16Reasons social networking is good! Enhances communication, social connection, and technical skillsProvides a connection to others from diverse backgroundsSharing of artistic and musical endeavorsGrowth of ideas from blogs, videos, gaming sitesCan foster individual identity and unique social skillsAccess to online health informationO'Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). Clinical Report: The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. American Academy of Pediatrics:
17But there are some risks CyberbullyingClique-formingSexual experimentationSextingExposure to inappropriate contentInternet addictionSleep deprivationO'Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). Clinical Report: The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. American Academy of Pediatrics:
18Facebook “depression” New phenomenon defined as depression that develops when preteens/teens spend a great deal of time on social sites, then begin to exhibit classic symptoms of depressionO'Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). Clinical Report: The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. American Academy of Pediatrics:
19Teens today1 in 7 youth online (ages 10 – 17) received a sexual solicitation or approach over the internet1 in 3 youth were exposed to unwanted sexual material over the internet1 in 11 youth were harassed over the internet73% of children who have offline sexual encounters with offenders do so more than once2006 NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN.
23Do children know who they’re chatting with? Probably not…
24Things we tell children to stay safe Anyone can be anyone onlineOnly talk to real people you knowNever post personal informationDo not post photos of yourselfDon’t arrange to meet up with people face to faceThink before you post or chatTell an adult if something makes you scared or sad
25What they hear… Anyone can be anyone online Only talk to real people you knowNever post personal informationDo not post photos of yourselfDon’t arrange to meet up with people face to faceTell an adult if something makes you scared or sad
26Children as victims of online predators Curiosity: children are curious about sex.Predators exploit this – act as “guides” about sexChildren crave attentionPredators offer flattery to coerce them into sexual actsRebellionA child who is victimized while disobeying parental rules may be reluctant to admit itChildren respect adultsLess likely to disobey an adult2011 NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN.
27grooming Can be a long process a predator uses to gain a child’s trust Lower a child’s inhibitions by gradually introducing explicit images and child sex abuse imagesMay lead to the child’s willingness to meet the person with whom he or she is chattingUsing his or her adult status to influence and control a child’s behaviorBetraying a child’s trust by manipulating his or her emotions and insecuritiesMovie Resource: “Trust”
32Convicted: guilty plea to a charge of using a computer to commit the crime of child sexual abusive commercial activity. He received a sentence of 16 months to 20 years in prison. He also had to register as a sex offender.
34Warning signs Becomes withdrawn from family and friends They become angry when they can’t get to the internetInappropriate material found on their devicesQuickly turns of the monitor when an adult comes in the roomThe child receives mail, money or gifts from unknown peopleUnknown phone numbers on the phone bill2011 NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN.
39Common forms of Cyberbullying Flaming and Trolling – sending or posting hostile messages intended to “inflame” the emotions of othersHappy-Slapping – recording someone being harassed or bullied in a way that usually involves physical abuse, then posting the video online for public viewingIdentity Theft/Impersonation – stealing someone’s password and/or hijacking their online accounts to send or post incriminating or humiliating pictures, videos, or informationPhotoshopping – doctoring digital images so that the main subject is placed in a compromising or embarrassing situationPhysical Threats – sending messages that involve threats to a person’s physical safetyRumor Spreading – spreading gossip through , text messaging, or social networking sites
42SextingSending, receiving, or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs, or images via cell phone, computer, or other digital devices.
43Whoops…sexting as an adult Former U.S. Representative Anthony Weiner - NY
44Megan Meier Committed suicide October 15, 2006 Dardenne Prairie, MissouriCommitted suicide October 15, 2006MySpace and AOL MessengerBullies: Lori Drew, Ashley Grills, et al.Megan and her friend had a falling outMegan’s former friend’s mother (Drew) faked an account “Josh Evans”Used the account to befriend MeganLast message to Megan, “The world would be a better place without you”Drew indicted/convicted under Computer Fraud and Abuse ActConvictions overturned – based upon MySpace’s terms of usage
45Jamey Rodemeyer Committed suicide September 18, 2011 Amherst, New YorkCommitted suicide September 18, 2011Formspring, YouTube, Twitter…An openly gay student endured over a year of bullyingJamey posted a video on the YouTube site “It gets better” telling his story“I wouldn’t care if you died. No one would. So just do it It would make everyone WAY more happier!Before he died, he tweeted Lady Gaga, bye mother monster, thank you for all you have done, paws up forever”After his death, his sister was verbally attacked “better off dead”NO charges were filed
46Jamey Rodemeyer Amherst, New York The statute of limitations had expired.Evidence was lacking that a reported offense was actually committed, or information was received second- or third-hand and the actual perpetrator could not be identified.Neither Jamey nor his friends reported the bullying incidents to school administrators or his parents. The incidents were reported to police after Jamey died.Forensic analysis of Jamey's computer showed no pattern of "an ongoing course of conduct" of online abuse by the classmates reputed to have been harassing him.There is no prosecutable crime to which hate crime laws could be applied. Also, the motives behind the gay slurs used by kids to antagonize and harass Jamey were not clear-cut
47Hope Witsell Ruskin, Florida Committed suicide September 12, 2009 SextingSpring 2009, she took a picture of her breasts with her cell phone and sent it to her boyfriendIt was forwarded to students in six schools almost immediatelyParents were notifiedHope became a target of cyberbullying: people called her slut, skank, whoreBullies posted about her on MySpace pages “Shields Middle School Burn Book" and started a "Hope Hater Page"
48Phoebe Prince South Hadley, Mass. Committed suicide January 14, 2010 Moved to the U.S. in the fall of 2009Cyber-bullied by 9 teensWas accused of “taking away” another girl’s boyfriendRepeatedly threatened to beat her up, called her “b*tch, Irish slut, whore”Defendants posted derogatory Facebook comments after Phoebe’s deathAggressive DA charges with Violations of Civil Rights, Bodily Injury and Statutory Rape(2) defendants plead, (3) juveniles likely to plead, (1) facing rape charge
49Tyler Clementi Rutgers University 18 year-old jumped from the GW bridge on September 22, 2010His roommate, Dharun Ravi and friend Molly Wei placed a hidden web cam in their roomThey live-streamed the video of Clementi and another man during a sexual encounterWei plead out and Ravi is facing invasion of privacy (sex crimes), bias intimidation (hate crimes), witness tampering, and evidence tampering
50What are the consequences? (what we tell kids) Your parents could be suedYour parents could pay thousands of dollars in legal defenseGuilt, remorseSexting – under 18? Distribution of Child Pornography – a state and federal offense requiring registration as a sex offenderMore and more prosecutors are becoming comfortable with the laws – more juveniles are getting charged
51Digital Evidence in Cyberbullying Cell phone forensics can find text messages, s, websites, photosCell phone toll recordsComputer forensicsSubpoenas or search warrants can be sent to ISPs, Social Networking sites for access to your pages and historyCyberbullying leaves a digital trail that is not hard to traceDon’t not do it because you can get caught, but because it’s wrong to do
53State lawsAlaskaHouse Bill 482 (2006): Sec Harassment, intimidation, and bullying policy. (a) By July 1, 2007, each school district shall adopt a policy that prohibits the harassment, intimidation, or bullying of any student. The policy must also include provisions for an appropriate punishment schedule up to and including expulsion and reporting of criminal activity to local law enforcement authorities.: Passed the Legislature, to be transmitted to the Governor for signature.Various statutes:Does not have a Cyberbullying statute, but ALASKA STAT. § which is an anti-harassment statute defines harassment as including by electronic means which threatens the physical well-being of another person.
54What can you do if your children (you) are targeted? Tell your child not to respond to rude s, messages, and comments.Save the evidence, such as and text messages, and take screenshots of comments and images. Also, take note of the date and time when the harassment occurs.Contact your Internet service provider (ISP) or cell phone provider. Ask the website administrator or ISP to remove any Web page created to hurt your child.If harassment is via , social networking sites, IM, and chat rooms, instruct your child to “block” bullies or delete your child’s current account and open a new one.If harassment is via text and phone messages, change the phone number and instruct your child to only share the new number with trustworthy people. Also, check out phone features that may allow the number to be blocked.Get your child’s school involved. Learn the school’s policy on Cyberbullying and urge administrators to take a stance against all forms of bullying.Make a report to www.cybertipline.com, and if you feel something illegal has occurred, inform law enforcement.2011 NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN.
55Resourcesmissingkids.com or ncmec.org: The National Center for Missing and Exploited ChildrenNetsmartz.orgi-safe.org: protecting the online experiences of youth everywherewiredsafety.org: cyberbullying, cyberstalking, cyber abusecybertipline.com: report any crimes against children
56THANK YOU Special Agent Betsy Bartko firstname.lastname@example.org