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A Freudian Perspective Psychology A. Dr Sigmund Freud 1856- 1939 Oldest of eight children Married with 3 girls and 3 boys Jewish-anti-religion-All religion.

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Presentation on theme: "A Freudian Perspective Psychology A. Dr Sigmund Freud 1856- 1939 Oldest of eight children Married with 3 girls and 3 boys Jewish-anti-religion-All religion."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Freudian Perspective Psychology A

2 Dr Sigmund Freud Oldest of eight children Married with 3 girls and 3 boys Jewish-anti-religion-All religion an illusion used to cope with feelings of infantile helplessness Based theory on personal experiences Died of cancer of jaw & mouth lifelong chain-smoker

3 Freud To have a look in the Freud Museum click here. To have a look in the Freud Museum click here.

4 Freuds Psychoanalytic Approach: Model of personality development Method of Psychotherapy Identified dynamic factors that motivate behaviour Focused on role of unconscious

5 Determinism According to Freud behaviour is determined by : –Irrational forces –Unconscious motivations –Biological and instinctual drives as they evolve through the six psychosexual stages of life

6 Instincts Libido – sexual energy – Pleasure principle – goal of life gain pleasure and avoid pain Death instinct – accounts for aggressive drive – to die or to hurt themselves or others Sex and aggressive drives-powerful determinants of peoples actions

7 The Structure of Personality THE ID The Demanding Child –Ruled by the pleasure principle THE EGO The Adult –Ruled by the reality principle THE SUPEREGO The Judge –Ruled by the moral principle

8 The mind is an iceberg The id and superego are below the surface Only the ego is on the conscious level.

9 Id Basic psychic energy and motivations Operates to demands of Pleasure Principle - strive to satisfy desires and reduce inner tension The Demanding Child

10 Ego Deals with real world Operates to demands of Reality Principle solves problems by planning & acting The Adult

11 Superego Internalised social norm & moral forces pressing on and constraining individual action Acts as our conscience The Judge

12 Psychosexual Theory of Development Five Stages of Development Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Latency Period Genital Stage

13 Defense Mechanisms To protect the ego against the painful and threatening impulses arising from the id we distort the reality The processes that distort the reality for the ego are called defense mechanisms

14 Types of Defense Mechanisms Repression Reaction Formation DenialRegressionSublimation

15 What is the Unconscious That portion of the mind inaccessible to usual, conscious thought Get to unconscious through Free Association: spontaneous free flowing associations of ideas and feelings

16 The Unconscious Clinical evidence for the unconscious mind: –Dreams –Slips of the tongue –Posthypnotic suggestions –Material derived from free-association –Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms

17 Dream Interpretation Royal road to the unconscious What is important in dreams is the infantile wish fulfillment represented in them Freud assumed every dream has a meaning that can be interpreted by decoding representations of the unconscious material Dream symbol = represents some person, thing, or activity involved in the unconscious process

18 Dream Interpretations Knife, umbrella, snake = Penis Box, oven, ship = Uterus Room, table with food = Women Staircase, ladder = Sexual intercourse Baldness, tooth removal = castration Left (direction) = crime, sexual deviation Fire = bedwetting Robber = father Falling = anxiety

19 Freudian Slip Psychological error in speaking or writing Evidence of some unconscious urge, desire, or conflict & struggle When ego or superego are not doing their job properly elements of id slip out or are seen

20 Psychoanalytic Techniques Free Association –Client reports immediately without censoring any feelings or thoughts Interpretation –Therapist points out, explains, and teaches the meanings of whatever is revealed Dream Analysis –Therapist uses the royal road to the unconscious to bring unconscious material to light

21 Contributions of Freud First personality & psychotherapy theory Emphasis on sexuality as influence Importance of early childhood experience Concept of unconscious Emphasis on Helper Role in therapeutic relationship Scientific approach to mental health on continuum from physical health

22 Limitations of Freuds Work Pessimistic and deterministic approach to personality No controlled studies-poor research Overemphasis on differences between men and women Unconcerned with interpersonal relations, individual identity and adaptation over ones lifetime

23 Freuds Heritage Learn how Freudian ideas have been used in Public Relations campaigns. See how psychoanalysts encouraged women to smoke See how psychoanalysts encouraged women to smoke Find out about how the Freud dynasty have used Freudian ideas to their advantage. Find out how we have been influenced by Freudian ideas in this compelling social history. Find out how we have been influenced by Freudian ideas in this compelling social history.

24 To further your interest To visit the Freud Archive - click here click hereclick here Keep up to date with the latest research Psychology Today Psychology Today

25 Freudian Ideas and Film Makers Freudian Ideas have been used extensively by British Film Makers – click on the link below Screen Online Screen Online Watch clips from the film Black Narcissus to see Freudian Ideas at work Watch clips from the film Black Narcissus to see Freudian Ideas at work


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