Presentation on theme: "Extreme Light Infrastructure ELI"— Presentation transcript:
1Extreme Light Infrastructure ELI Autumn 2008 NuPECCGlasgow3-4/10/2008Gérard A. MOUROULaboratoire d’Optique Appliquée – LOAENSTA – Ecole Polytechnique – CNRSPALAISEAU, Francei am going to present you some recent works on the production of x-ray radiation using laser produced plasmas.I am from the PXF group at LOA in france and our goal is to produced bright femtosecond x-ray sources and use these source to do applications in the so called ultrafastx-ray Science.Recently, thanks to the advent of high intensity lasers it is possible to generate energetic, very collimated, and short pulses electrons beams.I will show you one way to use these electron to produce femtosecond x-ray beams.
2The different Epochs of Laser Physics 2010ELI Nonlinear QEDand Epoch1990RelativisticEpoch1960Coulombic Epoch
3“Optics Horizon” This field does not seem to have natural limits, only horizon.
4Why should we build an Extreme Light Infrastructure?
5Science (1 july 2005) “100 questions spanning the science…” 1) Is ours the only universe?2) What drove cosmic inflation?3) When and how did the first stars and galaxies form?4) Where do ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays come from?5) What powers quasars?6) What is the nature of black holes?7) Why is there more matter than antimatter?8) Does the proton decay?9)What is the nature of gravity?10) Why is time different from other dimensions?11) Are there smaller building blocks than quarks?12) Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?13) Is there a unified theory explaining all correlated electron systems?14) What is the most powerful laser researchers can build? Theorists say an intense enough laser field would rip photons into electron-positron pairs, dousing the beam. But no one knows whether it's possible to reach that point.15) Can researchers make a perfect optical lens?16) Is it possible to create magnetic semiconductors that work at room temperature?
6Contents ELI’s Bricks The Peak Power-Pulse Duration conjecture Relativistic Rectification(wake-field) the key to High energy electron beamGeneration of Coherent x and -ray, by Coherent Thomson, radiation reaction, X-Ray laser, …Source of attosecond photon and electron pulsesELI’s Science: Study of the structure of matter from atoms to vacuum
7Peak Power -Pulse Duration Conjecture To get high peak power you must decrease the pulse duration.To get short pulses you must increase the intensity
8Relativistic and Ultra R Laser Pulse Duration vs. IntensityQ-Switch, DyeI=kW/cm2Modelocking, DyeI=MW/cm2Mode-Locking KLMI=GW/cm2MPII>1013W/cm2Relativistic and Ultra RAtto, zepto….?
9Scalable Isolated Attosecond Pulses 1D PIC simulations in boosted frameDuration,t (as)2D: a=3, 200astas)=600/a0I=1022W/cm2 (Hercules)l=1019W/cm2 (3 laser)optimal ratio: a0/n0=2, or exponential gradient due to wcr=w0a-1/2n0= n/ncrAmplitude, a
10EQ=mpc2 Relativistic Compression NL Optics Ultra RelativisticEQ=mpc2RelativisticNL OpticsUltra-relativistic intensity isdefined with respect to the protonEQ=mpc2, intensity~1024W/cm2
11The ELI’s Scientific Goal: from the atom to the Vacuum Structure The advent of ultra-intense laser light pulses (ELI) reaching within a decade towards a critical field strength will allow us to probe the Vacuum in a new way, and at a new "macroscopic" scale.
14Relativistic Rectification (Wake-Field Tajima, Dawson) +-pushes the electrons.The charge separation generates an electrostatic longitudinal field. (Tajima and Dawson: Wake Fields or Snow Plough)The electrostatic field
15Relativistic Rectification -Ultrahigh Intensity Laser is associated with Extremely large E field.Laser IntensityMedium Impedance
16Laser Acceleration: Relativistic Microelectronics At 1023W/cm2 , E= 0.6PV/m, it is SLAC (50GeV, 3km long) on10m The size of the Fermi accelerator will only be one meter(PeV accelerator that will go around the globe, based onconventional technology).Relativistic Microelectronics
19J. Faure et al., C. Geddes et al., S. Mangles et al. , The Dream Beame-beamJ. Faure et al., C. Geddes et al., S. Mangles et al. ,in Nature 30 septembre 2004
20Tunable monoenergetic bunches V. Malka and J. FaureZinj=225 μmpumpinjectionlate injectionearly injectionmiddle injectionZinj=125 μmZinj=25 μmZinj=-75 μmZinj=-175 μmZinj=-275 μmZinj=-375 μm
21Front and back acceleration mechanisms Peak energy scales as : EM ~ (IL×)1/2
22Ep ~ I1/2 Ep ~ I The Ultra relativistic:Relativistic Ions C C Non relativistic ionsPhotonsEp ~ I1/2CVp ~0Relativistic ions >1024PhotonsVp ~CEp ~ IC
23High Energy Radiation Radiation Betatron oscillationRadiation reactionX-ray laser
24The structure of the ion cavity Longitudinal accelerationExTransverse oscillation: Betatron oscillationAs I said, the longitudinal acceleration of the electrons is due to the electrostatique force in the ions cavity.But, there is also a transverse force in the ion cavity. This force comes from the charge separation btween an electron and the ion background in the ion cavity.The electron makes oscillations, called Betatron oscillations.
25 Radiation Reaction: Compton-Thomson Cooling c c c E E N. Naumova, I, SokolovCharge separation.E-field CreationcEcb)e- move backwards, scattered onthe incoming field, cooling the e-E
33Attosecond Electron Bunches a0=10, t=15fs, f/1, n0=25ncrAttosecond pulse train25÷30 MeVAttosecond bunch trainN. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, Attosecond Electron Bunches, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, (2004).
34Coherent Thomson Scattering a0=10, t=15fs, f/1, n0=25ncrhAttosecond pulse trainh25÷30 MeVAttosecond bunch trainN. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, Attosecond Electron Bunches, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, (2004).
35ELI: A Unique Infrastructure that offers simultaneously Ultra high Intensity ~1026W/cm2High Energy particles ~100GeVHigh Fluxes of X and raysWith femtosecond time structuresHighly synchronized(We could possibly get beams equivalent to1036 W/cm2)
37Nuclear Physics Exploring the Structure of the Nucleon; Ralph Kaiser Gamma ray Spectroscopy Study of Exotic Nuclei; Mike BentleyRelativistic Heavy ions; Peter Jones
38Possibilité de fission nucléaire par impulsion laser Fission d’uranium 238 : réacteurs sous critiques? T. Cowan et al. LLNL 1999, Phys. News, USA (238U) In experiments conducted recently at Lawrence Livemore National Lab, an intense laser beam (from the Petawatt laser, the most powerful in the world) strikes a gold foil (backed with a layer of lead). This results in (1) the highest energy electrons (up to 100 MeV) ever to emerge from a laser-solid interaction, (2) the first laser-induced fission, and (3) the first creation of antimatter (positrons) using lasers. (Tom Cowan LLNL 1999)238U = matière fertile 0,7% 238U dans U naturel Bilan énergétique? : Fission d’uranium 238 = 200MeV Section efficace? Rendement?
46High-resolution g-Spectroscopy in hyperdeformed actinide nuclei Motivation:explore the multiple-humped potential energy landscapeof hyperdeformed heavy actinide nuclei with unprecedented resolutionExperimental approach:photofission (g,f) using brilliant photon beams of ~3-10 MeVindividually resolve resonances in prompt fission cross sectionlaser-generated high-energy photon flux exceeds conventionalfacilities by ~Example:238U(g,f):hyperdeformed 3rd potentialminimum has not yet beenstudied at all
47Nuclear transitions and parity-violating meson-nucleon coupling Motivation:study mirror asymmetries in the nuclear resonancefluorescence process (NRF):parity non-conservation as indication of fundamentalrole of exchange processes of weakly interactingbosons in nucleon-nucleon interactionExperimental approach:use ultra-brilliant, (circular) polarized,monochromatic g ray beams (typ.: keV)switch polarization measure NRF g asymmetryExample: 19F (parity doublet: DE=109.9 keV)
60Become an ELI enthusiast Thank youBecome an ELI enthusiastYou can
614D imaging of electronic Control & 4D imaging of valence & core electrons with sub-atomic resolutionattosecondxuv / sxrpulsesub-fselectronbunch0.1-1 GeV5-10 MeVPetawattFieldSynthesizer12: alle „Knödel“ sollten gleich zu Beginn erscheinen, d.h. die ersten beiden Mausklicke sind überflüssig4D imaging of electronicmotion in atoms,molecules and solidsby means of attosecondelectron or X-raydiffractionsub-fs x-raypulseFriedrich-Schiller-UniversitätJena, Germany
62How : investigate new schemes The ELI facilty could be usedto produce « real » X-ray lasersShorter wavelengths lasersthan never obtained : < nm rangeHow : investigate new schemes- inner-shell of heavy ions- transitions in nuclear transitions
63HHG and Subfemtosecond Pulses from Surfaces of Overdense Plasmas S.V. Bulanov, Naumova N M and Pegoraro F, Phys. Plasmas1 745(1994)D. Von der linde et al Phys. Rev. A52 R 25, 1995L. Plaja et al. JOSA B, 15, 1904 (1998)S. Gordienko et al PRL 93, (2004)N.M. Naumova et.al., PRL 92, (2004)Tsakiris, G., et al., New Journal of Physics, 8, 19 (2006)
64Reflected radiation spectra: the slow power-law decay 1D simulation1101001000n/0I ~ 8/3a0=20a0=10a0=510210410610810101012Intensity, a.u.Gordienko, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004The Gaussian laser pulse a=a0exp[-(t/t)2]cosw0t is incident onto an overdense plasma layer with n=30nc.The color lines correspond to laser amplitudes a0=5,10,20. The broken line marks the analytical scaling I ~ w-8/3.Possibility to produce zeptosecond pulses!!!
65Multi-keV HarmonicsB. Dromey, M. Zepf et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007)
66Relativistic High Harmonics: Train of Attosecond Pulses Yet some applications require single attosecond pulses! Can we extract one pulse from the train?
67Two large Laser Infrastructures Have Been Selected to be on the ESFRI (European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmapa - HIPER, civilian laser fusion research (using the“fast ignition scheme”) and all applications of ultrahigh energy laserb - ELI, reaching highest intensities (Exawatt) andapplicationsELI has been the first Infrastructure launched byBrussels November 1st 2007
69Towards the Critical Field For I=1022W/cm2 a02 =104The pulse duration t= 600 /a0 ~ 6asThe wavelength ~ l/1000The Focal volume decreases ~ 10-8The Efficiency~ 10%Intensity I=1022W/cm I=1028W/cm2
70Extreme Light Infrastructure ELI ELI Workshop on“Fundamental Physics with Ultra-High Fields”FrauenworthSept.28-Oct.2,2008Gérard A. MOUROULaboratoire d’Optique Appliquée – LOAENSTA – Ecole Polytechnique – CNRSPALAISEAU, Francei am going to present you some recent works on the production of x-ray radiation using laser produced plasmas.I am from the PXF group at LOA in france and our goal is to produced bright femtosecond x-ray sources and use these source to do applications in the so called ultrafastx-ray Science.Recently, thanks to the advent of high intensity lasers it is possible to generate energetic, very collimated, and short pulses electrons beams.I will show you one way to use these electron to produce femtosecond x-ray beams.