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How Is math used in Meteorology? By: Jane Doe

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What exactly is meteorology? METEOROLOGY:The science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather conditions METEOROLOGY:The science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather conditions

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Where Does the math Come in play when studying meteorology? Where Does the math Come in play when studying meteorology?

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Its All About Equations… To predict the weather, meteorologists have sets of equations based on the lands geography and starting weather conditions. With this information they can calculate future forecast by entering it into a computer to be processed. The longer the time predicted, the less accurate your prediction will be.

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Example of a 7 day week Forecast…

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Math helps us Organize *CHALLENGE*: *CHALLENGE*: What math skills are used in meteorology? Mathematical equations allows us to combine, average, and solve information. Mathematical equations allows us to combine, average, and solve information. Using equations, geometry, estimating, charts, graphs, and scales we can find answers to weather concerns. Weather and math go hand in hand…. Using equations, geometry, estimating, charts, graphs, and scales we can find answers to weather concerns. Weather and math go hand in hand….

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Numerical Modeling Numerical Modeling Numerical Modeling: The process of obtaining an objective forecast of the future state of the atmosphere by solving a set of equations that describe the evolution of variables. Numerical Modeling: The process of obtaining an objective forecast of the future state of the atmosphere by solving a set of equations that describe the evolution of variables. For example: For example:*Temperature *Wind Speed *Humidity*Pressure All of which describe the atmosphere.

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Still Dont get numerical Modeling? Its OK! Numerical modeling is done through a computer. The equations of numerical modeling are extremely difficult. Its OK! Numerical modeling is done through a computer. The equations of numerical modeling are extremely difficult. All YOU need to know All YOU need to know is ….. Numerical modeling starts with analyzing the current state of the atmosphere. Conditions are found under the numerical models of the atmosphere which are all based in the same set of governing equations.

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Classifying with geometry Classifying with geometry Depending on how high a cloud is, classifies it as a certain kind of cloud. Depending on how high a cloud is, classifies it as a certain kind of cloud. Altitude:The height of a thing above a reference level, especially above sea level or above the earth's surface. Altitude:The height of a thing above a reference level, especially above sea level or above the earth's surface. Mathematics. The perpendicular distance from the base of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex, parallel side, or parallel surface. Mathematics. The perpendicular distance from the base of a geometric figure to the opposite vertex, parallel side, or parallel surface. Low clouds: Stratus (dull gray,usually overcast, associated with steady precipitation). Some other species of low clouds include nimbostratus, cumulus, stratocumulus, mamatocumulus. Low clouds: Stratus (dull gray,usually overcast, associated with steady precipitation). Some other species of low clouds include nimbostratus, cumulus, stratocumulus, mamatocumulus. Middle clouds: Begin with the prefix alto. Examples include altocumulus, altostratus. Middle clouds: Begin with the prefix alto. Examples include altocumulus, altostratus. High clouds: Cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus. Usually appear "feathery". High clouds: Cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus. Usually appear "feathery".

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Estimating Estimating One of the most important techniques for making a forecast is to use weather maps to estimate One of the most important techniques for making a forecast is to use weather maps to estimate You may estimate the speed of movement of air masses, fronts, and high and low pressure systems You may estimate the speed of movement of air masses, fronts, and high and low pressure systems Meteorologists have to adjust the forecast for differences in Meteorologists have to adjust the forecast for differences in*latitude, * possible acceleration/deceleration * intensification/deintensification of storm systems, *and local effects (such as topography, bodies of water, and the urban heat island effect ) All of these things are measured and located on………….. All of these things are measured and located on…………..

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Charts and Graphs Charts and Graphs Maps are used to locate a place in which the meteorologist is going to forecast the weather for. They also show Highs and Lows, pressures, Intensities, and Humidity. Graphing is used here. Graphing is used here. Some maps used in meteorology would include: *Geographical Map *Temperature map *Pressure map *Humidity map *Precipitation map *Forecast High and Low temperature maps

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Scales Scales Analyzing past and current weather is a huge part in Making a hypothesis for the next weather forecast. Analyzing past and current weather is a huge part in Making a hypothesis for the next weather forecast. Meteorologists must use past information and the weather conditions it took place in, to figure it out. Meteorologists must use past information and the weather conditions it took place in, to figure it out. An easy way to organize that information is with Scales. An easy way to organize that information is with Scales.

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What kinds of scales are there? There are many kinds of scales to organize weather conditions. Here are a few…. There are many kinds of scales to organize weather conditions. Here are a few…. Synoptic scale:Deals with Air masses, fronts, and pressure systems Synoptic scale:Deals with Air masses, fronts, and pressure systems Mesoscale: Deals with effects of topography, bodies of water, the urban heat island, etc. Mesoscale: Deals with effects of topography, bodies of water, the urban heat island, etc.

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Example of a : Weather Scale

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Reading temperatures and Pressures Being able to read the temperatures and pressures is key to organizing weather material. Being able to read the temperatures and pressures is key to organizing weather material. You may have to measure, temperature, water, and air on many types of scales. Chance of Precipitation 20% 0% 20% 40% 30% 20% 10% Wind Speed

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Thermometer Thermometer Thermometer: An instrument for measuring temperature, especially one having a graduated glass tube with a bulb containing a liquid, typically mercury or colored alcohol, that expands and rises in the tube as the temperature increases.

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Hydrometer Hydrometer Hydrometer: An instrument, (various ways to construct) used for measuring the velocity or discharge of water, as in rivers, from reservoirs,from clouds to earth, etc., and called by various specific names.

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Hydrometry Hydrometry Hydrometry is measuring water. Its the science that deals with how much water air can hold at a given temperature and pressure. Hydrometry is measuring water. Its the science that deals with how much water air can hold at a given temperature and pressure. It is the probability of clouds, fog, and rain. NO absolute Humidity, just relative.

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Concluding math and meteorology…

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Bibliography Bibliography The Weather Companion, Gary Lockhart, Copyright 1988 The Weather Companion, Gary Lockhart, Copyright ast_contest ast_contest ast_contest ast_contest meteormath.html meteormath.html meteormath.html meteormath.html MathSciGateway/meteorology.asp MathSciGateway/meteorology.asp

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