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Innovative Strategies for Removing Emerging Contaminants for Indirect Potable Water Reuse - Oak Bluffs, MA Case Study Marc Drainville, PE BCEE LEED AP.

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Presentation on theme: "Innovative Strategies for Removing Emerging Contaminants for Indirect Potable Water Reuse - Oak Bluffs, MA Case Study Marc Drainville, PE BCEE LEED AP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovative Strategies for Removing Emerging Contaminants for Indirect Potable Water Reuse - Oak Bluffs, MA Case Study Marc Drainville, PE BCEE LEED AP | GHD Chandra Mysore, Ph.D., PE, BCEE | GHD Anastasia Rudenko, EIT | GHD Rhodes Copithorn, PE, BCEE | GHD

2 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Outline Background Emerging contaminants Plant data and current performance Technologies considered Characterization & bench-scale testing Current status

3 Background

4 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Plant location Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts (Marthas Vineyard) Population 3,713 (US census data)

5 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Wastewater treatment facility SBRs with primary clarifier, effluent filters, and UV Seasonal flows Wastewater: municipal and hospital flow Discharge to Ocean Park

6 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Project need New disposal area –Purchased new property adjacent to existing WWTF Requirements released March, 2009 include limitations for total organic carbon (TOC) –3.0 mg/L for discharge within a Zone II drinking water protection area and >2-year travel time to source –1.0 mg/L for discharge within a Zone II area and <2-year travel time to source –1.0 mg/L for discharge within a Zone II area without soil aquifer treatment TOC limit is a daily limit (24 hour composite sample)

7 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium

8 Emerging contaminants

9 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Emerging contaminants 31 million organic and inorganic substances documented 14 million commercially available < 250,000 inventoried or regulated Domestic, industrial & agricultural compounds: –Pharmaceuticals: prescription & non-prescription –Personal care products –Industrial & commercial products (detergents & metabolites, plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides) Potential Health Effects –EDCs –Carcinogens –Developmental toxicants

10 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Health effects of CEC Concentrations are very small – but what are the potential effects? Source: Virginia Department of Environmental Quality Chemical GroupCommon UsesReproductive Health Concerns Alkyl phenols and related chemicals Industrial and institutional cleaning sector (including domestic cleaning) Textile and leather processing Personal care products (PCPs) Pesticide Production Hormone mimicking activities Reduced male fertility, testicular size, sperm quality PhtalatesPlasticizers in PVC and special polymer applications Gelling agents Solvents and fixatives in cosmetics and other PCPs Testicular toxicity Reduced anogenital distance, cleft phallus, hypospadias and undescended testes in immature males Reduced male and female fertility Fetal toxicity (possibly leading to death or malformations) Bromated flame retardants As flame retardants in industrial and electrical appliances, vehicles, lighting, wiring as well as textiles, furnishing and insulating materials such as polystyrene Estrogen mimicking Birth defects in rodents documented Impacts on nervous system and behavioral development Organotin Compounds PVC UV stabilizers Argochemicals and biocides Antifoulants Catalysts Inhibition of steroid hormone production Adverse impact on in-utero development of fetus including abnormalities in genital development in male fetuses Bisphenol-A and its derivatives Production of polycarbonate plastic used in products like baby bottles, CDs, motorcycle windshields, etc. Production of epoxy resin used in things like food packaging Estrogenic activity Altered male reproductive organs Early puberty induction Reduced breast feeding Artificial MusksFragrance mixtures for detergents, fabric conditioners, cleaning agents, air fresheners, and other household products Cosmetic products such as soaps, shampoos, and perfumes Estrogenic activity Anti-estrogenic activity

11 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Why TOC? TOC as a surrogate for many contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) Studies have shown that Pharmaceuticals & Personal Care Products (PPCPs) adsorb on to particulates of organic carbon, hence removal of TOC provides for removal of PPCPs.

12 Plant data and current performance

13 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Plant data Design Flow = 370,000 gpd Design Peak Flow = 1.3 mgd Current status: ~ 40% design flow

14 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Historical TOC data

15 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Water quality data Water Quality ParameterUnitInfluentEffluent pHSU Alkalinitymg/L19090 Ammonia (unionized) mg/L262.7 Total Nitrogenmg/L455.3 Total Phosphorousmg/L CBOD 5 mg/L2003 CODmg/L55055 TSSmg/L943 UV Absorbance(1/cm) TOCmg/L8112 DOCmg/L8111

16 Technologies considered

17 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Technologies to achieve less than 3.0 mg/L (post-tertiary) Membrane filtration –Nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration Ion exchange Adsorption (GAC) Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) Coagulation and filtration

18 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Process alternatives

19 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Process alternatives

20 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Membranes Requires pretreatment to minimize fouling May require post-treatment for water chemistry stabilization Concentrate disposal required (high salinity RO concentrate) Excellent TOC and CEC removal

21 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Ion exchange Continuous process with magnetized anionic exchange resin designed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal DOC exchanged with chloride ions on the MIEX resin surface, resin has to be regenerated Brine disposal required Potential for good DOC and CEC removal

22 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Adsorption Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) TOC adsorbed in a downflow or upflow contactor Requires pre-treatment and disposal / regeneration of spent GAC once breakthrough occurs Good TOC and CEC removal Treated Wastewater Effluent GAC Contactor

23 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Advanced oxidation Oxidation by hydroxyl radicals Typically used as polishing step following membrane filtration Good CEC destruction, but mineralization to CO2 cost-prohibitive Treated Wastewater Effluent UV Reactor Hydrogen Peroxide

24 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Pre-treatment Alter physical / chemical properties of suspended particles to increase agglomeration (create larger flocs) Chemical coagulants include aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and ferric or ferrous sulfate Coagulant Rapid Mix BASIN FlocculationFilters Sedimentation Basin Treated Wastewater Effluent

25 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Challenges at Oak Bluff Requirement for a high level of treatment –Need to achieve levels below 3 mg/L (desire to be as low as 1 mg/L) A hospital contributes in the order of 10% of the flow to the plant Small user base with median income (year round population) at or below state median Piloting likely needed to determine optimum process Limited options for waste stream disposal

26 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Initial approach Phase I Focus on technologies (pre-treatment) that could reduce TOC in economic ways Focus on low cost means to determine an ultimate treatment solution (wastewater characterization, bench testing etc.)

27 Characterization & bench-scale testing

28 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Phase I Wastewater characterization –Organic matter characterized at the University of Massachusetts –XAD-8/XAD-4 Resins and HPSEC Bench-Scale testing

29 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Influent organic matter characterization

30 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Influent organic matter characterization

31 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Phase I Bench-scale testing –ACTICARB by Kruger –MIEX by Orica –Ferrate by Ferrate treatment technologies –Testing by GHD

32 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Bench-scale testing of ACTICARB Alter physical / chemical properties of suspended particles to increase agglomeration (create larger flocs) Best coagulant was ferric sulfate –50 mg/L dose, no PAC:- 47% removal of TOC –50 mg/L dose, 30 mg/L PAC:- 59% removal of TOC

33 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Bench-testing with MIEX Jar testing with MIEX alone Jar testing with coagulation alone MIEX + coagulation Best coagulant was ferric sulfate Coagulation alone provided 53% Removal by MIEX alone was marginal. Improved removal by 5% WWTP MIEX Resin with Ferric Sulfate Coagulation MIEX Treatment Rate (BV)600 Bed Volumes Ferric sulphate (mg/L) DOC (mg/L) DOC Removal (%)-5758 UVA 254 (cm -1 ) UVA 254 Remocal (%) Ferric sulphate (mg/L) True Color (CU)56856 pH Total Alkalinity (mg/L CaCO 3 )100 Calcium Hardness (mg/L CaCO 3 ) 80 Total Hardness (mg/L CaCO 3 )100 Settled Turbidity (NTU) True Color (CU)56856

34 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Bench-testing with ferrate Ferrate (iron six) acts as an oxidant, coagulant, and as a disinfectant. Research is being conducted to understand ferrate effects on emerging contaminants

35 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Bench-testing by GHD Conducted jar testing with ferric sulfate and cationic polymer Best dose was 50 mg/L coagulant with 0.5 mg/L polymer Resulted in TOC reduction of 45-50%

36 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Phase I findings A Ferrate dose of 2-4 ppm resulted in 56-65% removal of TOC For the other three jar tests, ferric sulfate performed the best in terms of TOC removal For a ferric sulfate dose (45-50 mg/L), a TOC reduction of 45%-53% is possible

37 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Phase I findings (contd) Pilot would be needed to confirm results Investigate cause of wide range of TOC Focus on Pilot-Studies to confirm findings –Pilot-studies will be conducted with: GAC Ferrate - test Ferrate at various application points Based on the outcome of the pilot-study, recommend a full-scale tertiary treatment technology to Town

38 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Process flow diagram of pilot

39 Current status

40 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium Next steps Costs of highly complex treatment process were determined to be in excess of $5 million and these were found to be unaffordable for the town at the time Town requested research into regulatory alternatives –Worked with the state DEP for one year and met unofficial alternative requirements for safe distance from drinking water well (for TOC limit only) –Met with Town Water Department to make case about safe distance –Have received unofficial approval from both DEP and Town Water Department to pursue a modified permit –Currently in permit application process and hope to have a modified permit by spring of 2014 –If the modified permit fails, the Town will pursue the TOC treatment

41 2013 NYC Watershed/Tifft Science & Technical Symposium


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