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Seasonal & Diurnal Temp Variations ATS351 Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Seasonal & Diurnal Temp Variations ATS351 Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seasonal & Diurnal Temp Variations ATS351 Lecture 3

2 Earth-Sun Distance Change in distance has only a minimal effect on seasonal temperature. Change in distance has only a minimal effect on seasonal temperature. Note that during the N. hemisphere winter, we are CLOSER to the sun! Note that during the N. hemisphere winter, we are CLOSER to the sun!

3 Eccentricity Changes the distance from the Earth to the sun Changes the distance from the Earth to the sun Aphelion: Farthest from sun Aphelion: Farthest from sun Perihelion: Closest to sun Perihelion: Closest to sun Today’s difference between aphelion and perihelion ~ 3% Today’s difference between aphelion and perihelion ~ 3% Results in about a 7% increase in received solar radiation in January than in July Results in about a 7% increase in received solar radiation in January than in July Max eccentricity would result in 20-30% more solar energy received at aphelion Max eccentricity would result in 20-30% more solar energy received at aphelion Eccentricity Varies on 100,000 year timescales The Earth’s orbit goes from being elliptical to nearly circular Period: ~ days

4 Earth’s Axis Tilt: 23.5° Tilt: 23.5° Rotation is counterclockwise (when viewed from the North Pole)‏ Rotation is counterclockwise (when viewed from the North Pole)‏ This is why the sun rises in east and sets in west This is why the sun rises in east and sets in west This is why we have seasons This is why we have seasons

5 Obliquity ~41,000 year cycle Greater the tilt, greater the difference in season

6 Precession of the Axis ~23,000 year cycle ~23,000 year cycle Axis points to a different star Axis points to a different star This is not a change in Tilt! This is not a change in Tilt!

7 Radiation and Orbital Parameters Combined tilt, precession, and obliquity effects Combined tilt, precession, and obliquity effects change high-latitude insolation in summer by as much as 30%! Some Evidence that Some Evidence that cycles affect the climate cycles affect the climate Specifically these Specifically these cycles seem to be related to ice ages

8 Seasons Notice the change in the angle of incidence with season Notice the change in the angle of incidence with season

9 Solstice and Equinox During the equinox, there is exactly 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night everywhere on Earth. During the equinox, there is exactly 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night everywhere on Earth. During a solstice, there is either 24 hours of light or darkness, North or South of 66.5° (Arctic and Antarctic Circles)‏ During a solstice, there is either 24 hours of light or darkness, North or South of 66.5° (Arctic and Antarctic Circles)‏

10 Solstice and the Midnight Sun 24 hours of sunlight exposure during the summer solstice in the Arctic circle 24 hours of sunlight exposure during the summer solstice in the Arctic circle

11 The Solstice When the Sun reaches its farthest north or south point and begins to move back the other way, it can be thought that the earth “stands still” as far as the north or south axial movement is concerned – Latin: sol = sun; stice = standing When the sun reaches its northernmost point at the Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N), this is known in the NH as the summer solstice – ~21 st of June Southernmost, Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S) = winter solstice – ~22 nd of December

12 The Equinox On 2 specific days of the year, the sun crosses the equator, and on that day, day and night are of equal length On 2 specific days of the year, the sun crosses the equator, and on that day, day and night are of equal length Latin: equi = equal; nox = night Latin: equi = equal; nox = night Equinox = equal night Equinox = equal night When moving north, we call it the vernal (spring) equinox When moving north, we call it the vernal (spring) equinox ~20 th of March ~20 th of March On its way south, On its way south, the fall or autumnal equinox ~23 rd of September ~23 rd of September

13 Solar Intensity When sunlight is spread over a larger area it is a less intense heat source (Intensity = Power/Area)‏ When sunlight is spread over a larger area it is a less intense heat source (Intensity = Power/Area)‏ “Insolation” is a term we use for solar intensity “Insolation” is a term we use for solar intensity

14 Insolation

15 Daily Total Sunshine 75° N in June gets more sun than the equator 75° N in June gets more sun than the equator North-South temperature gradient is stronger in the winter North-South temperature gradient is stronger in the winter Very little change in the tropics Very little change in the tropics

16 Daytime Warming Daylight heats the atmosphere from below by conduction and convection Daylight heats the atmosphere from below by conduction and convection Convection leads to vertical mixing to even out vertical temperature gradients Convection leads to vertical mixing to even out vertical temperature gradients

17 Nighttime Cooling Radiational cooling creates a temperature inversion at the surface Radiational cooling creates a temperature inversion at the surface Cold dense air sinks Cold dense air sinks

18 The Diurnal Cycle Each day is like a mini seasonal cycle Each day is like a mini seasonal cycle We call this the ‘diurnal cycle’ We call this the ‘diurnal cycle’ Sun’s rays are most intense around noon Sun’s rays are most intense around noon Maximum temperatures lag the peak in insolation because until around 3-4 pm, there is more incoming solar radiation than there is radiative cooling Maximum temperatures lag the peak in insolation because until around 3-4 pm, there is more incoming solar radiation than there is radiative cooling

19 What Controls Daily Temperatures? Temperature strongly depends on: Temperature strongly depends on: Cloud cover Cloud cover Surface type Surface type Albedo (desert or forest?)‏ Albedo (desert or forest?)‏ Moisture Moisture Difference between north and south facing slopes Difference between north and south facing slopes Wind Wind Horizontal temperature advection Horizontal temperature advection

20 Annual Temperature Cycles Different environments effect the temperature cycle Different environments effect the temperature cycle Some Major factors: Some Major factors: Latitude Latitude Proximity to a body of water Proximity to a body of water Proximity to a mountain range Proximity to a mountain range Elevation Elevation

21 Global Temperatures January July

22 Land/Sea Breezes “Sea Breezes” form during the day when there is solar heating “Sea Breezes” form during the day when there is solar heating The land is heated which causes Air to rise The land is heated which causes Air to rise Air aloft flows outward from land to ocean Air aloft flows outward from land to ocean Surface air responds with flow towards land at the low levels Surface air responds with flow towards land at the low levels

23 LAND BREEZE SEA BREEZE Source: NOAA

24 Mountain/Valley Winds Sunlight heats mountain slopes during the day and they cool by radiation at night Air in contact with surface is heated/cooled in response A difference in air density is produced between air next to the mountainside and air at the same altitude away from the mountain Density difference produces upslope (day) or downslope (night) flow Daily upslope/downslope wind cycle is strongest in clear summer weather when prevailing winds are light

25 Upper Air Maps We have looked at surface station data We have looked at surface station data Now recall the vertical extent of the atmosphere Now recall the vertical extent of the atmosphere These layers show These layers show Complex temperature profile Complex temperature profile Decrease in pressure and density Decrease in pressure and density Let’s look at some examples Let’s look at some examples

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