Presentation on theme: "11 -1 Quality Costs and Productivity: Measurement, Reporting, and Control CHAPTER."— Presentation transcript:
11 -1 Quality Costs and Productivity: Measurement, Reporting, and Control CHAPTER
Identify and describe the four types of quality costs. 2.Prepare a quality cost report and explain the difference between the conventional view of acceptable quality level and the view espoused by total quality control. 3.Tell why quality cost information is needed and how it is used. 4.Explain what productivity is, and calculate the impact of productive changes on profits. ObjectivesObjectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
11 -3 Quality Defined A quality product or service is one that meets or exceeds customer expectations...
11 -4 Quality Defined … on the following eight dimensions: Performance Aesthetics Serviceability Features Reliability Durability Quality of conformance Fitness for use
11 -5 Quality Defined … on the following eight dimensions: Performance Aesthetics Serviceability Features Reliability Durability Quality of conformance Fitness for use How consistently and well a product functions The appearance of tangible products (style, beauty) Measures the ease of maintaining and/or repairing the product Characteristics of a product that differentiate functionally similar products The probability that the product or service will perform its intended function for a specified length of time
11 -6 Quality Defined … on the following eight dimensions: Performance Aesthetics Serviceability Features Reliability Durability Quality of conformance Fitness for use The length of time a product functions A measure of how a product meets its specifications The suitability of the product for carrying out its advertised functions
11 -7 Quality Defined A defective product is one that does not conform to specifications.
11 -8 Quality Defined Zero defects means that all products conform to specifications.
11 -9 Quality Defined The definition of quality-related activities imply four categories of quality costs: 1)Preventive costs 2)Appraisal costs 3)Internal failure costs 4)External failure costs Incurred to prevent poor quality or services being produced Incurred to determine whether products and services conform to requirements Incurred when products and services do not conform to specifications Incurred when products and services fail to conform to requirements after being delivered
Examples of Quality Costs Prevention costs Quality engineering Quality training programs Quality planning Quality reporting Supplier evaluation and selection Quality audits Quality circles Field trials Design reviews
Examples of Quality Costs Appraisal Costs Inspection of raw materials Testing of raw materials Packaging inspection Supervising appraisal Product acceptance Process acceptance Inspection of equipment Testing equipment Outside endorsements
Cost of recalls Lost sales Returns/allowances Warranties Repairs Product liability Customer dissatisfaction Lost market share Complaint adjustment External failure costs Examples of Quality Costs
Measuring Quality Costs The Multiplier Method The Market Research Method Taguchi Quality Loss Function Hidden Quality Costs are opportunity costs resulting from poor quality.
The Multiplier Method The multiplier method assumes that the total failure cost is simply some multiple of measured failure costs: Total external failure cost = k(Measured external failure costs) where k is the multiplier effect If k = 4, and the measured external failure costs are $2 million, then the actual external failure costs are estimated to be $8 million.
The Market Research Method The market research method uses formal market research methods to assess the effect of poor quality on sales and market share. Customer surveys and interviews with members of a companys sales force can provide significant insight into the magnitude of a companys hidden costs. Market research results can be used to project future profit losses attributable to poor quality.
The Taguchi Quality Loss Function The Taguchi loss function assumes any variation from the target value of a quality characteristic causes hidden quality costs. Furthermore, the hidden quality costs increase quadratically as the actual value deviates from the target value.
The Taguchi Quality Loss Function $ Cost Lower Specification Limit Target Value Upper Specification Limit
The Taguchi Quality Loss Function L(y) = k(y – T)² k = A proportionately constant dependent upon the organizations external failure cost structure y =Actual value of quality characteristic T = Target value of quality characteristic L =Quality loss
Quality Cost Report Unit Actual Diameter (y) y-T (y –T)² k(y-T)² Unit Actual Diameter (y) y-T (y –T)² k(y-T)² $ Total0.100$40.00 Average0.025$10.00
Quality Costs % of Sales Prevention costs: Quality training $35,000 Reliability engineering 80,000$115, % Appraisal costs: Materials inspection$20,000 Product acceptance10,000 Process acceptance 38,00068, Internal failure costs: Scrap$50,000 Rework 35,00085, External failure costs: Customer complaints$25,000 Warranty25,000 Repair 15,000 65, Total quality costs$333, % Image Products Quality Cost Report For the Year Ended March 31,
Relative Distribution of Quality Costs External Failure (19.5%) Prevention (34.5%) Internal Failure (25.6%) Appraisal (20.4%)
Quality Cost Graph Cost 0 Percent Defects 100% Failure Costs Control Costs Total Quality Costs AOL
Contemporary Quality Cost Graph Cost 0 Percent Defects 100 % Failure Costs Control Costs Total Quality Costs
Trend Analysis Quality Costs Actual Sales % of Sales 2000 $440,000 $2,200, % ,000 2,350, ,500 2,750, ,000 2,800, ,000 2,800, Assume the following data:
Multiple-Period Trend Graph: Total Quality Costs % of Sales Year
Multiple-Trend Analysis for Individual Quality Costs Internal External Prevention Appraisal Failure Failure % 1 2.0%6.0%10.0% , Assume the following quality cost data: 1 Expressed as a % of sales
Multiple-Period Trend Graphic: Individual Quality Cost Categories Percentage of Sales Year External failure Internal failure Prevention Appraisal
Productivity: Measurement and Control Productivity is concerned with producing output efficiently, and is it specifically addresses the relationship of output and the inputs used to produce the outputs.
for any mix of inputs that will produce a given output, no more of any one input is used than necessary to produce the output 2.given the mixes that satisfy the first condition, the least costly mix is chosen. Productivity: Measurement and Control Total productive efficiency is the point at which two conditions are satisfied:
Technical Efficiency Technical Efficiency is the condition where no more of any one input is used than necessary to produce a given output. Technical efficiency improvement is when less inputs are used to produce the same output or more output are produced using the same input. Current productivity Outputs: 6 Inputs: Labor Capital 4
Technical Efficiency Same Output, Fewer Inputs More Output, Same Inputs Outputs: 6 8 Inputs: Labor Capital 4 Inputs: Labor Capital 3
Technical Efficiency More Output, Fewer Inputs Technically Efficient Combination I: Outputs: 8 8 Inputs: Labor Capital 3 Inputs: Labor Capital $20,000,000 3
Technical Efficiency Technically Efficient Combination II: Of the two combinations that produce the same output, the least costly combination would be chosen. Outputs: 8 Inputs: Labor Capital $25,000,000 2
Partial Productivity Measurement: Measuring productivity for one input at a time. Partial Measure = Output/Input Operational Productivity Measure: Partial measure where both input and output are expressed in physical terms. Financial Productivity Measure: Partial measure where both input and output are expressed in dollars. Partial Productivity Measurement
Profile measurement provides a series or a vector of separate and distinct partial operational measures.
Profile Productivity Measures Example 1: The productivity of both labor labor and materials moves in the same direction: Number of motors produced120,000150,000 Labor hours used40,00037,500 Materials used (lbs.)1,200,0001,428,571 Partial Productivity Ratios 2003 Profile 2004 Profile 2003 Profile 2004 Profile Labor productivity ratio Material productivity ratio ,000/37, ,000/1,428,571
Profile Productivity Measures Example 2: Assume the same data as Example 1 except the material used is 1,700,000 pounds Number of motors produced120,000150,000 Labor hours used40,00037,500 Materials used (lbs.)1,200,0001,700,000 Partial Productivity Ratios 2003 Profile 2004 Profile Labor productivity ratio Material productivity ratio ,000/37, ,000/1,700,000
Profit-Linked Productivity Measurement Profit-Linkage Rule: For the current period, calculate the cost of the inputs that would have been used in the absence of any productivity change, and compare this cost with the cost of the inputs actually used. The difference in costs is the amount by which profits changed because of productivity changes. To compute the inputs that would have been used (PQ), use the following formula: PQ = Current Output/Base-Period Productivity Ratio
Example: Example: Kunkul provided the following data: Number of motors produced120,000150,000 Labor hours used40,00037,500 Materials used (lbs.)1,200,0001,700,000 Unit selling price (motors)$50$48 Wages per labor hour$11$12 Cost per pound of material$2$3 Profit-Linked Productivity Measurement
Profit-Linked Productivity Measurement PQ (labor) = 150,000/3 = 50,000 hrs. PQ (materials) = 150,000/0.100 = 1,500,000 lbs. Cost of labor: (50,000 x $12)$ 600,000 Cost of materials: (1,500,000 x $3) 4,500,000 Total PQ cost$5,100,000 Cost of labor: (37,500 x $12)$ 450,000 Cost of materials: (1,700,000 x $3) 5,100,000 Total current cost$5,550,000 The actual cost of inputs:
Profit-Linked Productivity Measurement Profit-linked effect= Total PQ cost - Total current cost = $5,100,000 – $5,550,000 = $450,000 decrease in profits The net effect of the process change was unfavorable. Profits declined $450,000 because of productivity changes.
Price-Recovery Component The difference between the total profit change and the profit-linked productivity change is called the price- recovery component Difference Revenues$7,200,000$6,000,000$ 1,200,000 Cost of inputs 5,550,000 2,840,000 2,710,000 Profit$1,650,000$3,160,000$-1,510,000 Price recovery= Profit change – Profit-linked productivity change = $1,510,000 – $450,000 = $1,060,000