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MOLECULAR GENETICS. YOU MUST KNOW… THE STRUCTURE OF DNA THE MAJOR STEPS TO REPLICATION THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION.

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Presentation on theme: "MOLECULAR GENETICS. YOU MUST KNOW… THE STRUCTURE OF DNA THE MAJOR STEPS TO REPLICATION THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 MOLECULAR GENETICS

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE STRUCTURE OF DNA THE MAJOR STEPS TO REPLICATION THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION HOW DNA IS PACKAGED INTO A CHROMOSOME

3 CONCEPT 16.1 DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL

4 DISCOVERY THAT DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL HERSHEY AND CHASE STUDIED BACTERIOPHAGES THAT ARE MADE OF ONLY DNA AND PROTEIN USED RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE OF PHOSPHORUS TO TAG THE DNA AND RADIOACTIVE SULFUR TO TAG THE PROTEIN RESULTS DEMONSTRATED THAT ONLY THE DNA ENTERED BACTERIA INFECTED BY THE VIRUS, THE PROTEIN DIDNT

5 DNA STRUCTURE WATSON AND CRICK - CREDITED FRANKLIN AND WILKINS AIDED TO THEIR SUCCESS BY WORKING IN FIELD OF X-RAY CHYSTALLOGRAPHY (VISUALIZE MOLECULES 3-D)

6 FEATURES OF DNA DOUBLE HELIX – TWISTED LADDER SIDES OR BACKBONE ARE MADE OF 5C- SUGAR (DEOXYRIBOSE) AND PHOSPHATE RUNGS ARE MADE OF PAIRS OF NITROGEN BASES (A-T, G-C)

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8 DNA ANTIPARALLEL - LEFT SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE IS IN THE READING POSITION BUT THE RIGHT SIDE IS OPPOSITE, UPSIDE-DOWN DIRECTION LEFT SIDE RUNS 5 TO 3, RIGHT SIDE RUNS 3 TO 5

9 CONCEPT 16.2 MANY PROTEINS WORK TOGETHER IN DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR

10 REPLICATION MAKING OF DNA FROM AN EXISTING DNA STRAND DNA REPLICTION IS SEMICONSERVATIVE (EACH OF THE DAUGHTER MOLECULES HAS ONE OLD STRAND AND ONE NEW STRAND)

11 REPLICATION OF DNA BEGINS AT SITES CALLED THE ORIGINS OF REPLICATION INITIATION PROTEINS BIND TO THE ORIGIN OF REPLICATION AND SEPARATE THE TWO STRANDING, FORMING A REPLICATION BUBBLE DNA REPLICATION PROCEEDS IN BOTH DIRECTIONS ALONG THE DNA STRAND UNTIL THE MOLECULE IS COPIED

12 DNA POLYMERASES CATALYZES THE ELONGATION OF NEW DNA AT THE REPLICATION FORK DNA POLYMERASE ADDS NUCLEOTIDES TO THE GROWING CHAIN ONE BY ONE, WORKING IN A 5 TO 3 DIRECTION DNA REPLICATION OCCURS CONTINUOUSLY ALONG THE 5 TO 3 STRAND (LEADING STRAND)

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14 THE STRAND THAT RUNS 3 TO 5 IS COPIED IN SERIES OF SEGMENTS AND TERMED THE LAGGING STRAND THE LAGGING STRAND IS SYNTHESIZED IN SEPARATE PIECES CALLED OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS THAT ARE SEALED TOGETHER BY DNA LIGASE FORMING A CONTINUOUS DNA STRAND

15 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE ACCURACY OF DNA REPLICATION THE SPECIFICITY OF BASE PAIRING MISMATCH REPAIR – SPECIAL REPAIR ENZYMES FIX INCORRECTLY PAIRED NUCLEOTIDES NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR – INCORRECTLY PLACED NUCLEOTIDES ARE EXCISED OR REMOVED BY ENZYMES TERMED NUCLEASES AND THE LEFT OVER IS FILLED IN WITH THE CORRECT NUCLEOTIDES

16 DNA POLYMERASE CAN ADD NUCLEOTIDES ONLY TO THE 3 END OF A MOLECULE 5 END OF THE DNA IS NOT COMPLETED EVERY TIME A CHROMOSOME IS REPLICATED FOR MITOSIS, A SMALL PORTION OF THE TIP OF THE CHROMOSOME IS REMOVED TO AVOID LOSING TERMINAL GENES, THE ENDS ARE CAPPED WITH TELOMERES (DO NOT CONTAIN GENES)

17 CONCEPT 16.3 A CHROMOSOME CONSISTS OF A DNA MOLECULE PACKED TOGETHER WITH PROTEINS

18 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BACTERIAL DNA AND EUKARYOTE DNA BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME IS ONE DOUBLE-STRANDED, CIRCULAR DNA MOLECULE WITH A SMALL AMOUNT OF PROTEIN EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES ARE LINEAR DNA WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF PROTEIN

19 EUKARYOTE CHROMOSOMES FIRST LEVEL OF PACKING IN CHROMOSOMES INVOLVES DNA WRAPPED AROUND PROTEINS CALLED HISTONES DNA/PROTEIN COMPLEX RESEMBLES BEADS ON A STRING AND IS CALLED A NUCLEOSOME THE STRING LOOPS AND FOLDS

20 AS DNA BECOMES MORE HIGHLY PACKAGED, IT BECOMES LESS ACCESSIBLE TO TRANSCRIPTION ENZYMES THIS REDUCES GENE EXPRESSION


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