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Gérard A. MOUROU Laboratoire dOptique Appliquée – LOA ENSTA – Ecole Polytechnique – CNRS PALAISEAU, France Extreme Light Infrastructure.

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Presentation on theme: "Gérard A. MOUROU Laboratoire dOptique Appliquée – LOA ENSTA – Ecole Polytechnique – CNRS PALAISEAU, France Extreme Light Infrastructure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gérard A. MOUROU Laboratoire dOptique Appliquée – LOA ENSTA – Ecole Polytechnique – CNRS PALAISEAU, France gerard.mourou@ensta.fr Extreme Light Infrastructure ELI Autumn 2008 NuPECC Glasgow 3-4/10/2008

2 The different Epochs of Laser Physics 1960 1990 2010 Coulombic Epoch RelativisticEpoch ELI Nonlinear QED and Epoch

3 Optics Horizon This field does not seem to have natural limits, only horizon.

4 Why should we build an Extreme Light Infrastructure?

5 Science (1 july 2005) 100 questions spanning the science… 1) Is ours the only universe? 2) What drove cosmic inflation? 3) When and how did the first stars and galaxies form? 4) Where do ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays come from? 5) What powers quasars? 6) What is the nature of black holes? 7) Why is there more matter than antimatter? 8) Does the proton decay? 9)What is the nature of gravity? 10) Why is time different from other dimensions? 11) Are there smaller building blocks than quarks? 12) Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? 13) Is there a unified theory explaining all correlated electron systems? 14) What is the most powerful laser researchers can build? Theorists say an intense enough laser field would rip photons into electron-positron pairs, dousing the beam. But no one knows whether it's possible to reach that point. 15) Can researchers make a perfect optical lens? 16) Is it possible to create magnetic semiconductors that work at room temperature? 1) Is ours the only universe? 2) What drove cosmic inflation? 3) When and how did the first stars and galaxies form? 4) Where do ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays come from? 5) What powers quasars? 6) What is the nature of black holes? 7) Why is there more matter than antimatter? 8) Does the proton decay? 9)What is the nature of gravity? 10) Why is time different from other dimensions? 11) Are there smaller building blocks than quarks? 12) Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? 13) Is there a unified theory explaining all correlated electron systems? 14) What is the most powerful laser researchers can build? Theorists say an intense enough laser field would rip photons into electron-positron pairs, dousing the beam. But no one knows whether it's possible to reach that point. 15) Can researchers make a perfect optical lens? 16) Is it possible to create magnetic semiconductors that work at room temperature?

6 Contents ELIs Bricks The Peak Power-Pulse Duration conjecture Relativistic Rectification(wake-field) the key to High energy electron beam Generation of Coherent x and -ray, by Coherent Thomson, radiation reaction, X-Ray laser, … Source of attosecond photon and electron pulses ELIs Science: Study of the structure of matter from atoms to vacuum

7 Peak Power -Pulse Duration Conjecture 1) To get high peak power you must decrease the pulse duration. 2) To get short pulses you must increase the intensity 1) To get high peak power you must decrease the pulse duration. 2) To get short pulses you must increase the intensity

8 Q-Switch, Dye I=kW/cm 2 Modelocking, Dye I=MW/cm 2 Mode-Locking KLM I=GW/cm 2 MPI I>10 13 W/cm 2 Laser Pulse Duration vs. Intensity Relativistic and Ultra R Atto, zepto….?

9 Scalable Isolated Attosecond Pulses Amplitude, a 1D PIC simulations in boosted frame Duration, (as) 2D: a=3, 200as as)= 600/a 0 I=10 22 W/cm 2 (Hercules) ( 3 laser) optimal ratio: a 0 /n 0 =2, or exponential gradient due to cr = 0 a -1/2 n 0 = n/n cr

10 Relativistic Ultra Relativistic Relativistic Compression E Q =m p c 2 Ultra-relativistic intensity is defined with respect to the proton E Q =m p c 2, intensity~10 24 W/cm 2 NL Optics

11 The ELIs Scientific Goal: from the atom to the Vacuum Structure The advent of ultra-intense laser light pulses (ELI) reaching within a decade towards a critical field strength will allow us to probe the Vacuum in a new way, and at a new "macroscopic" scale.

12 Relativistic Optics

13 a)Classical optics v<a 0 2 a 0 >>1, a 0 >1, a 0 < { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/713940/2/slides/slide_12.jpg", "name": "a)Classical optics v<a 0 2 a 0 >>1, a 0 >1, a 0 <a 0 2 a 0 >>1, a 0 >1, a 0 <

14 Relativistic Rectification (Wake-Field Tajima, Dawson) +- 1) pushes the electrons. 2)The charge separation generates an electrostatic longitudinal field. (Tajima and Dawson: Wake Fields or Snow Plough) 3)The electrostatic field

15 Relativistic Rectification -Ultrahigh Intensity Laser is associated with Extremely large E field. Medium Impedance Laser Intensity

16 Laser Acceleration: At 10 23 W/cm 2, E= 0.6PV/m, it is SLAC (50GeV, 3km long) on 10 m The size of the Fermi accelerator will only be one meter (PeV accelerator that will go around the globe, based on conventional technology). Relativistic Microelectronics

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18 fs

19 J. Faure et al., C. Geddes et al., S. Mangles et al., in Nature 30 septembre 2004 e-beam The Dream Beam

20 Z inj =225 μ m Tunable monoenergetic bunches Z inj =125 μ m Z inj =25 μ m Z inj =-75 μ m Z inj =-175 μ m Z inj =-275 μ m Z inj =-375 μ m pump injection pump injection late injection early injection pump injection middle injection V. Malka and J. Faure

21 Front and back acceleration mechanisms Peak energy scales as : E M ~ (I L × ) 1/2

22 C V p ~0 V p ~C C Non relativistic ions Relativistic ions >10 24 Photons E p ~ I 1/2 E p ~ I The Ultra relativistic:Relativistic Ions

23 High Energy Radiation Radiation Betatron oscillation Radiation reaction X-ray laser

24 The structure of the ion cavity + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Longitudinal acceleration ExEx + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Transverse oscillation: Betatron oscillation

25 E E c c c Radiation Reaction: Compton-Thomson Cooling a)Charge separation. E-field Creation b) e- move backwards, scattered on the incoming field, cooling the e- N. Naumova, I, Sokolov

26 Attosecond Generation from Overdense plasma

27 (a) (b) Relativistic Self-focusing: A.G.Litvak (1969), C.Max, J.Arons, A.B.Langdon (1974) ? Refraction Reflection

28 2-D PIC simulation

29 2-D PIC simulation

30 Scalable Isolated Attosecond Pulses Amplitude, a 1D PIC simulations in boosted frame Duration, (as) 2D: a=3, 200as as)= 600/a 0 I=10 22 W/cm 2 (Hercules) ( 3 laser) optimal ratio: a 0 /n 0 =2, or exponential gradient due to cr = 0 a -1/2 n 0 = n/n cr

31 Relativistic Ultra Relativistic Relativistic Compression E Q =m p c 2 Ultra-relativistic intensity is defined with respect to the proton E Q =m p c 2, intensity~10 24 W/cm 2 NL Optics

32 Attosecond Generation (electron)

33 Attosecond Electron Bunches N. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, Attosecond Electron Bunches, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 195003 (2004). Attosecond pulse train Attosecond bunch train 25÷30 MeV a 0 =10, =15fs, f/1, n 0 =25n cr

34 Coherent Thomson Scattering N. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, Attosecond Electron Bunches, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 195003 (2004). Attosecond pulse train Attosecond bunch train 25÷30 MeV a 0 =10, =15fs, f/1, n 0 =25n cr h h

35 ELI: A Unique Infrastructure that offers simultaneously Ultra high Intensity ~10 26 W/cm2 High Energy particles ~100GeV High Fluxes of X and rays With femtosecond time structures Highly synchronized (We could possibly get beams equivalent to 10 36 W/cm 2 )

36 Nuclear Physics

37 Exploring the Structure of the Nucleon; Ralph Kaiser Gamma ray Spectroscopy Study of Exotic Nuclei; Mike Bentley Relativistic Heavy ions; Peter Jones

38 Possibilité de fission nucléaire par impulsion laser Fission duranium 238 : réacteurs sous critiques? T. Cowan et al. LLNL 1999, Phys. News, USA ( 238 U) In experiments conducted recently at Lawrence Livemore National Lab, an intense laser beam (from the Petawatt laser, the most powerful in the world) strikes a gold foil (backed with a layer of lead). This results in (1) the highest energy electrons (up to 100 MeV) ever to emerge from a laser-solid interaction, (2) the first laser-induced fission, and (3) the first creation of antimatter (positrons) using lasers. (Tom Cowan LLNL 1999) 238 U = matière fertile 0,7% 238 U dans U naturel Bilan énergétique? : Fission duranium 238 = 200MeV Section efficace? Rendement?

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44 Transmutation des déchets : fission par impulsion laser Transmutation de liode 129 (fission) * K. Ledingham et al. J. Phys. D : Appl. Phys. 36, L79 (2003), UK JRC Karlsruhe, Univ. Jena, Univ. Strathclyde, Imperial College, Rutherford Appleton Lab. Laser : 10 20 W/cm 2 champ élect. 10 11 V/cm champ mag. 10 5 T Impulsion : plasma électrons 1,6. 10 24 m/s 2 : e - <100MeV gamma par freinage dans Pb ou Ta <10MeV fission : 129 I (15,7. 10 6 ans) 128 I (25mn) laser énergie J durée fs puissance TW Intensité W/cm 2 # tirs# fissions Nd:verr e Vulcan 751 00010010 19 2/h10 3 /s Ti:Saph ire Jena loa 0,5801510 20 10/s10 4 /s

45 Introduction TRANSMUTATION

46 High-resolution -Spectroscopy in hyperdeformed actinide nuclei Motivation: explore the multiple-humped potential energy landscape of hyperdeformed heavy actinide nuclei with unprecedented resolution Example: Experimental approach: photofission (,f) using brilliant photon beams of ~3-10 MeV individually resolve resonances in prompt fission cross section laser-generated high-energy photon flux exceeds conventional facilities by ~ 10 4 -10 8 238 U(,f): hyperdeformed 3 rd potential minimum has not yet been studied at all

47 Nuclear transitions and parity-violating meson-nucleon coupling Motivation: study mirror asymmetries in the nuclear resonance fluorescence process (NRF): parity non-conservation as indication of fundamental role of exchange processes of weakly interacting bosons in nucleon-nucleon interaction Experimental approach: use ultra-brilliant, (circular) polarized, monochromatic ray beams (typ.: 10 2 -10 3 keV) switch polarization measure NRF asymmetry Example: 19 F (parity doublet: E=109.9 keV)

48 Nonlinear QED

49 Relativistic Ultra Relativistic Relativistic Compression E Q =m p c 2 Ultra-relativistic intensity is defined with respect to the proton E Q =m p c 2, intensity~10 24 W/cm 2 NL Optics

50 Laser-induced Nonlinear QED 10 23 W/cm 2 GeV electrons e-e- e+e+ G. Mourou, S. Bulanov, T. Tajima Review of Modern Physics (2006) You can enhance the laser field by the electron factor.

51 Laser-induced Nonlinear QED 10 23 W/cm 2 10 23 cm 2 10 23 W/cm 2 GeV electrons -photon e-e- e+e+ Gas Jet G. Mourou, S. Bulanov, T. Tajima Review of Modern Physics (2006)

52 Ultra-high Intensity General Relativity and Black Holes

53 Equivalent to be near a Black Hole of Dimension? Temperature? Laboratory Black Hole T. Tajima and G. Mourou Review of Modern Physics

54 Is Optics in General Relativity? Using the gravitational shift near a black hole:.As we increase a 0 the Swartzschild radius can become equal to the Compton wavelength.

55 Optics and General Relativity: Hawking Radiation c RsRs e+e+ e-e- In order to have Hawking radiation You need the gravitational field strong enough to break pairs h

56 Finite Horizon and extra- dimensions ad 3 + 1 D gravitational leakage nD N. Arkani-Hamed et al. (1999) The distance to finite horizon is Up to n=4 extra-dimensions could be tested. T. Tajima phone # 81 90 34 96 64 21

57 ELI: from the Atomic Structure to the Vacuum Structure Vacuum structure

58 100 m The Extreme Light Infrastructure exploded view

59 ELI Infrastructure

60 Thank you Become an ELI enthusiast You can register @ WWW.eli-laser.eu Eli@eli-laser.eu

61 Control & 4D imaging of valence & core electrons with sub-atomic resolution sub-fs electron bunch 0.1-1 GeV 5-10 MeV sub-fs x-ray pulse 4D imaging of electronic motion in atoms, molecules and solids by means of attosecond electron or X-ray diffraction 4D imaging of electronic motion in atoms, molecules and solids by means of attosecond electron or X-ray diffraction attosecond xuv / sxr pulse Petawatt Field Synthesizer Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany

62 The ELI facilty could be used to produce « real » X-ray lasers Shorter wavelengths lasers than never obtained : < nm range How : investigate new schemes - inner-shell of heavy ions - transitions in nuclear transitions

63 HHG and Subfemtosecond Pulses from Surfaces of Overdense Plasmas S.V. Bulanov, Naumova N M and Pegoraro F, Phys. Plasmas 1 745(1994) D. Von der linde et al Phys. Rev. A52 R 25, 1995 L. Plaja et al. JOSA B, 15, 1904 (1998) S. Gordienko et al PRL 93, 115002 (2004) N.M. Naumova et.al., PRL 92, 063902 (2004) Tsakiris, G., et al., New Journal of Physics, 8, 19 (2006)

64 Reflected radiation spectra: the slow power-law decay 1101001000 8/3 a 0 =20 a 0 =10 a 0 =5 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 10 10 12 Intensity, a.u. The Gaussian laser pulse a=a 0 exp[-(t/ ) 2 ]cos t is incident onto an overdense plasma layer with n=30n c. The color lines correspond to laser amplitudes a 0 =5,10,20. The broken line marks the analytical scaling -8/3. Gordienko, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004 1D simulation Possibility to produce zeptosecond pulses!!!

65 Multi-keV Harmonics B. Dromey, M. Zepf et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 085001 (2007)

66 Relativistic High Harmonics: Train of Attosecond Pulses Yet some applications require single attosecond pulses! Can we extract one pulse from the train?

67 Two large Laser Infrastructures Have Been Selected to be on the ESFRI (European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap a - HIPER, civilian laser fusion research (using the fast ignition scheme) and all applications of ultra high energy laser b - ELI, reaching highest intensities (Exawatt) and applications ELI has been the first Infrastructure launched by Brussels November 1st 2007

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69 Towards the Critical Field For I=10 22 W/cm 2 a 0 2 =10 4 The pulse duration /a 0 ~ 6as The wavelength ~ The Focal volume decreases ~ 10 -8 The Efficiency~ 10% Intensity I=10 22 W/cm 2 I=10 28 W/cm 2

70 Gérard A. MOUROU Laboratoire dOptique Appliquée – LOA ENSTA – Ecole Polytechnique – CNRS PALAISEAU, France gerard.mourou@ensta.fr Extreme Light Infrastructure ELI ELI Workshop on Fundamental Physics with Ultra- High Fields Frauenworth Sept.28-Oct.2,2008


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