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Science Case at ELI-Beamlines Daniele Margarone ELI-Beamlines Project Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Science PALS Centre Prague, Czech Republic.

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Presentation on theme: "Science Case at ELI-Beamlines Daniele Margarone ELI-Beamlines Project Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Science PALS Centre Prague, Czech Republic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science Case at ELI-Beamlines Daniele Margarone ELI-Beamlines Project Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Science PALS Centre Prague, Czech Republic UPOL 22/2/12 Projekt: Výzkum a vývoj femtosekundových laserových systému a pokročilých optických technologií (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/ )

2 Research Program 1 Laser generating rep-rate ultrashort pulses & multi-PW peak powers Research Program 2 X-ray sources driven by rep-rate ultrashort laser pulses Research Program 3 Particle Acceleration by lasers Research Program 4 Applications in molecular, biomedical and material sciences Research Program 5 Laser plasma and high-energy-density physics Research Program 6 High-field physics and theory Science Case at ELI-Beamlines

3 RA2 X-ray sources driven by ultrashort laser pulses S. Sebban RA3 Particle acceleration by lasers D. Margarone RA4 Applications in molecular, biomedical, and material sciences L. Juha RA5 Plasma and high energy density physics J. Limpouch RA6 Exotic physics and theory K. Rohlena ELI-Beamlines Scientific Team RA1 Lasers B. Rus RA2-RA6 G. Korn

4 Science Case at ELI-Beamlines Unique features relativistic ultrashort and synchronized high-intensity particles, lasers and X-ray beams high repetition rate unprecedented energy range high brightness excellent shot-to-shot reproducibility (laser-diode and thin-disk technology) Protons, Ions, Electrons, X-rays and -rays Potential applications, business and technology transfer accelerator science (new and compact approaches, e.g. Compact FEL) time-resolved pump-probe experiments (fusion plasmas, warm dense matter, laboratory astrophysics, etc.) medicine (hadrontherapy and tomography of tumors) bio-chemistry (fast transient dynamics) security (non-destructive material inspection)

5 Target Areas Potential future 3D diffractive X-ray imaging of complex molecules Potential future laser driven FEL/XFEL Potential future laser driven hadron-therapy

6 RA3 Particle Acceleration RPA scheme TNSA scheme ion diagnostics nano/micro structured submicro-droplets H-enriched clusters/mass-limited double-layer RPA (laser-target optimization) - max. energy increase (H + /C n+ ) - pencil ion beam - variable ion energy TNSA (ion beam handling) - ion beam transport - electromagnetic selection - magnetic lens focusing radiobiological dosimetry - dose absorption optimization - real-time monitoring - adapted treatment planning - biological cell irradiation laser-driven electron acceleration - self guiding (gas target) - external guiding (gas target) - solid targets LUX, FEL & XFEL neutrons: DD, DT, (p, n) and (, n) - single-target scheme - catcher-target scheme -rays from accelerated e - beams e - e + pairs from: - accelerated e - beams (catcher target) - hot electrons in solid targets Shielding optimization Radiation damaging

7 RA5 Plasma & High En. Dens. Phys. 3D proton beam probing X-ray probing optical interferometry Non linear effects - self focusing - filamentation - transient magnetic fields (astrophys.) - parametric instabilities Warm Dense Matter (WDM) Stopping power of protons/ions in: - plasmas - WDM probing of ultraintense electric fields in wakefield laser channeling in low density plasmas advanced targets

8 Plasma based x-ray lasers X-rays from relativistic e-beams Harmonics (gas) Probe laser Solid target Pump Laser K-alpha Prepulse K-alpha emission Harmonics (solid) Laser-driven x-rays: several approaches

9 - Monochromatic - Fully divergent - Duration 100 fs - KHz rep. rate - Flux : 1e9 ph/shot Main limitations : tunability, polychromaticity, divergence K-alpha emission : easy and ultrafast x-ray source

10 Harmonics from solid target plasma

11 Radiated energy Velocity Acceleration RcRc β β. Electron X-rays from relativistic e-beams We need relativistic electrons undergoing oscillations X-rays from relativistic e-beams Betatron radiation

12 3 D diffractive imaging using synchronized ELI x-ray pulses Timing synchronization of 30 fs should allow to go for µm samples diffraction Explosion happens over many ps (Hajdu et al.) From projection images to (almost) 3d structures

13 Kirz,Nature Physics 2, (2006) Single- particle diffraction imaging of biological particles without crystallization

14 Ablation Phase transitions Bio structures, damage X-ray microscopy Warm dense matter Magnetism Plasma diagnostics Atomic physics Bright fs sources for applications

15 C. Joshi, Scientific America, 2006 Laser-driven Electron Acceleration




19 Envisioned electron beams at ELI-Bamlines Scaling laws: S. Gordienko and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) W. Lu et al., Phys. Rev.Spec.Top.-Accelerators and Beams 10 (2007) OSIRIS simulations: L. O. Silva, ELI Scientific Challenges, April J beamlines (10 Hz) Bubble regime (high divergence beam) Laser parameters: E L =50J, L =25fs, =23 m, a 0 =35 Plasma parameters: n P =1.8x10 19 cm -3 Electron beam parameters: E el = 1.5 GeV, q el = 6.2 nC Blow-out regime/self-injection (pencil beam) Laser parameters: E L =50J, L =72fs, =33 m, a 0 =5 Plasma parameters: n P =5.3x10 17 cm -3, L acc =5.6cm Electron beam parameters: E el = 4.4 GeV, q el = 1.2 nC Blow-out regime/external-injection (pencil beam) Laser parameters: E L =50J, L =134fs, =60 m, a 0 =2 Plasma parameters: n P =6.3x10 16 cm -3, L acc =8.8cm Electron beam parameters: E el = 14.9 GeV, q el = 0.85 nC (?) 1.3 kJ beamlines (0.016 Hz) Blow-out regime/self-injection (ELI end-stage) Laser parameters: E L =1.3kJ, L =215fs, =97 m, a 0 =5 Plasma parameters: n P =6.1x10 16 cm -3, L acc =1.5m Electron beam parameters: E el = 39 GeV, q el = 3.4 nC Blow-out regime/external-injection Laser parameters: E L =1.3kJ, L =395fs, =178 m, a 0 =2 Plasma parameters: n P =7.1x10 15 cm -3, L acc =22.9m !!! NO Electron beam parameters: E el = 131 GeV, q el = 2.5 nC (?) Blow-out regime Laser parameters Plasma parameters Electron beam parameters 19

20 C V p ~0 V p ~C C Non relativistic protons Relativistic protons Photons E p ~ I 1/2 TNSA E p ~ I RPA (at very high intensitíes, light pressure accelerates) Laser-driven Ion Acceleration

21 TNSA (Target Normal Sheath Acceleration) high laser contrast (main/pedestal) short laser pulse (10s fs – few ps) still occurring when the pre-plasma is localized at the target front-side higher energy gain in metals (returning electron current for the recirculations of hot electrons). TNSA Ponderomotive Acceleration (Sweeping potential at the laser pulse front) low laser contrast (dense pre-plasma) long laser pulse (10s ps – ns) long pre-plasma length (100s m – mm) high laser absorption in the pre-plasma almost no laser interaction with the solid target Y. Sentoku et al., Phys. Plasm. 10 (2003) 2009

22 Courtesy of S. Bulanov RPA (Radiation Pressure Acceleration)

23 Courtesy of S. Bulanov Towards Quark-Gluon Plasma

24 R.A. Snavely et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 2945 S.A. Gaillard et al., 65+ MeV protons from short-pulse-laser micro-cone-target interactions, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. G06.3 (2009) (only 10% energy increment ) W.P. Leemans et al., Nature Phys. 2 (2006) 696 Records in laser-driven particle acceleration ProtonsElectrons A technological progress is needed: towards higher laser intensities!!! 24

25 Beyond the energy frontier... K. Zeil et al., New Journal of Physics 12 (2010) J. Fuchs et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009) 176 and references therein ELI intensity regime 25

26 Envisioned proton beams B. Qiao et al, PRL 102, (2009) 6x10 22 W/cm 2 2x10 22 W/cm 2 2x10 21 W/cm 2 2 PW beamlines (10 Hz) 50 J, 25 fs, W/cm 2, RPA, E peak = 200 MeV, = 65%, N p 10 12, div.: 4°, quasi-monoenergetic References: Matt Zepf, ELI-Beamlines Sci. Chall. Workshop, April 26 th, PW beamlines (0.016 Hz) 1.3 kJ, 130 fs, W/cm 2, E Cut-off = 2 GeV, = 50%, N p 2x10 12, div. 10° 2x1.3 kJ, 130 fs, 20 PW, 2x10 23 W/cm 2, E Cut-off = GeV 5x1.3 kJ, 130 fs, 50 PW, 5x10 23 W/cm 2, E Cut-off = 4 GeV (ELI end-stage) References: B. Qiao et al, PRL 102 (2009) J. Davis and G.M. Petrov Physics of Plasmas 16, (2009) ELI White-book, OSIRIS simulations (by Luis Cardoso) 26

27 Basic experiment at E6a (high rep. rate) TNSA/RPA: P L = 2 PW (10 Hz), I L W/cm 2, E max = 200 MeV, N p Legend OAP: off-axis-parabola; T: primary target; T1/T2: secondary target (proton radiography); RCF: radiochromic film; FM: flat mirror; EMQ: electromagnetic quadrupole optics (1.5 Tesla), TP spectrometer (B=1.5 T, E=10-50 kV); D: detector (film/semiconductor); V: gate valve, LS: local shielding ( -rays/neutrons)

28 Challenges & advanced source use Electron acceleration External injection: development of effective electron beam loading techniques Use of an all-optical injection scheme (colliding pulses) Use of a tailored longitudinal plasma density profile Development of a multiple stage acceleration setup including laser and electron beam optics (synchronization of the laser and electron beams in several tens of meters is necessary!) Proton/ion acceleration 1.Improving the beam quality in terms of divergence and monochromaticity 2.Increasing the beam stability (energy distribution, particle numbers, emittance) 3.Optimizing the laser to ion conversion efficiency 4.Use of ultrathin targets (very high contrast and circular polarization are needed) 5.Beam handling & selection (either through target engineering or conventional solutions, e.g. micro- lenses or magnetic quadrupoles) Diagnostic requirements and development Strong energy increase of the particles produced at extreme laser intensities (particles whose energies will range from MeV to tens of GeV) Huge particle number per shot per second (prompt current) Energy and beam spreading of produced particles (no unique detector can be used) Huge EMP 28

29 Laser-driven hadron-therapy (ELI-MED)

30 Courtesy of J. Wilkens







37 One of the big Challenges in Physics would be to built a laser powerful enough to breakdown vacuum. Survey by Science 2005

38 E Q =m p c 2 Ultra-relativistic intensity is defined with respect to the proton E Q =m p c 2, intensity~10 24 W/cm 2

39 Inverse Compton Scattering The Doppler energy upshift allows one to reach high photon energies, e.g. 100 MeV -rays with a 10-GeV electron beam.

40 530 pages of Science, technology and implementation strategies of ELI ELI White Book





45 Its time to wake up!!! Thank you for your attention and invitation!

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