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© All rights reserved Slide # 1 BMGI * Problem Solved * Making Innovation Work in a Growing Economy Phil Samuel, Ph. D.

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Presentation on theme: "© All rights reserved Slide # 1 BMGI * Problem Solved * Making Innovation Work in a Growing Economy Phil Samuel, Ph. D."— Presentation transcript:

1 © All rights reserved Slide # 1 BMGI * Problem Solved * Making Innovation Work in a Growing Economy Phil Samuel, Ph. D.

2 © All rights reserved Slide # 2 BMGI * Problem Solved *

3 © All rights reserved Slide # 3 BMGI * Problem Solved *

4 © All rights reserved Slide # 4 BMGI * Problem Solved * Conventional Ultrasound $100,000-$350,000 Customers – Sophisticated hospitals and imaging centers Uses: Cardiology Obstetrics General radiology Conventional Ultrasound $100,000-$350,000 Customers – Sophisticated hospitals and imaging centers Uses: Cardiology Obstetrics General radiology

5 © All rights reserved Slide # 5 BMGI * Problem Solved * 2008 $278 MM $4 MM 2002 In 2002 GE China develops a cheap portable ultrasound machine that utilizes a laptop computer and a probe In 2007 GE China launched a dramatically cheaper model and sales took off. Portable Ultrasound (2002) $30,000 Portable Ultrasound (2002) $30,000 Portable Ultrasound (2007) $15,000 Portable Ultrasound (2007) $15,000

6 © All rights reserved Slide # 6 BMGI * Problem Solved * Lessons in Innovation Focus on the jobs customers are trying to get done Think beyond your hot products Identify non-consumption and non- consuming contexts Look beyond your industry for ideas Burn your ladder

7 © All rights reserved Slide # 7 BMGI * Problem Solved * 1 Focus on the Jobs Customers are Trying to Get Done 1 Focus on the Jobs Customers are Trying to Get Done

8 © All rights reserved Slide # 8 BMGI * Problem Solved * People who want to buy power drills dont necessarily want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole - Prof. Theodore Levitt, Harvard Business School

9 © All rights reserved Slide # 9 BMGI * Problem Solved * Job To Be Done Job-to-be Done Solutions Customers dont just buy products or services. They hire products or services to get functional and emotional aspects of jobs to be done

10 © All rights reserved Slide # 10 BMGI * Problem Solved * The Job of Cleaning Clothes at Home Job-to-be Done Solutions Clean Clothes Detergent and Washing Machine Zero Detergent Washing Machine

11 © All rights reserved Slide # 11 BMGI * Problem Solved * Whats the Job Looking for a Better Solution?

12 © All rights reserved Slide # 12 BMGI * Problem Solved * VIDEO

13 © All rights reserved Slide # 13 BMGI * Problem Solved * Structure of Jobs Main Job Category Ancillary Job 1 Process Step 1Process Step 2 Process Step n Social JobsPersonal Jobs Process Step.. Ancillary Job 2 Ancillary Jobs.. Ancillary Job n Functional Jobs

14 © All rights reserved Slide # 14 BMGI * Problem Solved * Under-Served Jobs

15 © All rights reserved Slide # 15 BMGI * Problem Solved * Under-Served Jobs Job Focus Identify jobs to be done where ad hoc or no solutions exist. Customer were trying get the job of reselling and buying goods efficiently. Ebay created a solution to achieve this job.

16 © All rights reserved Slide # 16 BMGI * Problem Solved * Creating Valuable Brands 1.Design a solution that does a job well. 2.Give it a brand that uniquely links that product to that job. 3.As people hire it to do that job and find that it does it well, they learn to trust the brand for that purpose. 4.They begin hiring it whenever they land on that job space – and talk about it. 5.Advertising can then remind other people that they, too, land on this job, and that they should hire this branded product when they do. FedEx Crest OnStar Google eBay Starbucks Blackberry Xerox Kleenex Lunchables Hill-Rom

17 © All rights reserved Slide # 17 BMGI * Problem Solved * Over-Served Jobs

18 © All rights reserved Slide # 18 BMGI * Problem Solved * Over-Served Jobs Disruptive Growth Bring disruption by entering the low-end or new markets with lower performing, cheaper products to non-consumers Online Stock Trading DIY, Less cost, Easy to access Micro Lending Motivation for new and first-time Investors Insurance Provider Group Creating products to reach the under-served markets White Strips No Skill needed, DIY, Less cost

19 © All rights reserved Slide # 19 BMGI * Problem Solved * What Drives Non-Consumption Skills Price What constrains consumption? Access Time

20 © All rights reserved Slide # 20 BMGI * Problem Solved * Help new customers do a job that others were already doing. Often these jobs couldnt be done due to high cost or skill required Enable less skilled people to get important/ unsatisfied jobs done in less centralized location What Drives Non-Consumption

21 © All rights reserved Slide # 21 BMGI * Problem Solved * Jobs that are Served Right

22 © All rights reserved Slide # 22 BMGI * Problem Solved * Related Market Growth Bringing newer solutions to existing customers get related or ancillary jobs done iTunes Download, Listen to, Organize, Access and Share music

23 © All rights reserved Slide # 23 BMGI * Problem Solved * Job Focus Innovation that enables customers to do related jobs that are underserved. Related Market Growth

24 © All rights reserved Slide # 24 BMGI * Problem Solved * Outcome Expectations – Job Hiring Criteria Customers define success and failure criteria for hiring solutions for each of these jobs. These criteria are called Outcome expectations There are two kinds of outcome expectations – desired outcome expectations and undesired outcome expectations Jobs and outcome expectations form the basis for identifying opportunities for innovation, growth and new value creation

25 © All rights reserved Slide # 25 BMGI * Problem Solved * Outcome Expectations (Hiring Criteria) Desired Outcome Expectations Easy to Clean Efficacy of Cleaning Easy Stain Removal Clothes Smell Fresh Clothes Look Fresh Safety Reliable Cleaning Undesired Outcome Expectations Excessive Cost Time to Clean Clothes Damaged Clothes Use of Resources (Water, Electricity, etc) Wrinkled Clothes Allergens Special Skills Required Job-to-be Done Solutions

26 © All rights reserved Slide # 26 BMGI * Problem Solved * The Job Map DefineLocatePrepareConfirmExecuteMonitorModifyConclude Jobs To Be Done

27 © All rights reserved Slide # 27 BMGI * Problem Solved * The Job of Cutting Wood

28 © All rights reserved Slide # 28 BMGI * Problem Solved * The Job of Cutting Wood Define – type of cut, material, length, width, angle, etc… Locate – the saw, cord, wood, tape measure, pencil, straight- edge, clamps, etc… Prepare – unwind cord, plug in the saw, knot cord, clamp wood, etc… Confirm – check measurements, work area, saw function, safety gear, etc… Execute – cut the wood Monitor – observe cut line, surrounding area, etc… Modify – file splinters or burrs, check cut line, re- measure, etc…. Conclude – set saw down, unknot cord, unclamp wood, wind cord, etc… Cut Wood on the Jobsite

29 © All rights reserved Slide # 29 BMGI * Problem Solved * Underserved Hiring Criterion (outcomes)

30 © All rights reserved Slide # 30 BMGI * Problem Solved * Bosch Circular Saw Direct-Connect Cord: Minimizes chances of cord connection snags, offers quick and easy replacement if cord is cut, minimizes saw prep time (wrapping/unwrapping cord for storage). Anti-snag lip on the lower blade guard: Minimizes the chances of the lower blade guard interfering with the cut, minimizing the chance of cutting error. Dust port on the rear of the upper blade guard: Directs dust down and away from the cut-line, improving visibility of the cutting line and minimizing the chance of cutting error. Dust blower: blows dust from the cutting line, improving visibility of the cutting line and minimizing the chance of cutting error. Vari-Torque clutch: Allows the blade slip on the arbor if the resistance suddenly increases, like when pinched in a board, reducing the chances of kickback and improving the saw safety.

31 © All rights reserved Slide # 31 BMGI * Problem Solved * Served-Right Hiring Criterion (outcomes)

32 © All rights reserved Slide # 32 BMGI * Problem Solved * Over-Served Hiring Criterion (outcomes)

33 © All rights reserved Slide # 33 BMGI * Problem Solved * Mapping the Job of Installing Drywall / Commercial Carpentry Current strength NPD/ New Entrant Acquisition Target

34 © All rights reserved Slide # 34 BMGI * Problem Solved * 2 Think Beyond Your Hot Product 2 Think Beyond Your Hot Product

35 © All rights reserved Slide # 35 BMGI * Problem Solved * Your Innovation Portfolio Types of Innovation Product/ Service ProcessBusiness Model Breakthrough Substantial Incremental Degrees of Innovation

36 © All rights reserved Slide # 36 BMGI * Problem Solved * Innovation at Apple Types of Innovation Product/ Service ProcessBusiness Model Breakthrough Substantial Incremental Degrees of Innovation Recent study by Kaiser Associates revealed that iPodalong with other Apple products affected by its halocreated $70 billion in shareholder value in just three years.

37 © All rights reserved Slide # 37 BMGI * Problem Solved * Doblin Model for Innovation Types Business Model Networks and Alliances Enabling Processes Core Processes Product Performance Product System ServiceChannelBrand Customer Experience FinanceProcessesOfferingsDelivery Source: Doblin Inc.

38 © All rights reserved Slide # 38 BMGI * Problem Solved * Passenger Airline Landscape

39 © All rights reserved Slide # 39 BMGI * Problem Solved * Core process Process. Enabling process Product performance Offering Product system Service Channel Delivery BrandCustomer experience Revenue model Finance Networking Industry innovation activity high low Industry Innovation Landscape Your business innovation activity high low

40 © All rights reserved Slide # 40 BMGI * Problem Solved * 3 Identify Non- Consumption and Non- Consuming Contexts 3 Identify Non- Consumption and Non- Consuming Contexts

41 © All rights reserved Slide # 41 BMGI * Problem Solved * Conventional Ultrasound $100,000-$350,000 Conventional Ultrasound $100,000-$350,000 Portable Ultrasound $15,000 Portable Ultrasound $15,000

42 © All rights reserved Slide # 42 BMGI * Problem Solved * The World Economic Pyramid Population (Millions) Tier Annual Per Capita Income 75 - 1001> $20,000 1,500 – 1,7502 and 3 $1,500 - $20,000 4,0004< $1,500 Tier 1 Tier 2& 3 Tier 4

43 © All rights reserved Slide # 43 BMGI * Problem Solved * What Drives Non-Consumption Skills Price What constrains consumption? Time Access

44 © All rights reserved Slide # 44 BMGI * Problem Solved * Disruptive Innovations: A driver of failure and the source of new growth opportunities Performance Time Performance that customers can utilize or absorb Pace of Technological Progress Sustaining innovations Disruptive innovations Incumbents nearly always win Entrants nearly always win

45 © All rights reserved Slide # 45 BMGI * Problem Solved * Beat Competitors with Asymmetry of Motivation 7% 4% 12% 8% 18% 22% % of tons Steel Quality 1980 1975 1985 1990 Rebar Angle iron; bars & rods Structural Steel Sheet steel 25–30% 55% Quality of integrated mills steel Quality of minimill-produced steel

46 © All rights reserved Slide # 46 BMGI * Problem Solved * The Strategies for Asymmetric Competition Non-consumers or Non-consuming occasions Different measure Of Performance Time New-market disruption: Compete against non- consumption Low-end disruption Address over-served customers with a lower-cost business model Performance Time Bring a better product into an established market

47 © All rights reserved Slide # 47 BMGI * Problem Solved * Disruptive Strategies Core Market Growth Bringing better solutions to existing customers to get the job done better Disruptive Growth Bring disruption by entering the low-end or new markets with lower performing, cheaper products to non- consumers Related Market Growth Bringing newer solutions to existing customers get related or ancillary jobs done New Market Growth Bringing newer solutions to perform jobs for which ad hoc or no good solutions exist NON-CONSUMER Outcome Focus Help new customers do a job that others were already doing. Often these jobs couldnt be done due to high cost or skill required CURRENT JOBS

48 © All rights reserved Slide # 48 BMGI * Problem Solved * Expensive failure always results when disruption is framed in technological rather than business model terms Non-consumers or Non- consuming occasions Different measure Of Performance Time Performance Time Pocket radios Portable TVs Hearing Aids Tabletop Radios, Floor-standing TVs, Computers Path taken by vacuum tube manufacturers

49 © All rights reserved Slide # 49 BMGI * Problem Solved * Galanz Enterprise In 1992, developed a new microwave oven for the tiny Chinese kitchens; After winning the Chinese low-end market, moved up-market to serve both local and global markets. In 2005, holds 75% of Chinese market and nearly 50% of global market in microwave ovens. ( >600 patents in microwave technologies) Since 2004, has started to replicate the same strategy by developing air-conditioners for tiny Chinese homes. Within 4 years, became No. 2 Chinese air-conditioner exporter.

50 © All rights reserved Slide # 50 BMGI * Problem Solved * Disruption in Business Models Disruption has been the dominant historical mechanism for making things more affordable and accessible Today Toyota Wal-Mart Dell Southwest Airlines Fidelity Canon Microsoft Oracle Cingular Merrill Lynch Tomorrow Chery Internet retail RIM Blackberry Air taxis ETFs Zink Linux Salesforce.com Skype E-Trade Yesterday Ford Dept. Stores DEC Delta Hamilton Xerox IBM Cullinet AT&T Dillon, Read

51 © All rights reserved Slide # 51 BMGI * Problem Solved * Examples of Developing Countries Disruptors India –Tata Group –Wipro –Infosys –NIIT China –Galanz –BaoSteel –Lenovo Groups and Huawei Technologies –Haier Brazil –Natura –AmBev Mexico –Cemex Indonesia –LNM Group Israel –Teva Pharmaceuticals Philippines –Jollibee Foods

52 © All rights reserved Slide # 52 BMGI * Problem Solved * 4 Look Beyond Your Industry For Ideas 4 Look Beyond Your Industry For Ideas

53 © All rights reserved Slide # 53 BMGI * Problem Solved * T Where do Ideas Come From?

54 © All rights reserved Slide # 54 BMGI * Problem Solved * Russian Lunar Vehicle Light Bulb The Russians launched an unmanned Lunar Probe to the moons surface with the intention to transmit TV pictures to the Earth. A projector using a light bulb was designed to illuminate the lunar surface ahead of the vehicle. However, existing light bulbs would not survive the impact of landing on the Moon surface. The most durable bulbs were ones used in tanks, but even those bulbs would crack at the joint between the glass and the screw base during tests. Problem – How to keep the light bulb from cracking at the interface between the glass bulb and the base?

55 © All rights reserved Slide # 55 BMGI * Problem Solved * Psychological Inertia PROBLEM SOLUTION IDEAL SOLUTION EMOTIONAL BOUNDARY EXPERIENTIAL BOUNDARY INTELLECTUAL BOUNDARY BELIEF BOUNDARY REAL BOUNDARY CONSTRAINTS

56 © All rights reserved Slide # 56 BMGI * Problem Solved * T Where do Ideas Come From?

57 © All rights reserved Slide # 57 BMGI * Problem Solved * Catching Errors in New Car Models GM had a problem. It took GM over 70 days to track an error introduced while assembling a new car model GM used Process Benchmarking and Forced Association techniques to innovate Who is good at catching errors very quickly? Answer: CDC

58 © All rights reserved Slide # 58 BMGI * Problem Solved * Center for Disease Control CDC is able to track down the source of food poisoning within 72 hours of event By adapting the principles from CDC, GM reduced the time it takes to track vehicle errors from 70 days to less than 10 days resulting in savings of billions of dollars from recall expenses

59 © All rights reserved Slide # 59 BMGI * Problem Solved * Someone, Somewhere Already Solved Your Problem

60 © All rights reserved Slide # 60 BMGI * Problem Solved * Patent Research Key discoveries: 1.Problems and solutions were repeated across industries and sciences 2.Patterns of technical evolution were repeated across industries and sciences 3.Innovations used scientific effects outside the field where they were developed > 5,000,000 Patents Set of system level Innovation principles

61 © All rights reserved Slide # 61 BMGI * Problem Solved * Eliminating Contradictions Systems often reaches its limits due to contradictions built into the system

62 © All rights reserved Slide # 62 BMGI * Problem Solved * RQ-7 Remote Reconnaissance Unmanned Air Vehicle

63 © All rights reserved Slide # 63 BMGI * Problem Solved * Patent Research: Contradictions >200,000 Patents ~1,250 typical system contradictions ~40 techniques for overcoming system conflicts Key discoveries: Progress is hindered due to contradictions in the systems –Technical Contradiction –Physical Contradictions

64 © All rights reserved Slide # 64 BMGI * Problem Solved * Leveraging the Knowledgebase Yes Effects Solution Tree Contradiction Matrix Want to Know How to Do it? Contradiction ? Separation Principles Yes Needs Improvemen t? Trend Analysis Predict Evolutionary Potential? Yes Technical Contradiction Physical Contradiction Knowledgebase Tool

65 © All rights reserved Slide # 65 BMGI * Problem Solved * Innovation Is… recognising that the root cause of your innovation problem is that your system has hit a yes, but limit…

66 © All rights reserved Slide # 66 BMGI * Problem Solved * …and that your job is to resolve Contradiction… High Quality or Low Cost Affordable or Customized First Cost or Life Cycle Cost Flexible or Rigid Big or Small High Quality and Low Cost Affordable and Customized First Cost and Life Cycle Cost Flexible and Rigid Big and Small A or B A and B

67 © All rights reserved Slide # 67 BMGI * Problem Solved * …using a database describing how other people in other industries already solved similar contradictions What you want to improve Whats stopping you… 15, 17 23, 40 How others solved the problem

68 © All rights reserved Slide # 68 BMGI * Problem Solved * Typical Design Compromises - The Bicycle Saddle Saddle must be WIDE to provide comfortable support AND Saddle must be NARROW to permit pedaling action

69 © All rights reserved Slide # 69 BMGI * Problem Solved * Contradiction Map – Bicycle Saddle Successful Saddle Comfortable Support Pedaling Action Wide Saddle Narrow Saddle AND Because Requires

70 © All rights reserved Slide # 70 BMGI * Problem Solved *

71 © All rights reserved Slide # 71 BMGI * Problem Solved * Conflict Elimination - Bicycle Saddle Improving Factor: Length of Stationary Object Worsening Factor: Shape Make movable parts fixed and fixed parts movable divide an object into parts capable of moving relative to each other if an object is rigid or inflexible make it movable or adaptable

72 © All rights reserved Slide # 72 BMGI * Problem Solved * Hobson Adjustable Seat

73 © All rights reserved Slide # 73 BMGI * Problem Solved * Leveraging the Knowledgebase Yes Effects Solution Tree Contradiction Matrix Want to Know How to Do it? Contradiction ? Separation Principles Yes Needs Improvemen t? Trend Analysis Predict Evolutionary Potential? Yes Technical Contradiction Physical Contradiction Knowledgebase Tool

74 © All rights reserved Slide # 74 BMGI * Problem Solved * Three possibilities Thinking FUNCTION Direct a variation in PROPERTY. Conflicting PROPERTIES

75 © All rights reserved Slide # 75 BMGI * Problem Solved * What Are Effects? Established rule or principle from wide range of disciplines Effects from many disciplines Physics Rheology Chemistry Biology Geometry Engineering Tribology Acoustics Information Psychology Education Motivation

76 © All rights reserved Slide # 76 BMGI * Problem Solved * Why Use Effects To figure out how to achieve a result No contradiction exists, but there are no specific solutions Contradiction results in theoretical solution that needs to be made practical Practical solution is unknown

77 © All rights reserved Slide # 77 BMGI * Problem Solved * Example -Technology Power plant in Northern California was emitting selenium in waste water Conventional design for water treatment facility would cost more than 50% of the cost of the power plant Look for ways outside conventional water treatment to perform the function remove selenium from water Solution: cattails and ragweed are plants that will extract selenium from water, and bind it in their tissues. –Create a swamp where plants can purify the water

78 © All rights reserved Slide # 78 BMGI * Problem Solved * Example Remove water from glass Solutions change, functions stay the same (Dont touch the glass)

79 © All rights reserved Slide # 79 BMGI * Problem Solved * Property Variation for function MOVE LIQUID sound Acoustic Cavitation Acoustic Vibrations Archimedes Principle volume temperature Boiling Evaporation Capillary Condensation Capillary Evaporation Capillary Pressure porosity Ferromagnetism Magnetostriction weight Gravity shape Funnel Effect Ellipse Osmosis Super Thermal Conductivity Surface Tension surface Thermocapillary Effect Thermomechanical Effect Thermal Expansion Spiral Resonance Shock Wave pulsation Wetting Electrophoresis Ultrasonic Capillary Effect Ultrasonic Vibrations Use of foam Absorption pressure Bernoullis Theorem Brush Constructions Coanda Effect Condensation Dessication field Electrocapillary Effect Electrostatic Induction Electrolysis Electroosmosis Ionic Exchange Inertia Jet Flow Lorentz Force Pascal Law Pump Superfluidity Forced Oscillations

80 © All rights reserved Slide # 80 BMGI * Problem Solved *

81 © All rights reserved Slide # 81 BMGI * Problem Solved * The Job of Cleaning Clothes at Home Job-to-be Done Solutions

82 © All rights reserved Slide # 82 BMGI * Problem Solved * OBJECTIVE: To sell more washing powder OBJECTIVE: To sell more cleaned clothes

83 © All rights reserved Slide # 83 BMGI * Problem Solved * Working Backwards from Perfect Ideal Innovation 1… 2… 3…. n.… Generation Current Situation Function achieved without resource Intermediate solutions …. Current Design Clothes that clean themselves Cleaning without external agent Re-usable washing method Detergent and Washing Machine

84 © All rights reserved Slide # 84 BMGI * Problem Solved * Classification of Effects by FUNCTION CLEAN

85 © All rights reserved Slide # 85 BMGI * Problem Solved * Function: CLEANS LIQUID

86 © All rights reserved Slide # 86 BMGI * Problem Solved * "Wash with Ultrasonic Waves and Electrolysis" washing machine. By combining Electrolyzed Water's dirt dissolving and bacteria-removing properties with the cleansing power of Ultrasonic Wave technology SANYO has brought to realization the World's first "Zero- Detergent course" washing machine.

87 © All rights reserved Slide # 87 BMGI * Problem Solved * Where do Ideas Come From? T

88 © All rights reserved Slide # 88 BMGI * Problem Solved * Biomimicry (a.k.a. Biomimetics) Nature runs on sunlight Nature uses only the energy it needs Nature fits form to function Nature recycles everything Nature rewards cooperation Nature banks on diversity Nature demands local expertise Nature curbs excesses from within Nature taps the power of limits Biomimicry is the science that studies natures models and then imitates or takes inspiration from these designs and processes to solve human problems.

89 © All rights reserved Slide # 89 BMGI * Problem Solved * Why Learn from Nature? If you put the history of the planet on a calendar year, bacteria arrived in March. Other species followed. The human species came at 11:45 pm on the last day of the year. Therefore, other species have been evolving and doing R&D a lot longer than we have; lets learn from them. Nature has experience from 3.8 billion years of R&D generating 10-100 million survivors of well adapted solutions. These are extremely well matched to the types of problems we have and need to solve.

90 © All rights reserved Slide # 90 BMGI * Problem Solved * How does Nature Create Materials In nature, designs are organic, they are very small (only as big as they need to be to fit the function). Human designs are very geometric and our inventions are very brittle, stiff and most of them depend on wheels for mobility. Nature manufactures its materials under life-friendly conditions -- in water, at room temperature, without harsh chemicals or high pressures High Temperature High Pressure Chemical Treatment Process

91 © All rights reserved Slide # 91 BMGI * Problem Solved * Kevlar vs Spider Webs VS

92 © All rights reserved Slide # 92 BMGI * Problem Solved * Cricket Inspired Speakers Imagine making high-end audio speakers based on a cricket that uses its burrow to amplify sound. New Kilpsch speakers are created by studying how Egyptian mole crickets amplify sounds

93 © All rights reserved Slide # 93 BMGI * Problem Solved * Termite Inspired Building A termite mound can seem eerily like a skyscraper, especially when you consider the mounts efficient regulation of air flow, temperature and humidity.

94 © All rights reserved Slide # 94 BMGI * Problem Solved * Solving World Water Problem Namibian Beetle Pill Bug

95 © All rights reserved Slide # 95 BMGI * Problem Solved * Tardigrades and Vaccines There are serious issues with shipping worldwide due to breakdown of refrigeration. Tardigrades can deal with extreme dehydration, vacuum and UV radiation Researchers from University in Sweden shipped two species of tardigrades aboard a 2007 European Space Agency mission that reached160 miles up in low orbit. Some of the water bears were exposed to the vacuum of space only, while others were exposed to vacuum and ultraviolet radiation. Researchers reported that the tardigrades survived vacuum-only conditions quite well.

96 © All rights reserved Slide # 96 BMGI * Problem Solved * Natured Inspired Business Models The Land Institute is studying prairies as a model for an agriculture that features edible, perennial polycultures and that would sustain, rather than strain, the land Various researchers in Industrial Ecology are looking for ways to apply nature's lessons of economy, efficiency, cooperation, and rootedness to the marketplace.

97 © All rights reserved Slide # 97 BMGI * Problem Solved * 5 Burn Your Ladder 5 Burn Your Ladder

98 © All rights reserved Slide # 98 BMGI * Problem Solved * VIDEO

99 © All rights reserved Slide # 99 BMGI * Problem Solved * Contact Information Dr. Phil Samuel Phil.Samuel@bmgi.com (303)-827-0010 www.bmgi.com The Stone Age didn't end because they ran out of stones… - Sheikh Yamani

100 © All rights reserved Slide # 100 BMGI * Problem Solved * If one does not know to which port one is sailing, no wind is favorable. - Lucius Annaeus Seneca


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