Presentation on theme: "Surgical Site Infection Improvement Programme Surveillance: Case studies."— Presentation transcript:
Surgical Site Infection Improvement Programme Surveillance: Case studies
Case 1 A patient had bilateral knee prostheses (KPRO) implanted during a single trip to the OR – Left KPRO incision at 0823 and closed at 0950 – Right KPRO incision at 1003 and closed at 1133
Which statement is true A.One KPRO procedure should be reported with a combined duration of 2 hours 57 min B.Two separate KPRO procedures should be reported, each with a duration of 2 hours and 57 min C.Two separate KPRO procedures should be reported: – L KPRO with a duration of 1 hour 27 min – R KPRO with a duration of 1 hour 30 min
Correct Answer C.Two separate KPRO procedures should be reported: L KPRO with a duration of 1 hour 27 min R KPRO with a duration of 1 hour 30 min
Rationale For operative procedures that can be performed bilaterally during same trip to operating room (e.g., KPRO), two separate Denominator for Procedure forms are completed To document the duration of the procedures, indicate the incision time to closure time for each procedure separately If separate times are not known, take the total time for both procedures and split it evenly between the two
Case 2 18 th July – 45 year old man had a Total Hip Replacement (HPRO) 22 nd July – Patients hip incision has purulent drainage from subcutaneous tissue and slight erythema; incision is intact. – Wound drainage specimen sent to lab for culture (24 th July: grew S aureus) – Patient started on antibiotics
What should be reported to NZ surveillance Nothing – the surgeon did not open the wound, so the criteria are not met Nothing, It is an HAI but not an SSI Superficial SSI Deep SSI
Correct Answer Superficial SSI
Rationale Infection occurs within 30 days after the operative procedure, and Involves only skin and subcutaneous tissue of the incision, and Patient has at least one of the following: a.purulent drainage from the superficial incision b.organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the superficial incision. c.superficial incision that is deliberately opened by surgeon and is culture- positive or not cultured, and patient has at least one of the following signs or symptoms: pain or tenderness, localised swelling, redness, or heat. A culture-negative finding does not meet this criterion. d.diagnosis of superficial incisional SSI by the surgeon or attending physician.
Case 2 (ii) 18 th July – 45 year old man had a Total Hip Replacement (HPRO) 22 nd July – Patients hip incision has purulent drainage from subcutaneous tissue and slight erythema; incision is intact. – Wound drainage specimen sent to lab for culture (24 th July: grew S aureus) – Patient started on antibiotics What is the date of infection?
Answer 22 nd July (when criteria first met i.e. purulent drainage)
Case 3 Patient is admitted to the hospital on 4 th July for elective surgery and active MRSA screening test is positive On the same day patient undergoes Total knee replacement (KPRO) Post operative course is unremarkable; patient discharge on the 8 th July On the 21 st July patient is readmitted with complaints of acute incisional pain since the day before. Surgeon opened the wound to the fascial level and sent drainage specimen for culture and sensitivities On 25 th July, culture results are positive for MRSA
What infection should be reported? Superficial Incisional SSI Deep Incisional SSI Organ/space SSI
Answer Deep Incisional SSI – Criterion b
Rationale Infection occurs within 30 or 90 days after the operative procedure and Involves deep soft tissues of the incision (e.g., fascial and muscle layers), and Patient has at least one of the following: a.purulent drainage from the deep incision b.a deep incision that spontaneously dehisces or is deliberately opened by a surgeon and is culture-positive or not cultured, and patient has at least one of the following signs or symptoms: fever (>38 º C), localised pain or tenderness. A culture negative finding does not meet this criterion. c.an abscess or other evidence of infection involving the deep incision that is found on direct examination, during invasive procedure, or by histopathologic examination or imaging test. d.diagnosis of a deep incisional SSI by a surgeon or attending physician.
Case 4 Patient has a THR (HPRO) performed on the 17 th March at Hospital A Discharged from Hospital A on 19 th March Admitted to Hospital B on 25 th March with purulent drainage from the superficial incision Further investigation concludes this is a superficial incisional SSI What should hospital B do? What should hospital A do? What if the infection became apparent 35 days after the procedure?
Answers What should hospital B do? – Notify Hospital A about the SSI What should hospital A do? – Report the SSI to NZ surveillance What if the infection became apparent 35 days after the procedure? – Not an SSI; not reported
Rationale SSIs are always associated with a particular operative procedure and with the facility in which the operation was performed; in this case, this was Hospital A Superficial SSI are followed for only 30 days
Case 5 Patient admitted on the 9 th October and underwent a R THR; wound class – clean 13 th Oct the patient has a temp 38.7 o C and hip pain. Ultrasonography shows abscess in the hip joint 14 th Oct the joint abscess is aspirated and the specimen is sent for culture. Antibiotics started. 18 th Oct patient is discharged from hospital on oral antibiotics. Abscess is culture positive for Staph aureus
What type of infection does this patient have? A.Superficial Incisional SSI B.Deep Incisional SSI C.Organ/space SSI D.Does not meet criteria for any SSI
Answer Organ/space SSI – joint
Organ/ Space SSI Infection occurs within 30 or 90 days after the VICNISS operative procedure and Infection involves any part of the body, excluding the skin incision, fascia, or muscle layers, that is opened or manipulated during the operative procedure, and Patient has at least one of the following: a.purulent drainage from a drain that is placed into the organ/space. b.organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue in the organ/space. c.an abscess or other evidence of infection involving the organ/space that is found on direct examination, during invasive procedure, or by histopathologic examination or imaging test. d.diagnosis of an organ/space SSI by a surgeon or attending physician. and Meets at least one criterion for a specific organ/space infection site
Case 6 Day 1HPRO performed. Patient screened for MRSA upon admission as per local protocol Day 2Patient is very confused. Temperature normal. Wound condition good Day 3Results of the admission screening cultures of the nose and groin are positive for MRSA. The following entry is found in the chart: patient removed dressing several times. Recurrent confused condition. Wound edges very red and taut
Case cont… Day 5Entry in the chart: wound abscess lanced by the attending surgeon. A wound specimen sent to lab for culture. Antibiotics begun. Day 7 Wound culture: MRSA Day 9Improvement in wound condition. Discharged to rehab centre Does this patient have an SSI? If Yes, what type?
Answers Does this patient have an SSI? – Yes If Yes, what type? – Superficial incisional SSI
Rationale Post-op patient has an intact incision or status of incision is unknown (e.g., dressing never changed so no one has seen the incision), or it is noted that patient showered/bathed too early post-op, or it is noted that the patient was incontinent and incision was or may have been contaminated, or patient got intact incision dirty, then subsequent incisional infection is considered an SSI.
Case 7 A patient underwent a KPRO in April 2011 In October 2012 the prosthesis was removed due to an unresolved infection in the joint space with MRSA. A spacer was placed and a replacement procedure was scheduled for the following Feb The replacement KPRO was completed in Feb 2013 and, within 3 weeks after discharge, he developed osteomyelitis with MRSA near the attachment site
How should this osteomyelitis be reported? A.SSI linked to the April 2012 operative procedure B.SSI linked to the October 2012 operative procedure C.SSI linked to the Feb 2013 operative procedure D.Does not meet criteria for SSI
Answer C.SSI linked to the Feb 2013 operative procedure
Rationale If a patient has several NZ SSI operative procedures performed on different dates prior to an infection, attribute the infection to the operation that was performed most closely in time prior to the infection date, unless there is evidence that the infection was associated with a different operation.
Case 8 A female patient underwent a KPRO operation on December 22 nd She returned to her surgeon on January 31 st 2013 with purulent drainage from the superficial incision, which had started 2 days prior. How should this infection be reported? A.SSI – superficial B.SSI – Deep C.SSI – Organ/Space D.Not reported
Answer & Rationale Not reported – does not met criteria for SSI Infection occurred > 30 days post-op therefore cannot be called SSI-superficial Not readmitted to hospital