attitude required to successfully complete the mission. The purpose of this presentation is to describe how the environmental conditions stress soldier health and performance during cold weather operations, and to explain ways of overcoming that stress.The four essential requirements for survival in cold environments are:warmth, food, water, shelter.
3 Outline Susceptibility Factors Types of Cold Weather Injuries Guidance for Cold Weather OperationsClothing and EquipmentFood/WaterPersonal HygieneWork PracticesConclusion
4 Is This You? Male E-4 or below Approximately 20 years old From a warm climateLess than 18 months time in serviceUses tobacco, alcohol or medicationsNeglects proper foot careThe typical cold weather injury casualty is a male approximately 20 years old at the rank of E-4 or below. They are usually from a warm climate and are not acclimated to cold weather and not prepared to survive in those conditions. Soldiers who use alcohol, tobacco or medication could have impaired judgment and miss early warning signs of cold injuries.
5 Susceptibility Factors Previous cold weather injuryInadequate nutritionAlcohol, caffeine, nicotineDehydrationOveractivity/UnderactivityLong exposure to the coldPoor clothing and equipSick or injuredAcclimatizationEthnic/geographic originWind, cold, rainAgeDisciplinePhysical staminaInadequate trainingAnyone from a general to a private can get a cold weather injury if the conditions are right. However, some soldiers are more susceptible than others. Soldiers who have had a cold injury in the past are much more likely to develop a cold injury sooner, or a more severe cold injury in the future.Adequate nutrition is required to fuel your body’s metabolism to produce heat. Generally calories per day is sufficient. More calories are required when working in a cold environment than when in garrison.Dehydration will cause the body’s natural defense mechanisms to fail and cause the soldier to be much more susceptible to cold injuries, especially hypothermia.Overactivity can lead to sweating and wet clothing which can create conditions for immersion syndrome or hypothermia.Underactivity can lead to decreased body heat production.Sick or injured individuals will have lowered defense mechanisms and might also be slower to recognize cold injury symptoms due to existing injuries
7 Guidance for Cold Weather Operations Clothing and Equipmentyour 1st line of defenseFood and Water RequirementsPersonal Hygiene and Field SanitationWork Practices
8 Clothing PrinciplesInsulatation allows the creation of a microclimate around the body through which the amount of body heat lost to the environment can be regulated.Layering allows adding or removing layers of clothing in order to regulate the amount of heat lost or retained.Ventilation helps maintain a comfortable microclimate around the body. Allows the release of excess heat and minimizes sweating which can lower body temperature later as it evaporates.There are 4 ways to apply the principles in the military cold weather clothing system:Keep it Clean: change clothes as often as possible, wash clothes, brush of/shake out clothes when unable to wash, make repairs to retain warmth, replace unserviceable items. Dirt and grease clog the air spaces in clothing and reduce the insulating effect.Avoid Overheating: dress for conditions/mission, open clothing to provide ventilation, remove clothing as necessary to prevent perspiration.Wear it Loose and Layered: avoid tight or constrictive clothing, adjust equipment to prevent it from tightening clothing, use drawstrings to trap air between layers. The field jacket may appear too large when worn w/o all of the layers designed to fit under it.Keep it Dry: avoid water on clothing as mission permits, prevent perspiration, use wet weather gear to repel water. Wet clothing conducts heat away from the body. Moisture can soak into clothing from two directions; from melting snow and frost that has collected on the outside of the clothing, and from perspiration. Be sure to brush snow and frost from clothing before entering heated shelters or vehicles.
9 Extended Cold Weather Clothing System (ECWCS) Do you wear it well?Polypropylene undershirt/drawersField liner coat/trousersGore-tex coat/trousersCold weather bootsHandwear and accessoriesECWCS is an insulated layering system designed to reduce the cumbersome weight of the old cold weather clothing systems while maintaining adequate environmental protection between 40oF and -60oF. The user may add or remove clothing layers to suit conditions and individual preferences. Synthetic fibers and innovative fabric constructions allow moisture, the prime conductor of the cold to the skin, to be removed quickly and efficiently from the system.Layer 1: Polypropylene undershirt and drawers, with standard wool socks (two sock system is preferred with a thin liner sock and a heavier wool outer sock)Layer 2: Bib overall, cold weather shirt and trouser linerLayer 3: Coat liner and field trousersLayer 4: Extended cold weather camouflage parka and trousersLayer 5: Snow camouflage parka and trousers (overwhites)
10 ECWCS: Inner Layer Polypropylene Expedition Weight Underwear Primary wicking layerWorn directly next to the skin – no underwear!Zippered turtleneck for ventilationTemp range +40oF to -60oF
11 ECWCS: Intermediate Layer Polyester Fleece (Fiberpile) Jacket and Bib Overall (smoking jacket)Primary insulation layerHigh backed bibQuick release suspendersTemp range +40oF to -60oF(not issued at all installations )
12 ECWCS: Intermediate Layer Cold Weather Coat and Trouser Field LinersPolyester dumbell quilted battingSecondary insulation layer for extreme temperaturesTemp range +40oF to -60oF
13 ECWCS: Outer LayerGore-tex Jacket and Trousers (parka, extended cold weather camouflage)Provides water repellency and wind resistanceArmpit zippers for ventilationWindbarrier layer around waistTemp range +40oF to -60oF
14 ECWCS Protects between +40oF to -60oF Draws perspiration away from skin and repels water to outer layer for evaporationChanges with wearer’s needsNo cotton or wool! (includes BDUs)
15 FootwearIntermediate Cold Wet Boot (ICWB) or Boots, Extreme Cold Weather Type 1waterproof, breathable leather with Gore-Tex liner and Thinsulate thermal insulationdesigned to keep water out, but can also keep dampness in(Matterhorn/Rockies)1 pr nylon/cotton/wool socksprotects +40oF to -20oF
16 Footwear The Extreme Cold Weather Boot (Vapor Barrier-VB) wear when -20°F or below; protects to -40oF inactivity and - 60oF activityinsulation consists of wool felt sealed with an outer and inner layer of rubberensure airvalve is closedtrousers bloused over boots1 pr wool cushion sockType II, (White) Boot
17 Handwear Light-duty leather glove with wool/nylon liner provides inactive person with 30 minutes of protection from frostbite at 0oFnot waterproof; temp range +40oF to -20oF
18 Handwear Mitten inserts and shells (Trigger Finger) 0oF or below or if more than 30 minutes of inactive exposure ; temp range +40oF to -60oFcan use trigger finger w/o inserts while firing with M16do not touch cold metal, POLs with bare handsMitten set, extreme cold weatheradjustable strap and bucklewool piletemp range +40oF to -60oF
19 Headwear Balaclava Pile cap Neck gaiter Wool scarf 70-80% of lost body heat escapes through the headWhen wearing kevlar, wear pile cap or balaclava underneathHood combat vehicle crewman’s (balaclava)temp range +40oF to -60oF
20 Clothing/Equipment Problems Malfunctions occur more often during cold-weatherMoisture from sweat or breathing can become trapped in clothing or sleeping bagsminimize overdressingremove clothing layers upon entering heated areas or during strenuous physical activitydry clothing by hanging in the tentWhen drying wet clothing:hang items separately, do not place too close to stove or over steaming pots, do not place wet clothing in sleeping bag which can transfer moisture from clothing to sleeping bag.Small damp items can be placed in the sleeping bag; they’ll dry by morning. You can hang damp items on the back of a rucksack while on the march. If the temp is below freezing, items will freeze and they still may dry through the process of sublimation if the humidity is low. Small damp articles can be put close to the body so body heat can dry the items.
21 Clothing/Equipment Problems Restricted visibility: cold eyeglasses, goggles, and eyepiece sights fog over easily when warm, moist breath passes over them or when coming in from cold to warm areasDepth perception is reduced at 0oF and below. Visual acuity is reduced at -20oF and below or windspeed is over 20 mph.compensate by increasing vigilance and slowing downuse antifogging compounds on eyeglasses and goggles
22 Clothing/Equipment Problems Loss of manual dexterity from wearing gloves and mittensLightweight polypro glove liners can be wornDo not blow warm breath into glovesMetal can be dangerous to touch (contact frostbite)Moisture will condense on cold metal exposed to heatif weapons are brought inside, they should be covered and placed near the floor to minimize condensationclean and dry the weapon after it warms and before returning to cold
23 Sleeping Equipment Modular Sleeping Bag System (MSBS) camouflage, water resistant, breathable bivy coverlightweight patrol sleeping bagintermediate cold weather sleeping bagcompression stuff sack (to store and carry the system)system provides extreme cold weather protection to -50° F
24 Sleeping Equipment Use sleeping bag on top of insulated sleeping mat Layers of tree boughs or mats under the sleeping bag help prevent heat loss to the groundShake out sleeping bag before using to add air to the lining, which improves its insulationAir out sleeping bag daily to evaporate moistureInsulated sleeping mat provides excellent insulation from the cold ground or snow when used with the sleeping bag. It is also useful for sentries and soldiers in ambush positions who must remain prone for extended periods.
25 Sleeping EquipmentIn tents, sleep in long underwear and socks with all other clothing hung up to dryIn improvised shelters, only boots and outermost clothing layer should be removed. Place clothing under the sleeping bag where it can add insulation without accumulating moisture from the body.Wear a balaclava while sleeping to protect the ears, neck, and faceDO NOT put head inside sleeping bag since moisture from the breath can accumulateArctic mittens can be worn on the feet while inside the sleeping bagNo sleeping in running vehicles
26 Load-Carrying Equipment Small external pocketsuse for small, high energy foods to be eaten on the moveLarge external pocketsuse for rations for morning and evening meals, extra socks, scarf, spare capExternal attachment pointsattach sleeping mat to the bottom or under the top flapMain compartmentpack sleeping bag at bottom, use upper half for spare clothes, where they can be easily reached
27 Special Considerations for Tents, Heating, Ventilation Precautions associated with use of stoves/heatersTrain soldiers to set up, light, refuel, and maintainFireguards posted when in useKeep stove pipe cleanEnsure ventilation within the tentRemove snow from ground before tents set upNo unvented kerosene heaters in sleeping tentsProvide carbon monoxide training
28 Water Consumption 5-6 quarts of water/day Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcoholHot juice or soupProtect water from freezingIn emergency, melt snow and purify before drinkingDark, yellow urine is first sign of dehydration3-4 quarts per day minimumSoldiers operating in cold environments lose between 3.5 and 5 quarts of fluid per day, depending on level of exertion.Between meal snacks should be based on a hot drink with plenty of sugar.Always have a stove and fuel available to make “emergency water” in the event the primary sources dries up or freezes.Melting and purifying sufficient snow or ice for beverages may take minutes. Designate areas from which ice or snow will be taken for water production, well away from and upwind of latrine and garbage disposal areas.Discourage soldiers from eating snow or ice; it may reduce body temp and can result in painful cracking of lips, making them vulnerable to infection.The perceived warming effects of alcoholic beverages are illusory and are brought about by a quick release of internal body heat through increased circulation of the blood to the surface of the skin. This temporary feeling of warmth is soon lost, leaving the soldier much colder than before. It also promotes dehydration.
29 Water ConsumptionPlastic canteen, when filled with water, will freeze quicklycarry canteen in interior uniform pocket or wrapped in clothing and placed in packDo not fill canteen over 2/3 full to allow for expansion should ice formInsulated canteen, 1 quartTrain soldiers to refill their canteens regularly, and to carry one canteen close to the body.
30 Food Consumption Caloric intake increases 25-50% Calories needed moderate exertion caloriesextreme exertion calories4 standard MREs per day3 MREs = 3600 caloriesPlan for hot chow, warm beverages or heat MREThe greater portion of what we eat and drink maintains our body heat, while only a small proportion is used to produce energy for physical work.Standard MRE provides 1,223 calories. They contain liquids which may freeze in cold weather. Soldiers should carry the indiv, liquid containing food items in their shirt pockets inside their ECWCS parka.
31 Food Consumption Frequently snack throughout the day Carry emergency rationsEat large snack at night to keep warmer during sleep and prevent shiveringSnacks: trail mix, cookies, candy
32 Personal Hygiene Change socks 2-3 times daily Brush teeth daily Change underwear at least twice weeklyKeep clothes cleanWash hands, feet, face, groin daily (canteen baths or handy wipes)Shave at evening if possibleShave, if necessary, at night in the shelter so that facial oils stripped during shaving will be replenished overnight before the face is again exposed to the elements.Brush teeth daily. If a toothbrush is not available, chew the end of a twig into a make-shift brush. If a twig is not available, salt on a fingertip can suffice if applied gently.Change socks as often as needed to keep the feet dry. Use foot powder as a dry rub to clean and dry the feet. Apply powder on feet and between toes. Remove excess. Do not put powder in socks; extra powder may cake and hasten the onset of blisters.
33 Individual Cold Weather Survival Kit Waterproof matches and fire starters (candles)Signaling devices (mirror, whistle)KnifePressure bandage, lip balm, sunglassesWater container (metal for use in fire)CompassEmergency rations (MREs, trail mix)Foil survival blanket5 m of strong nylon cordSmall flashlight
34 Work Practices Proper cold weather training for acclimatization Practice performing duties while wearing cold weather clothingEnsure cold weather clothing is in proper working conditionFeet, hands, exposed skin must be kept dryMaintain proper hydration, nutritionMinimize periods of inactivity
35 Work Practices Command emphasis on education and training Appropriate use of weather data, especially the wind-chill factorLiberal use of sick callProvide time and locations for thorough warming and clothing changesUse Field Sanitation Teams and buddy checks to prevent cold injuriesCommand emphasis is the key to cold weather injury prevention. Without leaders enforcing prevention measures, soldiers will fall victim to the menacing cold. Wind chill temperatures are widely reported by television and radio meteorologists, but they really only estimate the danger of cooling the exposed flesh of inactive persons. Windproof clothing greatly reduces windchill effects. Rather than cancel outdoor training at some arbitrary temperature limit, training should be modified and safety surveillance should be increased as the weather becomes more severe and the danger of tissue freezing increases. Use the wind chill index chart located in the back of Fort Drum Pam 40-5 to accurately modify the training schedule. During cold weather training soldiers should be allowed to use sick call whenever they feel they are experiencing any cold weather injury symptom. Early detection is the key to preventing serious, life-threatening injuries. By providing warming tents and hot beverages, leaders can ensure that soldiers are tasking the time to keep their bodies warm. Most importantly, soldiers need to know how to recognize, treat and prevent cold weather injuries. Knowledge is power in cold weather injury prevention.
36 Conclusion Dress properly Drink plenty of fluids Eat right Keep in shapeGet plenty of restMinimize periods of inactivity in coldMaintain a positive attitudeThe US Army has two different clothing systems in the inventory for issue to troops operating in cold weather conditions: a Cold/Wet-Cold/Dry Clothing System (FM 31-70) and an Extended Cold Weather Clothing System (FM 21-15) Soldiers regularly stationed in cold weather regions are usually issued the ECWCS which protects from 40 degrees to -60 degrees. The ECWCS consists of 5 layers: polypropylene underwear, a polyester fiberpile shirt and bib overalls, polyester coat liner and nylon/cotton field pants, nylon/GORE-Tex laminate parka and trousers, and white nylon/cotton overgarments (parka and trousers). The inner layers are made of fabrics which draw perspiration away from the skin. Either the cold weather vapor barrier boot (Type I) or the extreme cold weather vapor barrier boot (Type II) can be worn with one pair of nylon/cotton/wool socks (OG-106).
37 Reference MaterialsTechnical Note No Sustaining Health and Performance in the Cold: Environmental Medicine Guidance for Cold-Weather OperationsTC 21-3 Soldier’s Handbook for Individual Operations and Survival in Cold-Weather AreasFM Basic Cold Weather ManualFM Field Hygiene and SanitationFM First Aid for SoldiersFD Pam 40-5 Win in the Heat and Cold: Climatic Injury Prevention Guide
39 Office of Safety Management - Leading The Way In Force Protection LEADER’S GUIDETO PREVENTION OF COLD INJURIES DUE TO EXPOSURE TO TEMPERATURES BELOW 500 FINFORMATION ON THIS CARD IS PROVIDED TO ASSIST LEADERS IN RISK DECISION MAKING AND CONTROL DEVELOPMENT AS PART OFTHE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS. RISK DECISIONS AND CONTROLS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED FOR ALL TRAINING. LEADERS MUSTENSURE THAT THESE RISK DECISIONS/CONTROLS ARE IMPLEMENTED INTO UNIT TRAINING PLANS AND THAT TRAINING IS SUPERVISED.RECOMMENDATIONSMINIMUM UNIFORMOTHER FACTORSWIND CHILLCATEGORY(SEE REVERSE)FIELDUNIFORMPT UNIFORMOFFDUTY ACTIVITIESPOLY PRO (T& B)ECWCS** (T&B)BALACLAVATRIGGER FINGERMITTENSGORE-TEX BOOTS*PFUSWEATSBLACK KNIT CAPBLACK GLOVESW/INSERTSCOATHATEAR PROTECTIONGLOVESBOOTS-- INCREASE LEADERSURVEILLANCE--. NO FACIAL CAMOUFLAGE-- INCREASE HYDRATION.-- PROVIDE WARM-UP AREASWITH HOT DRINKS, ETC.-- SKIN COVERED AND DRYLITTLEDANGERPOLY PRO (T& B)COAT &TROUSERLINERSECWCS** (T&B)BALACLAVA/PILECAPECW MITTENSBOOTS ECW (TYPE I)PFUSWEATSPOLY PRO (T&B)BALACLAVATRIGGER FINGERMITTENSCOATHATEAR PROTECTIONGLOVESBOOTS-- RESTRICT NON-ESSENTIALOUTDOOR TRAINING.-- LOW ACTIVITY: MINWORK CYCLE.-- SEDENTARY ACTIVITY: 15-20 MIN WORK CYCLE.-- USE BUDDY SYSTEM.-- NO EXPOSED SKININCREASINGDANGERPOLY PRO (T& B)SHIRT, COLD WXTROUSER LINERECWCS** (T&B)BALACLAVA/PILECAPECW MITTENSBOOTS ECW (TYPEII)PFUSWEATSPOLY PRO (T&B)BALACLAVATRIGGER FINGERMITTENSHEAVY COATLONGUNDERWEARHAT & SCARFMITTENSCW BOOTS-- CONSIDER INDOOR TNG.-- HIGH INTENSITY ACTIVITY:<15 MIN WORK CYCLE.-- CONSIDER CANCELINGLOW OR SEDENTARYACTIVITY OUTDOOR TNG-- COVER ALL EXPOSED SKINGREATDANGER* GORE-TEX BOOTS = Matterhorn/Rocky Mountain/or similar GORE-TEX insulated leather boots** ECWCS = Extended Cold Weather Clothing System (GORE-TEX)Office of Safety Management - Leading The Way In Force Protection
40 WET SKIN COULD SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASE THE TIME FOR FROSTBITE TO OCCUR WIND CHILL TEMPERATUREWET SKIN COULD SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASE THE TIME FOR FROSTBITE TO OCCUR