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Dr. Dena Kniess & Dr. Tony Cawthon ACPA Conference March 31, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Dena Kniess & Dr. Tony Cawthon ACPA Conference March 31, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Dena Kniess & Dr. Tony Cawthon ACPA Conference March 31, 2014

2 Background of the Study Purpose of the Study Research Questions Review of the Literature Theoretical Framework Summary

3 Gaps in literature for second to third year retention (Nora, Barlow, & Crisp, 2005) Difference in persistence rates for minority students from second to third year (Smith, 1995) Issues of retention and persistence for minority students are viewed similar to those of majority students (Rendon, Jalomo, & Nora, 2000)

4 The purpose of this study was to build upon the existing base of research pertaining to the second-year experience in college. The goal of the study was to better understand the experiences of underrepresented college students in their second-year of college and to discover ways to improve their in- and out-of- class learning experiences.

5 Primary research question What are the experiences of underrepresented college students during their second- year at a college or university? Secondary research questions How do underrepresented students experience the in-classroom and out-of classroom environments during their second-year? What relationships are important for underrepresented students during their second- year?

6 Second-Year Student Needs Student Development Theory Second-Year Student Development Identity Development Theories African American Identity Development Latino/a Identity Development

7 Career and major decisions (Gardner, 2000) Students have not had an opportunity to take classes in major (Graunke & Woosley, 2005) Mentoring relationships Fewest encounters with faculty outside the classroom (Gardner, 2000) Intellectual engagement Reduced motivation or sophomore slump (Anderson & Schreiner, 2000)

8 Chickerings Psychosocial Identity Development Theory Struggle with developing competence, moving through autonomy toward interdependence, establishing identity, and developing purpose Perrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development Still in dualistic position were there are definite right and wrong answers (Boivin, Fountain, & Baylis, 2000)

9 Large, residential, public, four-year research institution in the Southeast 14,000 undergraduate students 2,700 undergraduate students in second- year of study

10 Conducted during Spring semester 2011 Three undergraduate African American students in their junior year Two themes emerged from data Academic adjustment Relationships Significance of pilot study Yossos (2005) Cultural Capital

11 Conducted during 2012-2013 academic year Twelve undergraduate students in their second-year 11 African American/Black 1 Hispanic/Latino Focus groups, individual interviews, and observations

12 Five themes emerged from coded focus groups, interviews: Family matters Finding my community The power of commitments Quest for balance Strategizing second-year student success

13 Family member, teachers, or coach influenced choice of institution I decided to go to Southeast … it was actually because my biology teacher from my high school, actually recommended that I come here because I was so in love with biology and science and she thought that this school was the best one … (Tiffani, 19, Biological Sciences major)

14 First-year at institution was mainly finding friends, faculty, and other support systems My first year here, it was really good. It was a lot of stress, too. Just trying to find friends and everything. It was kind of just a huge shock to be around so many people because the high school I went to had about 200 people … And so, I really struggled to find friends early on, but I got involved with CRU campus ministry and, I found my best friends through that, so thats a blessing. (Stefano, 19, Philosophy with Religious Studies major)

15 Nine (9) out of twelve (12) participants indicated they considered leaving the institution after their first year As far as organizations are concerned that made me want to stick around, Southeast Black Student Union was the main one, because I realized that in me leaving Southeast and going to another school, I would not only be giving up on Southeast, but I would be … I felt I would be giving up on the people that I had met here, like, more specifically like the Black community, and then other incoming, like, Black students. (Brian, 19, Communication Studies major)

16 All twelve (12) participants indicated that their second-year was better or going better than the first year, but struggled to find balance Yeah, theres a lot of pressure and its always pushed in your face that you need to be well-rounded, so you try to get in a little bit of everything, but a little bit of everything ends up being so much. (Sophie, 20, Environmental Engineering major)

17 Common words used were: Hard work Determination Motivation Strong study habits Prayer Involvement Time management A support system Learning from mistakes

18 You have to have your own self-motivation. You have to be organized, responsible, and … prayer, or course. But theres something else I was going to say, but I forgot. But … yeah, you just have to realize your own potential and utilize it correctly. (Sophie, 20, Environmental Engineering major) … an aspect of being a successful student is being forward- thinking because a lot of students get stuck in thinking of the now … but if you can just remember and imagine that everything is leading for a greater purpose, you will be a successful student. (Brian, 19, Communication Studies major)

19 Four of six forms of Yossos (2005) cultural capital were present: Familial Aspirational Social Navigational

20 First-year peer mentoring groups Incorporate structured reflection into curricular and co-curricular initiatives or programs Utilize strengths-based approaches in programming

21 More longitudinal studies on college student experiences Intersectional approaches to understanding second-year experience Incorporating Environmental Theory (Strange & Banning, 2001)

22 Get into groups of 4-5 with individuals around you Talk about the second-year experience at your institution: How would your student population describe their second year? Do you think it would be similar or different for underrepresented groups? What support structures are in place to help students through their second-year at your institution?

23 Dr. Dena Kniess Assistant Professor, College Student Affairs Program Eastern Illinois University drkniess@eiu.edu Dr. Tony Cawthon Professor, Leadership, Counselor Education, and Human Development Eugene T. Moore School of Education Clemson University cawthot@clemson.edu

24 Anderson, E.C. & Schreiner, L.A. (2000). Advising for sophomore success. In L.A. Schreiner & J. Pattengale (eds.), Visible solutions for invisible students: Helping sophomores succeed (Monograph No. 31) (pp.55 – 65). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students In Transition. Baldwin, J.A., Duncan, J.A., & Bell, Y.R. (1992). Assessment of African self consciousness among Black students from two college environments. In A.K.H. Burlew, W.C. Banks, H. P. McAdoo, and D. Azibo (Eds.), African American psychology, Theory, research, and practice (pp. 283-299). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Boivin, M., Fountain, G.A., & Baylis, B. (2000). Meeting the challenges of the sophomore year. In L.A. Schreiner & J. Pattengale (Eds.), Visible solutions for invisible students: Helping sophomores succeed (Monograph No. 31) (pp.1 – 18). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students In Transition. Bourdieu, P. (1971). Systems of education and systems of thought. In M.K.D. Young (ed.), Knowledge and control: New directions for the sociology of education, pp.189- 207. London: Collier Macmillan. Bourdieu, P. (1973). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In R. Brown (ed.), Knowledge, education and cultural change, pp. 487-510. London: Tavistock.

25 Chickering, A.W., & Reisser, L (1993). Education and identity (2 nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five approaches (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Creswell, J.W. (2009). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five approaches (3 rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cross, W.E., Jr. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Cross, W.E., Jr. (1995). The psychology of nigrescence: Revising the Cross model. In J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Casas, L.A. Suzuki, and C.M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp.93-122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ferdman, B.M. & Gallegos, P.I. (2001). Racial identity development and Latinos in the United States. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe and B.W. Jackson III (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp.32-66). New York: New York University Press. Gardner, P.D. (2000). From drift to engagement: Finding purpose and making career connections in the sophomore year. In L.A. Schreiner & J. Pattengale (Eds.), Visible solutions for invisible students: Helping sophomores succeed (Monograph No. 31) (pp.67 – 77). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students In Transition.

26 Graunke, S.S. & Woosley, S.A. (2005). An exploration of factors that affect the academic success of college sophomores. College Student Journal 39, 2, 367-376. Hycner, R.H. (1985). Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. Human Studies, 8, 3, 279-303. Jackson, B.W. (1976). Black identity development. In L.H. Golubchick and B. Persky (Eds.), Urban social and educational issues (pp. 158-164). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt. Jackson, B.W. (2001). Black identity development: Further analysis and elaboration. In C.L. Wijeyesinghe and B.W. Jackson (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp. 8-31). New York: New York University Press. Keefe, S.E. & Padilla, A.M. (1987). Chicano ethnicity. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Lopez, R.A. & Willis, D.G. (2004). Descriptive versus interpretive phenomenology: Their contributions to nursing knowledge. Qualitative Health Research, 14, 5, 726-735. Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Nora, A., Barlow, E., & Crisp, G. (2005). Student persistence and degree attainment beyond the first year in college. In A.Seidman (Ed.), College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success (pp. 128-153), Wesport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

27 Rendon, L.I., Jalomo, R.E., & Nora, A. (2000). Theoretical considerations in the study of minority student retention in higher education. In J.M. Braxton. (Ed.), Reworking the Student Departure Puzzle (pp. 127-156), Nashville: Vanderbuilt University Press. Robinson, T.L. & Howard-Hamilton, M.F. (1994). An Afrocentric paradigm: Foundation for a healthy self-image and healthy interpersonal relationships. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 16, 3, 327-340. Schaller, M.A. (2005). Wandering and wondering: Traversing the uneven terrain of the second college year. About Campus 10, 3, 17-24. Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences (3 rd edition). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Sipe, L. & Constable, S. (1996). A chart of four paradigms: Metaphors for the modes of inquiry. Taboo: The Journal of Culture and Education, 1, 153-163. Smith, T.Y. (1995, May). The retention status of underrepresented minority students: An analysis of survey results from sixty-seven U.S. colleges and universities. Paper presented at symposium conducted at the AIR 35 th Annual Forum, Boston, MA. Strange, C. C., & Banning, J. H. (2001). Educating by design. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass. Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2 nd edition). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

28 Torres, V. (2003). Influences on ethnic identity development of Latino college students in the first two years of college. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 4, 532- 547. Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. New York: The State University of New York Press. Yosso, T.L. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 1, 69-91.


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