Presentation on theme: "How is sugar obtained commercially? Wang Si Zhe 1o226."— Presentation transcript:
How is sugar obtained commercially? Wang Si Zhe 1o226
Table of content Uses of sugar Obtaining of sugar Separation techniques used Diagram on separation techniques Bibliography
Uses of sugar Sugar is required for many uses some are: Cooking ingredients Sports and soft drinks A source of alcohol Fuelling car-(sugar-based ethanol)
Basic introduction of sugar Sucrose or table sugar is an organic compound. Its molecular formula isC 12 H 22 O 1 Our sugar is extracted from nature, sugar canes and sugar beets.
How is sugar obtained commercially? It is then taken to industries to extract the sugar. Firstly, it undergoes affination. After, the syrup-sugar mixture will be centrifuged to separate the sugar from the syrup. Then it is mixed with hot, sweet water. Secondly, it goes through a process known as carbonatation or sometimes, phosphatation. Then it is filtered to remove the chalk and the non-sugars.
How is sugar obtained commercially Thirdly, it undergoes decolourisation to remove colour. Lastly, it undergoes crystallisation to obtain the pure sugar crystals. For maximum sugar production, the waste is crystallized again until there is no more sugar can be obtained.
Graphic flow chart for process of the making of sugar
What is filtration Filtration is used the separate colloids from a suspension. The suspension passes through a filter and the colloid which is left behind is known as the residue. The liquid which collected is the filtrate.
Filtration in removal of sugar After the affination process, the sugar went through carbonatation, the calcium carbonate collected lots of non-sugars. The suspension passes through a filter and chalk with the non-sugars are removed.
Filtration in other uses Water taps have a small filter to remove large mineral deposits. Coffee makers used filtration to keep coffee grounds out of water. Air-conditioners used filtration to remove dust particles.
Crystallisation Crystallisation is the process in which to extract solute from solvent and also to purify the substance. It is used to remove easily-decomposed solute from solvent.
Steps to do crystallisation 1. Heat the solution and evaporate most of the solvent. 2. Allow the solution to cool and it will form a saturated solution. 3. Crystals will start to grow. 4. Remove the crystals through filtration and dry it by putting it between two filter papers.
Crystallisation in removing sugar The liquor which contains the sugar is boiled and then cooled, forming sucrose. The sucrose is removed through centrifuge. The liquor still undergoes crystallisation to extract more sugar. This process is called recovery.
Centrifuge Centrifuge is a machine which separates lighter particles from denser particles. The mixture in the centrifuge spins very quickly and separates the particles.
Centrifuge in the process of making sugar In the mother liquor, it is spun in a centrifuge which removes sucrose from the liquor. The liquor is spun as much as possible until there is no deposits of sucrose and the liquor is rejected as molasses.
Centrifuge in other uses Centrifuge is used in separating: Red blood cells from blood. Oil industries.
Illustration on filtration beaker Filter funnel lined with filter paper Retort stand Water trough
Bibliography How sugar is made-introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sucrose.com/learn.htmlhttp://www.sucrose.com/learn.html How sugar is refined. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sucrose.com/lref.html http://www.sucrose.com/lref.html Peter, D. C. (n.d.). Machines used in sugar production. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_7378916_machines-used- sugar-production.html http://www.ehow.com/list_7378916_machines-used- sugar-production.html Gcse chemistry. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gcsescience.com/e6-crystallization.htm Where do you use filtration in your everyday life. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Where_do_you_use_filtra tion_in_your_every_day_life