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Dena Kniess and Dr. Pamela A. Havice SACSA Conference November 5, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Dena Kniess and Dr. Pamela A. Havice SACSA Conference November 5, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dena Kniess and Dr. Pamela A. Havice SACSA Conference November 5, 2012

2 Background of the Study Purpose of the Study Research Questions Review of the Literature Theoretical Framework Summary

3 Gaps in literature for second to third year retention (Nora, Barlow, & Crisp, 2005) Difference in persistence rates for minority students from second to third year (Smith, 1995) Issues of retention and persistence for minority students are viewed similar to those of majority students (Rendon, Jalomo, & Nora, 2000)

4 The purpose of this study is to build upon the existing base of research pertaining to the second-year experience in college. The goal of the study is to better understand the experiences of minority college students in their second-year of college and to discover ways to improve their in- and out-of-class learning experiences.

5 Primary research question What are the experiences of minority college students during their second- year at a college or university? Secondary research questions How do minority students experience the in- classroom and out-of classroom environments during their second-year? What relationships are important for minority students during their second-year?

6 Second-Year Student Needs Student Development Theory Second-Year Student Development Identity Development Theories African American Identity Development Latino/a Identity Development

7 Career and major decisions (Gardner, 2000) Students have not had an opportunity to take classes in major (Graunke & Woosley, 2005) Mentoring relationships Fewest encounters with faculty outside the classroom (Gardner, 2000) Intellectual engagement Reduced motivation or sophomore slump (Anderson & Schreiner, 2000)

8 Chickerings Psychosocial Identity Development Theory Struggle with developing competence, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, establishing identity, and developing purpose Perrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development Still in dualistic position were there are definite right and wrong answers (Boivin, Fountain, & Baylis, 2000)

9 Large, residential, public, four-year research institution in the Southeast 14,000 undergraduate students 2,700 undergraduate students in second- year of study

10 Conducted during Spring semester 2011 Three undergraduate African American students in their junior year Two themes emerged from data Academic adjustment Relationships Significance of pilot study

11 I mean, freshman year, is general ed and kinda you have to put in effort, but not that much effort and sophomore year you had to put in ten times more effort and so learning how to actually put forth effort was that. Carl, Junior

12 Well, I think that first semester my grades falling, um, like that was a hard hump to get over because I saw it as, okay so this is my second year so I could either pick it up or give it up and I chose to pick it up because I was like well, failure isnt an option. Lisa, Junior

13 Described apartment living as … you were farther away from your friends, but I had friends in my apartment … I could say the friends in my apartment were my friends, but it separated me a little bit from some, but drew me closer to others … Casey, Junior

14 Learning who were their true friends Talked about forming relationships with professors Either were mentored or mentored others

15 Friends not returning for the second year had one individual questioning their place at the institution … like as a minority it helps to see more minorities like me that have made it, you know. Because, you know to be honest, nobody really expects for a minority to rise to the occasion, … Lisa, Junior

16 Get into groups of 4-5 with individuals around you Talk about the second-year experience at your institution: How would your student population describe their second year? Do you think it would be similar or different for underrepresented groups? What support structures are in place to help students through their second-year at your institution?

17 Dena R. Kniess Associate Director, New Student and Family Programs Clemson University Dr. Pamela A. Havice Associate Professor, Leadership, Counselor Education, and Human and Organizational Development Clemson University

18 Anderson, E.C. & Schreiner, L.A. (2000). Advising for sophomore success. In L.A. Schreiner & J. Pattengale (eds.), Visible solutions for invisible students: Helping sophomores succeed (Monograph No. 31) (pp.55 – 65). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students In Transition. Baldwin, J.A., Duncan, J.A., & Bell, Y.R. (1992). Assessment of African self consciousness among Black students from two college environments. In A.K.H. Burlew, W.C. Banks, H. P. McAdoo, and D. Azibo (Eds.), African American psychology, Theory, research, and practice (pp ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Boivin, M., Fountain, G.A., & Baylis, B. (2000). Meeting the challenges of the sophomore year. In L.A. Schreiner & J. Pattengale (Eds.), Visible solutions for invisible students: Helping sophomores succeed (Monograph No. 31) (pp.1 – 18). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students In Transition. Bourdieu, P. (1971). Systems of education and systems of thought. In M.K.D. Young (ed.), Knowledge and control: New directions for the sociology of education, pp London: Collier Macmillan. Bourdieu, P. (1973). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In R. Brown (ed.), Knowledge, education and cultural change, pp London: Tavistock.

19 Chickering, A.W., & Reisser, L (1993). Education and identity (2 nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five approaches (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Creswell, J.W. (2009). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five approaches (3 rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cross, W.E., Jr. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Cross, W.E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of nigrescence: Revising the Cross model. In J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Casas, L.A. Suzuki, and C.M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ferdman, B.M. & Gallegos, P.I. (2001). Racial identity development and Latinos in the United States. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe and B.W. Jackson III (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp.32-66). New York: New York University Press. Gardner, P.D. (2000). From drift to engagement: Finding purpose and making career connections in the sophomore year. In L.A. Schreiner & J. Pattengale (Eds.), Visible solutions for invisible students: Helping sophomores succeed (Monograph No. 31) (pp.67 – 77). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students In Transition.

20 Graunke, S.S. & Woosley, S.A. (2005). An exploration of factors that affect the academic success of college sophomores. College Student Journal 39, 2, Hycner, R.H. (1985). Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. Human Studies, 8, 3, Jackson, B.W. (1976). Black identity development. In L.H. Golubchick and B. Persky (Eds.), Urban social and educational issues (pp ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt. Jackson, B.W. (2001). Black identity development: Further analysis and elaboration. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe and B.W. Jackson (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp. 8-31). New York: New York University Press. Keefe, S.E. & Padilla, A.M. (1987). Chicano ethnicity. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Lopez, R.A. & Willis, D.G. (2004). Descriptive versus interpretive phenomenology: Their contributions to nursing knowledge. Qualitative Health Research, 14, 5, Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Nora, A., Barlow, E., & Crisp, G. (2005). Student persistence and degree attainment beyond the first year in college. In A.Seidman (Ed.), College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success (pp ), Wesport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

21 Rendon, L.I., Jalomo, R.E., & Nora, A. (2000). Theoretical considerations in the study of minority student retention in higher education. In J.M. Braxton. (Ed.), Reworking the Student Departure Puzzle (pp ), Nashville: Vanderbuilt University Press. Robinson, T.L. & Howard-Hamilton, M.F. (1994). An Afrocentric paradigm: Foundation for a healthy self-image and healthy interpersonal relationships. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 16, 3, Schaller, M.A. (2005). Wandering and wondering: Traversing the uneven terrain of the second college year. About Campus 10, 3, Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences (3 rd edition). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Sipe, L. & Constable, S. (1996). A chart of four paradigms: Metaphors for the modes of inquiry. Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, 1, Smith, T.Y. (1995, May). The retention status of underrepresented minority students: An analysis of survey results from sixty-seven U.S. colleges and universities. Paper presented at symposium conducted at the AIR 35 th Annual Forum, Boston, MA. Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2 nd edition). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

22 Torres, V. (2003). Influences on ethnic identity development of Latino college students in the first two years of college. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 4, Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. New York: The State University of New York Press. Yosso, T.L. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 1,


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