11-2 After studying Chapter 11, you should be able to: u Understand the sources and types of spontaneous financing. u Calculate the annual cost of trade credit when trade discounts are forgone. u Explain what is meant by "stretching payables" and understand its potential drawbacks. u Describe various types of negotiated (or external) short-term borrowing. u Calculate the effective annual interest rate on short-term borrowing with or without a compensating balance requirement and/or a commitment fee. u Understand what is meant by factoring accounts receivable.
11-3 Short-Term Financing u Spontaneous Financing u Negotiated Financing u Factoring Accounts Receivable u Composition of Short-Term Financing
11-4 Spontaneous Financing u Accounts Payable (Trade Credit from Suppliers) u Accrued Expenses Types of spontaneous financing
11-5 Spontaneous Financing u Open Accounts: the seller ships goods to the buyer with an invoice specifying goods shipped, total amount due, and terms of the sale. u Notes Payable: the buyer signs a note that evidences a debt to the seller. Trade Credit Trade Credit -- credit granted from one business to another. trade credit Examples of trade credit are:
11-6 Spontaneous Financing Draft Draft -- A signed, written order by which the first party (drawer) instructs a second party (drawee) to pay a specified amount of money to a third party (payee). The drawer and payee are often one and the same. u draft u Trade Acceptances: the seller draws a draft on the buyer that orders the buyer to pay the draft at some future time period.
11-7 Terms of the Sale u Net Period - No Cash Discount u Net Period - No Cash Discount -- when credit is extended, the seller specifies the period of time allowed for payment. Net 30 implies full payment in 30 days from the invoice date. u COD and CBD cash on delivery cash before delivery COD u COD and CBD - No Trade Credit: the buyer pays cash on delivery or cash before delivery. This reduces the sellers risk under COD to the buyer refusing the shipment or eliminates it completely for CBD.
11-8 Terms of the Sale u Seasonal Dating u Seasonal Dating -- credit terms that encourage the buyer of seasonal products to take delivery before the peak sales period and to defer payment until after the peak sales period. u Net Period - Cash Discount u Net Period - Cash Discount -- when credit is extended, the seller specifies the period of time allowed for payment and offers a cash discount if paid in the early part of the period. 2/10, net 30 implies full payment within 30 days from the invoice date less a 2% discount if paid within 10 days.
11-9 Trade Credit as a Means of Financing $1,000 x 30 days = $30,000 account balance What happens to accounts payable if a firm purchases $1,000/day at net 30? What happens to accounts payable if a firm purchases $1,500/day at net 30? $1,500 x 30 days = $45,000 account balance A $15,000 increase from operations!
11-10 Cost to Forgo a Discount Approximate annual interest cost = % discount365 days (100% - % discount) (payment date - discount period) What is the approximate annual cost to forgo the cash discount of 2/10, net 30 after the first ten days? X
11-11 Cost to Forgo a Discount Approximate annual interest cost = 2%365 days (100% - 2%) (30 days - 10 days) = (2/98) x (365/20) = 37.2% What is the approximate annual cost to forgo the cash discount of 2/10, net 30, and pay at the end of the credit period? X
11-12 Payment Date*Annual rate of interest Payment Date* Annual rate of interest % * days from invoice date Cost to Forgo a Discount The approximate interest cost over a variety of payment decisions for2/10, net ____.
11-13 S-t-r-e-t-c-h-i-n-g Account Payables u Cost of the cash discount (if any) forgone u Late payment penalties or interest u Deterioration in credit rating Postponing payment beyond the end of the net (credit) period is known as stretching accounts payable or leaning on the trade. Possible costs of stretching accounts payable
11-14 Advantages of Trade Credit u Convenience and availability of trade credit u Greater flexibility as a means of financing Compare costs of forgoing a possible cash discount against the advantages of trade credit.
11-15 Who Bears the Cost of Funds for Trade Credit? u Buyers u Buyers -- when costs can be fully passed on through higher prices to the buyer by the seller. u Both u Both -- when costs can partially be passed on to buyers by sellers. u Suppliers u Suppliers -- when trade costs cannot be passed on to buyers because of price competition and demand.
11-16 Accrued Expenses u Wages u Wages -- Benefits accrue via no direct cash costs, but costs can develop by reduced employee morale and efficiency. u Taxes u Taxes -- Benefits accrue until the due date, but costs of penalties and interest beyond the due date reduce the benefits. u Accrued Expenses u Accrued Expenses -- Amounts owed but not yet paid for wages, taxes, interest, and dividends. The accrued expenses account is a short-term liability.
11-17 Spontaneous Financing u Money Market Credit u Commercial Paper u Bankers Acceptances u Unsecured Loans* u Line of Credit u Revolving Credit Agreement u Transaction Loan Types of negotiated financing Types of negotiated financing: * Secured versions of these three loans also exist.
11-18 Stand-Alone Commercial Paper u Commercial paper market is composed of the u Commercial paper market is composed of the (1) dealer and (2) direct-placement markets. u Advantage u Advantage: Cheaper than a short-term business loan from a commercial bank. line of credit u Dealers require a line of credit to ensure that the commercial paper is paid off. Commercial Paper Commercial Paper -- Short-term, unsecured promissory notes, generally issued by large corporations (unsecured corporate IOUs).
11-19 Bank-Supported Commercial Paper u Letter of credit (L/C) u Letter of credit (L/C) -- A promise from a third party (usually a bank) for payment in the event that certain conditions are met. It is frequently used to guarantee payment of an obligation. u Best for lesser-known firms to access lower cost funds. u letter of credit guaranteeing u A bank provides a letter of credit, for a fee, guaranteeing the investor that the companys obligation will be paid.
11-20 Bankers Acceptances u Used to facilitate foreign trade or the shipment of certain marketable goods. u Liquid market provides rates similar to commercial paper rates. Bankers Acceptances Bankers Acceptances -- Short-term promissory trade notes for which a bank (by having accepted them) promises to pay the holder the face amount at maturity.
11-21 Short-Term Business Loans u Secured Loans u Secured Loans -- A form of debt for money borrowed in which specific assets have been pledged to guarantee payment. u Unsecured Loans u Unsecured Loans -- A form of debt for money borrowed that is not backed by the pledge of specific assets.
11-22 Unsecured Loans u One-year limit that is reviewed prior to renewal to determine if conditions necessitate a change. u Credit line is based on the banks assessment of the creditworthiness and credit needs of the firm. u Cleanup provision requires the firm to owe the bank nothing for a period of time. u Line of Credit (with a bank) u Line of Credit (with a bank) -- An informal arrangement between a bank and its customer specifying the maximum amount of credit the bank will permit the firm to owe at any one time.
11-23 Unsecured Loans commitment fee u Firm receives revolving credit by paying a commitment fee on any unused portion of the maximum amount of credit. u Commitment fee u Commitment fee -- A fee charged by the lender for agreeing to hold credit available. u Agreements frequently extend beyond 1 year. Revolving Credit Agreement Revolving Credit Agreement -- A formal, legal commitment to extend credit up to some maximum amount over a stated period of time.
11-24 Unsecured Loans u Each request is handled as a separate transaction by the bank, and project loan determination is based on the cash-flow ability of the borrower. u The loan is paid off at the completion of the project by the firm from resulting cash flows. u Transaction Loan u Transaction Loan -- A loan agreement that meets the short-term funds needs of the firm for a single, specific purpose.
11-25 Detour: Cost of Borrowing Differential from prime depends on: u Cash balances u Other business with the bank u Cost of servicing the loan Interest Rates u u Prime Rate -- Short-term interest rate charged by banks to large, creditworthy customers.
11-26 $10,000 in interest $100,000 in usable funds Detour: Cost of Borrowing Computing Interest Rates u Collect Basis u Collect Basis -- interest is paid at maturity of the note. Example: $100,000 loan at 10% stated interest rate for 1 year. = 10.00%
11-27 $10,000 in interest $90,000 in usable funds Detour: Cost of Borrowing Computing Interest Rates u Discount Basis u Discount Basis -- interest is deducted from the initial loan. Example: $100,000 loan at 10% stated interest rate for 1 year. = 11.11%
11-28 $100,000 in interest $850,000 in usable funds Detour: Cost of Borrowing Compensating Balances u u Demand deposits maintained by a firm to compensate a bank for services provided, credit lines, or loans. Example: $1,000,000 loan at 10% stated interest rate for 1 year with a required $150,000 compensating balance. = 11.76%
11-29 Detour: Cost of Borrowing Commitment Fees u u The fee charged by the lender for agreeing to hold credit available is on the unused portions of credit. Example: $1 million revolving credit at 10% stated interest rate for 1 year; borrowing for the year was $600,000; a required 5% compensating balance on borrowed funds; and a.5% commitment fee on $400,000 of unused credit. What is the cost of borrowing?
11-30 $60,000 in interest + $2,000 in commitment fees $570,000 in usable funds Detour: Cost of Borrowing Interest:($600,000) x (10%) = $ 60,000 Commitment Fee:($400,000) x (0.5%) = $ 2,000 Compensating Balance:($600,000) x (5%) = $ 30,000 Usable Funds:$600,000 - $30,000= $570,000 = 10.88%
11-31 Assume the same loan described on slide except that the loan is for 270 days and the 10% rate is on an annual basis. What is the EAR? u $44,384 in interest, $2,000 in commitment fees, and $570,000 in usable funds. $44,384 + $2, $570, Detour: Cost of Borrowing Effective Annual Rate of Interest (generally) = Total interest paid + total fees paid 365 days. Usable funds # of days loan is outstanding 11.00% = 8.137% x = 11.00% X X
11-32 Secured (or Asset-Based) Loans u Marketability u Life u Riskiness u Security (collateral) u Security (collateral) -- Asset (s) pledged by a borrower to ensure repayment of a loan. If the borrower defaults, the lender may sell the security to pay off the loan. Collateral value depends on Collateral value depends on:
11-33 Uniform Commercial Code u Security interests of the lender u Security agreement (device) u Filing of the security agreement u u Model state legislation related to many aspects of commercial transactions that went into effect in Pennsylvania in It has been adopted with limited changes by most state legislatures. Article 9 of the Code deals with Article 9 of the Code deals with:
11-34 Accounts-Receivable- Backed Loans aging u Quality: not all individual accounts have to be accepted (may reject on aging). u Size: small accounts may be rejected as being too costly (per dollar of loan) to handle by the institution. u u One of the most liquid asset accounts. u u Loans by commercial banks or finance companies (banks offer lower interest rates). Loan evaluations are made on Loan evaluations are made on:
11-35 Accounts-Receivable- Backed Loans u Notification u Notification -- firm customers are notified that their accounts have been pledged to the lender and remittances are made directly to the lending institution. Types of receivable loan arrangements Types of receivable loan arrangements : u Nonnotification u Nonnotification -- firm customers are not notified that their accounts have been pledged to the lender. The firm forwards all payments from pledged accounts to the lender.
11-36 Inventory-Backed Loans u Marketability u Perishability u Price stability u Difficulty and expense of selling for loan satisfaction u Cash-flow ability u u Relatively liquid asset accounts Loan evaluations are made on Loan evaluations are made on:
11-37 Types of Inventory-Backed Loans u Floating Lien u Floating Lien -- A general, or blanket, lien against a group of assets, such as inventory or receivables, without the assets being specifically identified. u Chattel Mortgage u Chattel Mortgage -- A lien on specifically identified personal property (assets other than real estate) backing a loan.
11-38 Types of Inventory-Backed Loans u Trust Receipt u Trust Receipt -- A security device acknowledging that the borrower holds specifically identified inventory and proceeds from its sale in trust for the lender. u Terminal Warehouse Receipt u Terminal Warehouse Receipt -- A receipt for the deposit of goods in a public warehouse that a lender holds as collateral for a loan.
11-39 Types of Inventory-Backed Loans u Field Warehouse Receipt u Field Warehouse Receipt -- A receipt for goods segregated and stored on the borrowers premises (but under the control of an independent warehousing company) that a lender holds as collateral for a loan.
11-40 Factoring Accounts Receivable u Factor u Factor is often a subsidiary of a bank holding company. u Factor u Factor maintains a credit department and performs credit checks on accounts. u Allows firm to eliminate their credit department and the associated costs. u Contracts are usually for 1 year, but are renewable. Factoring factor Factoring -- The selling of receivables to a financial institution, the factor, usually without recourse.
11-41 Factoring Accounts Receivable u Factor receives a commission on the face value of the receivables (typically <1% but as much as 3%). u Cash payment is usually made on the actual or average due date of the receivables. u If the factor advances money to the firm, then the firm must pay interest on the advance. u Total cost of factoring is composed of a factoring fee plus an interest charge on any cash advance. u Although expensive, it provides the firm with substantial flexibility. Factoring Costs
11-42 Composition of Short-Term Financing u Cost of the financing method u Availability of funds u Timing u Flexibility u Degree to which the assets are encumbered The best mix of short-term financing depends on: