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T7.1 H&N, Ch. 7 Chapter Outline 7.1Risk Aversion and Demand for Insurance by Individuals The Effects of Insurance on Wealth Risk Aversion Other Factors.

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Presentation on theme: "T7.1 H&N, Ch. 7 Chapter Outline 7.1Risk Aversion and Demand for Insurance by Individuals The Effects of Insurance on Wealth Risk Aversion Other Factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 T7.1 H&N, Ch. 7 Chapter Outline 7.1Risk Aversion and Demand for Insurance by Individuals The Effects of Insurance on Wealth Risk Aversion Other Factors Affecting an Individuals Demand for Insurance Premium Loading Income and Wealth Information Other Sources of Indemnity Non-Monetary Losses

2 T7.2 H&N, Ch. 7 Chapter Outline 7.2Business Risk Management and Demand for Insurance Shareholder Diversification Closely-Held Firms Are Similar To Individuals Why Purchase Insurance when Shareholders are Diversified? Insurer Services Reducing the Expected Cost of Financing Losses Reducing Financing Costs for New Investment Reducing the Likelihood of Financial Distress Reducing Expected Tax Payments 7.3Summary

3 T7.3 H&N, Ch. 7 Demand for Insurance by Individuals l Why do individuals take actions to reduce risk? essentially because they are risk averse Risk aversion ==> prefer certain outcome to an uncertain outcome with the same expected value Examine risk aversion in more detail

4 T7.4 H&N, Ch. 7 The Effects of Insurance on Wealth Begin by examining the effects of insurance on a persons wealth Example: Wealth without insurance = $80,000 or $100,000 with equal probability i.e., there is a 0.5 chance of a $20,000 loss for a person with $100,000

5 T7.5 H&N, Ch. 7 The Effects of Insurance on Wealth Wealth with no insurance Wealth with $10,000 of coverage for a premium of $5,000? Wealth with $20,000 of coverage for a premium of $10,000 Wealth $80,000 $100,000 Wealth $80,000 $100,000 Wealth

6 T7.6 H&N, Ch. 7 The Effects of Insurance on Wealth Important Point: Insurance reduces wealth if a loss does not occur Insurance increases wealth if a loss does occur Useful perspective when thinking about insurance purchases: do I want to give up some wealth when a loss does not occur so that I will receive additional wealth when a loss does occur?

7 T7.7 H&N, Ch. 7 Risk Aversion A risk averse person prefers a certain amount of wealth to a risky situation with the same expected wealth Example: Would you accept a chance of winning $1,000 or losing $1,000? The gamble does not change a persons expected wealth, but it makes the persons wealth uncertain A risk-averse person therefore would prefer not to accept the gamble

8 T7.8 H&N, Ch. 7 Risk Aversion By not accepting the gamble, you are saying that the possible loss of $1,000 hurts more than the possible gain of $1,000 benefits you This is the essence of risk aversion: A loss of $X hurts more than a gain of $X benefits you The loss hurts more than the gain benefits you because money means more to you when you have less of it

9 T7.9 H&N, Ch. 7 Risk Aversion A risk averse person would require compensation (called a risk premium) before accepting the gamble in this example change the odds (e.g., 60% chance of winning) change the payoffs (e.g., win $1,400, lose $1,000) The additional expected wealth ($200) needed to induce a risk averse person to accept the gamble is the premium required to compensate the person for the risk A risk neutral person would not require a risk premium to accept this gamble; a risk neutral person only cares about expected wealth

10 T7.10 H&N, Ch. 7 Risk Aversion A risk averse person would be willing to pay more than the expected loss to reduce risk Example: 2% chance of losing $10,000 Expected loss = $200 A risk averse person would pay more than $200 to eliminate the risk

11 T7.11 H&N, Ch. 7 Risk Aversion l Most people behave as if they are risk aversion they pay positive loadings for insurance they require additional expected return to invest in riskier securities

12 T7.12 H&N, Ch. 7 Other Factors Affecting the Demand for Insurance l Premium Loadings As loading increases, quantity of insurance purchased generally falls l Income and Wealth Degree of risk aversion may decline as wealth increases Limited liability may cause poor people to buy less liability insurance coverage

13 T7.13 H&N, Ch. 7 Other Factors Affecting the Demand for Insurance l Information Individuals perception of loading Underestimate the true risk ==> buy less insurance Overestimate the true risk ==> buy more insurance l Other Sources of Indemnity If others will pay uninsured loss, buy less coverage

14 T7.14 H&N, Ch. 7 Other Factors Affecting the Demand for Insurance l Nonmonetary Losses Examples: pain and suffering loss of heirloom loss of consortium Demand for insurance against nonmonetary losses differs from demand for insurance against monetary losses

15 T7.15 H&N, Ch. 7 Other Factors Affecting the Demand for Insurance Why do people buy insurance against monetary losses? because insurance gives them money when it means the most to them, i.e., when they have less of it (following a loss) This logic does not necessarily apply to nonmonetary losses

16 T7.16 H&N, Ch. 7 Other Factors Affecting the Demand for Insurance Money does not necessarily mean more following a nonmonetary loss; indeed, the opposite could hold example: loss of child many people would prefer to have more money when the child is alive than when the child is dead Thus, many people would not demand insurance against nonmonetary losses even if there were no premium loading

17 T7.17 H&N, Ch. 7 Business Risk Management l Main Points: Shareholder diversification reduces risk Shareholder diversification potentially substitutes for corporate risk management why should corporations reduce risk when shareholders are diversified?

18 T7.18 H&N, Ch. 7 Why Do Corporations Manage Risk? l Some businesses are closely held owners are not diversified l Insurers provide services at lower costs than they can be purchased elsewhere loss control claims processing

19 T7.19 H&N, Ch. 7 Why Do Corporations Manage Risk? l Insurance might be the lowest cost method of financing losses Alternative methods of paying losses insurance internal funds raise new funds For firms without sufficient internal funds, insurance premium loading can be lower than the expected cost of raising new funds following a loss

20 T7.20 H&N, Ch. 7 Why Do Corporations Manage Risk? l Insurance might reduce expected financing costs for new investment projects Paying losses from internal funds increases the likelihood that new funds will have to be raised to finance new investment projects Cost of raising new funds lowers value of new projects may pass up some good projects Purchase insurance to avoid these scenarios

21 T7.21 H&N, Ch. 7 Why Do Corporations Manage Risk? l Reduce the likelihood of financial distress Bankruptcy is costly to shareholders (must pay accountants, lawyers, etc) Reducing risk reduces likelihood of incurring these direct bankruptcy costs

22 T7.22 H&N, Ch. 7 Why Do Corporations Manage Risk? l Reduce the likelihood of financial distress Bankruptcy is costly to other claimants (e.g., employees, lenders, suppliers, customers) These claimants require compensation for this risk (e.g., higher wages, higher lending rates) Shareholders can reduce costs by lowering likelihood of bankruptcy

23 T7.23 H&N, Ch. 7 Why Do Corporations Manage Risk? Reducing risk lowers expected tax payments for several reasons: discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10


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