Presentation on theme: "Seasonal & Daily Temperatures"— Presentation transcript:
1Seasonal & Daily Temperatures This chapter discusses:The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing local, seasonal, & daily temperature variationsMethods & tools for measuring temperature
2Four factors that determine how much radiation is received by the Earth at a given location: Sphericity of the EarthAxial TiltElliptical Orbit of The EarthDaily Earth Rotation
3Seasons & Sun's Distance Earth's surface is 5 million kilometers further from the sun in summer than in winter, indicating that seasonal warmth is controlled by more than solar proximity.
4Seasons & Solar Intensity Solar intensity, defined as the energy per area, governs earth's seasonal changes.A common unit for solar intensity is Watts per meter square (Wm-2). The solar intensity hitting directly at the top of the atmosphere is about 1380 Wm-2.A sunlight beam that strikes at an angle is spread across a greater surface area, and is a less intense heat source than a beam impinging directly.
5Solstice & EquinoxEqual AmountDirect Sunlight at 23.5°SDirect Sunlight at 23.5°NEqual AmountEarth's tilt of 23.5° and revolution around the sun creates seasonal solar exposure and heating patterns.A solstice tilt keeps a polar region with either 24 hours of light or darkness.A equinox tilt perfectly provides 12 hours of night and 12 hours of day for all non-polar regions.
624 Hours of DaylightDuring the summer, north of the arctic circle reveals a period of 24 hour sunlight, where the earth's surface does not rotate out of solar exposure, but instead experiences a midnight sun.
7Earth's Tilt & Atmosphere 23.5Earth's atmosphere reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation (insolation) striking earth's surface.This figure shows the insolation for the top of the atmosphere and the surface of the earth on the summer solstice.So insolation is larger at 30° than 23.5° even though the sun is directly overhead why?more moisture and daylight
8Earth's TiltEarth's atmosphere and tilt combine to explain variation in received solar radiation.Notice the difference between the top and bottom of the atmosphere at different latitudes.
10Earth's Unequal Heating This figure shows the relative amount of solar radiation received at the earth’s surface from 90 °S to 90°N on the winter solstice.Insolation is not evenly distributed across all lines of latitude, creating a heating imbalance.
11Earth's Energy BalanceThis figure illustrates the average annual incoming solar radiation absorbed and outgoing infrared radiation from the earth and the atmosphere.Earth's annual energy balance between solar insolation and terrestrial infrared radiation is achieved locally at only two lines of latitude.A global balance is maintained by excess heat from the equatorial region transferring toward the poles.So basically, the surplus heat from the tropically region is transported to the pole regions where deficit exists.
12Longer Northern Spring & Summer FasterSlowerEarth reaches its greatest distance from the sun during a northern summer, and this slows its speed of revolution.The outcome is a spring and summer season 7 days longer (Mar 20 to Sept 22) than that experienced by the southern hemisphere.
13Local Solar ChangesThe apparent path of the sun across the sky as observed at different latitudes during the solstices and equinoxes.Summer noon time sun in the northern mid-latitudes is also higher above the horizon than the winter sun.
14Daytime Warming (daily temperature variation) Solar radiation heats the atmosphere from below by soil conduction and gas convection.Compare temperature profiles between Windy and calm days near the surface – do you see the difference?Windless DayLarge temperature change in the lowest layer by conductionVertical MixingWinds create a “forced convection” of vertical mixing that diminishes steep temperature gradients.
15The maximum intensity of solar rays peaks around noon but the daily high temperature is usually observed later in the afternoon. So why the discrepancy?Temperature LagEarth's surface temperature is a balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation.Peak temperature lags after peak incoming solar energy because earth continues to warm until infrared radiation exceeds incoming solar energy.The highest temperature reading usually occurs between 3 – 5 P.M. local time.Orographic effect can play a role in max temp (i.e. Denver).Air Temperature risesAir Temperature falls
16Just how warm the air heats up depend on: Type of soilSand is a poor conductor of heat which helps to heat the atmosphere even furtherMoisture ContentMore energy is used to evaporate the water and less is being used to heat the atmosphereVegetation coverForest Canopy versus corn field versus open grass fieldHumidityAlong with haze and cloudiness tends to lower maximum temperature by preventing some of the sun’s rays from reaching the ground
18Nighttime CoolingCalm NightVertical MixingEarth's surface has efficient radiational cooling, which creates a temperature inversion that may be diminished by winds.Earth's nighttime cooling is influence by:1) evening length,2) water vapor3) clouds4) vegetation affect
20Cold Dense Air Warm Warm Cold Nighttime radiational cooling increases air density.Air density is related temperature under the ideal gas law.Pressure = density × gas constant × temperatureOn hill slopes, denser air settles to the valley bottom, creating a thermal belt of warmer air between lower and upper cooler air.
21The image to the left shows how the temperature near the ground can change dramatically in a 24 hour time span. This example is for a a grass field on a clear, calm summer day over a city in the US.Although the greatest temperature observed is associated with the “noon” temperature profile but the warmest temperature profile two feet above the ground is the “3 PM” temperature profile.
22Protecting Crops from Below Impacts of radiational cooling can be diminished by orchard heaters creating convection currents to warm from below and by wind machines mixing warmer air from above.
23Protecting Crops from Above Crops subjected to below freezing air are not helped by convection or mixing, but by spraying water.The cold air uses much of its energy to freeze the water, leaving less to take temperatures below 0°C that damage the crop.
24Factors Controlling the Temperature Earth's air temperature is governed by length of day and intensity of Sun’s energy, which are a function of:Latitude (Primary)2) Land and water (Secondary)3) Ocean currents (Secondary)4) Elevation (Secondary)
25January Global Isotherms Latitudes determine that earth's air temperatures are warmer at the equator than at the poles, but land/water, ocean currents, and elevation create additional variations.
26July Global IsothermsThe southern hemisphere has fewer land masses and more ocean currents that encircle the globe, creating isotherms that are more zonal than those in the northern hemisphere.
27Water has a higher specific heat than land. Specific heat - is the amount of heat a substance needs to raise the temperature of one gram by one degree Celsius.Water not only heats slower but it also cools slower as well.Oceans and Large Lakes act as heat reservoirs.
28Air TemperatureThere are several ways to present air temperature data with respect to climate:DailyMonthlyYearlyFrom these 3 climatological values, air temperature can be subcategorized into 4 groups:Range: maximum minus minimumMean: average of temperature observationsMaximum: highest temperature of time periodMinimum: lowest temperature of time period
29Daily (Diurnal) Temperature Range The greatest daily temperature variation occurs at the earth’s surfaceEarth's surface efficiently absorbs solar energy and efficiently radiates infrared energy, creating a large diurnal temperature range (max/min) in the lower atmosphere.Moisture can affect the diurnal temperature range.~ 98 Floor building
30Cloud Cover VS. Clear Skies Cloud cover can play a vital role on impacting the daily air temperature.Clouds are good absorber of IR but poor absorber of visible light.Earth’s longwave radiation can escape through the atmosphere via the atmospheric window (8 – 11 μm).
31Regional Temperatures Regional differences in temperature, from annual or daily, are influenced by:1) geography, such as latitude, altitude2) nearby water or ocean currents3) heat generated in the urban areaSan Francisco, CA and Richmond, VA are located at 37ºN.
32Continental interior areas, such as St Continental interior areas, such as St. Louis Missouri, have large annual temperature variations.Areas surrounding by a large body of water have smaller differences between the coldest and warmest monthly temperatures.
33Use of Temperature Data Heating degree-dayBased on the assumption that people will begin to use their furnaces when the mean daily temperature drops below 65 °F.Determined by subtracting the average temperature of the day from 65 °F.Example: If the mean high was 63 °F then the heating degree-day is 2.Cooling degree-dayBased on the assumption that people will begin to use their air conditioners when the mean daily temperature rises above 65 °F.Determined by subtracting 65 °F from the daily average temperature.Growing degree-dayBased on the approximate number of days for a certain plant to fully grow for harvest.Computed by using a base temperature where the plant can grow (daily mean temp - base temp).
34Heating Degree Day1 = 1000 ºFTemperature data are analyzed to determine when living space will likely be heated (e.g. when below 65 °F) and how much fuel is required for that region.
35Cooling Degree Days 1 = 1000 ºF Daily temperature data are also used to determine cooling loads for living space above 65 °F, as well as growing hours for specific crops above a base temperature.
37Human Comfort and Air Temperature Sensible temperature - is the temperature that we perceive higher than a thermometer; often during calm cold days or nights. This is caused by the the thin layer of warm air molecules that forms close to the skin via conduction and convectionWind Chill Index - how cold the wind makes us feel; the faster the wind, the greater the heat loss thereby making us feel colder.
39Measuring Air Temperature Liquid-in-glass thermometerUsed for measuring surface air temperature; easy to read and cheap to makeMaximum thermometerSimilar to liquid-in-glass except it records the maximum temperature until it is manually deleted or surpassedMinimum thermometerSimilar to liquid-in-glass except it records the minimum temperature; made out of alcohol due to its lower freezing levelElectrical thermometers (thermistor and electrical resistance thermometer)Highly accurate; measure the electrical resistance of a particular material which is calibrated to represents the air temperatureRadiometer or infrared sensorDo not make direct measurement but rather measure emitted radiationBimetallic thermometerContain 2 pieces of metal (usually iron and brass) welded together; as brass expands faster than iron in higher temperature causing the piece to bend; this bending determines air temperature; an important part of a thermograph (an instrument that measures and records temperature)