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Contrast, repetition, alignment, proximity CRAP. The Four Basic Principles of Design The following is a brief overview of the principles of design. Although.

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Presentation on theme: "Contrast, repetition, alignment, proximity CRAP. The Four Basic Principles of Design The following is a brief overview of the principles of design. Although."— Presentation transcript:

1 contrast, repetition, alignment, proximity CRAP

2 The Four Basic Principles of Design The following is a brief overview of the principles of design. Although they are discussed separately, they are really interconnected. Rarely will you use only one principle at a time. Contrast Repetition Alignment Proximity

3 Design Considers These Elements  letter case  highlighting  color  graphics, images, icons, symbols  tables, charts, diagrams  columns  headings  headers and footers  page numbers  margins  blank space  paragraph spacing  paragraph length  line spacing  line length  justification  type size and typefaces (fonts)  type features (bold, italics, etc.)

4 The idea behind contrast is to avoid elements that are merely similar. If the elements (type, color, size, line thickness, space, shape) are not the same, then make them very different. Contrast is often the most important visual attraction on the page. Contrast

5 makes different things different brings out dominant elements & mutes lesser elements creates dynamism aids in the organization of information and creates organizational hierarchy can add clarity if two items are different, make them really different; avoid doing wimpy contrast Contrast

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8 Contrast Summary Contrast on a page draws our eyes to it; our eyes like contrast. How to get it: Add contrast through your typeface choices, line thicknesses, colors, shapes, sizes, space, etc. It is easy to find ways to add contrast, and it's probably the most fun and satisfying way to add visual interest. The important thing is to be strong.

9 Contrast Summary What to avoid: Don't be a wimp. If you're going to contrast, do it with strength. Avoid contrasting a sort-of- heavy line with a sort-of-heavier line. Avoid contrasting brown text with black headlines. Avoid using two or more typefaces that are similar. If the items are not exactly the same, make them different!

10 Repetition Repeat visual elements of the design throughout the piece. You can repeat color, shape, texture, spatial relationships, line thickness, size, and type. This helps develop the organization and strengthens unity visually.

11 Repetition repeat design throughout the piece of work consistency creates unity adds visual interest develops organization and creates consistency repeat some aspect of a design (horizontal rule, a certain type of bullet, a type of font) throughout an piece of work avoid repeating an element so much that it becomes annoying or overwhelming

12 Repetition

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15 Alignment Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every element should have some consciously designed visual connection with another element on the page. This creates a clean, fresh, and intentional look.

16 Alignment creates a visual flow visually connects elements unifies and organizes the page nothing should be placed on a page arbitrarily avoid using more than two text alignments on a page center alignment and full alignment are more difficult to read than right

17 Alignment The web site’s page is arranged along a curved alignment.

18 Alignment The main pages of the Art Institute’s site are contained in frames with a centered alignment.

19 Alignment

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21 Alignment Summary Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page. Unity is an important concept in design. To make all the elements on the page appear to be unified and connected their needs to be some visual tie between the separate elements. Take a look at designs you like. No matter how wild and chaotic a well-designed piece may initially appear, you can always find the alignments within.

22 Alignment Summary How to get it: Be conscious of where you place elements. Always find something else on the page to align with, even if the two objects are physically far away from each other.

23 Alignment Summary What to avoid: Avoid using more than one text alignment on the page (that is, don't center some text and right-align other text). And please try very hard to break away from a centered alignment unless you are consciously trying to create a more formal, sedate presentation. Choose a centered alignment consciously, not by default.

24 Proximity Items relating to each other should be grouped close together. When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit, rather than several separate units. This helps organize the information and reduces visual clutter.

25 Proximity groups related elements separates unrelated ones helps to organize elements, imply relationships helps with use of blank space reduces clutter-creates visual relationships with elements that belong together don’t stick things in the corners and in the middle of the page

26 Proximity

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30 Proximity Summary When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. Items relating to each other should be grouped together. The basic purpose of proximity is to organize.

31 Proximity Summary How to get it: Squint your eyes slightly and count the number of visual elements on the page by counting the number of times your eye stops. If there are more than three to five items on the page (of course it depends on the piece), see which of the separate elements can be grouped together into closer proximity to become one visual unit.


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