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Text by Mrs Teo Video clips taken from school video repository.

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Presentation on theme: "Text by Mrs Teo Video clips taken from school video repository."— Presentation transcript:

1 Text by Mrs Teo Video clips taken from school video repository

2 The Different Separation Techniques are as follows: Magnetic attraction Magnetic attraction Filtration Filtration Evaporation Evaporation Crystallisation Crystallisation Distillation Distillation Chromatography Chromatography Note: The physical method used will depend on the nature of the constituents. The Different Separation Techniques are as follows: Magnetic attraction Magnetic attraction Filtration Filtration Evaporation Evaporation Crystallisation Crystallisation Distillation Distillation Chromatography Chromatography Note: The physical method used will depend on the nature of the constituents.

3 used to separate magnetic materials, e.g. iron, steel, nickel, cobalt from non-magnetic ones in a mixture used to separate magnetic materials, e.g. iron, steel, nickel, cobalt from non-magnetic ones in a mixture e.g. separating iron filings from sulphur powder. Magnetic Attraction

4 1.Electromagnets are used to remove steel and iron scrap at the junk-yard. Applications of Magnetic Attraction 2. In hospitals, magnets are often used to remove iron splinters patients eyes. 2. In hospitals, magnets are often used to remove iron splinters from a patients eyes.

5 Using a Separating Funnel can be used to separate two can be used to separate two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water.

6 Filtration used to separate an insoluble solid from (i) a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture e.g. sand from a mixture of sand and water or (ii) a soluble solid e.g. calcium carbonate from mixture of it and copper(II) sulphate.

7 Filtration insoluble solid that remains on the residue filter paper - residue. filtrateliquid that passes through- filtrate.

8 hair in our nostrils trap the dust particles that we breathe in and allow only clean air to pass through air filters in air conditioners remove solid impurities from air oil and air filters in cars remove solid impurities found in engine oil and air hair in our nostrils trap the dust particles that we breathe in and allow only clean air to pass through air filters in air conditioners remove solid impurities from air oil and air filters in cars remove solid impurities found in engine oil and air Applications of Filtration

9 used to separate a dissolved solid that does not decompose on heating, used to separate a dissolved solid that does not decompose on heating from a solution, e.g. common salt from a salt solution. used to separate a dissolved solid that does not decompose on heating, used to separate a dissolved solid that does not decompose on heating from a solution, e.g. common salt from a salt solution. Evaporation to dryness

10 1. Pour the solution into an evaporating dish. 2. Heat the solution to dryness to evaporate away the solvent, leaving behind the solute. 3. Make the Bunsen flame smaller when almost all the solvent has been evaporated away to reduce spitting. 1. Pour the solution into an evaporating dish. 2. Heat the solution to dryness to evaporate away the solvent, leaving behind the solute. 3. Make the Bunsen flame smaller when almost all the solvent has been evaporated away to reduce spitting. Procedure of Evaporating a Solution

11 drying wet clothes drying wet clothes drying hair with a hair-dryer drying hair with a hair-dryer obtaining common salt from the sea drying wet clothes drying wet clothes drying hair with a hair-dryer drying hair with a hair-dryer obtaining common salt from the sea Applications of Evaporation

12 process to obtain a solid that decomposes on heating from its solution. e.g. sugar from sugar solution and copper(II) sulphate crystals from copper(II) sulphate solution process to obtain a solid that decomposes on heating from its solution. e.g. sugar from sugar solution and copper(II) sulphate crystals from copper(II) sulphate solution Crystallisation

13 process used to separate a liquid (solvent) from a solid-liquid solution or liquid-liquid solution. e.g. pure water can be distilled from soft drinks process used to separate a liquid (solvent) from a solid-liquid solution or liquid-liquid solution. e.g. pure water can be distilled from soft drinksDistillation

14 Distillation

15 process can be used to separate miscible liquids with different boiling points liquid with lower boiling point will vaporize first e.g. to separate alcohol and water process can be used to separate miscible liquids with different boiling points liquid with lower boiling point will vaporize first e.g. to separate alcohol and water Fractional Distillation

16 oil refineries - separating the various components of crude oil or petroleum industries supplying oxygen to hospitals, shipyards, etc – separating the components of air Industrial Applications of Fractional Distillation

17 Fractional Distillation

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20 1. to separate the different coloured components that make up black ink 2.to detect tiny amounts of drugs or certain other chemicals in urine samples. 1. to separate the different coloured components that make up black ink 2.to detect tiny amounts of drugs or certain other chemicals in urine samples. Paper Chromatography For example it can be used process used to separate the different components in a liquid mixture For example it can be used

21 1. Apply a small but concentrated spot of the solution on a piece of chromatography paper. 2. Suspend the chromatography paper in a beaker or boiling tube of solvent with the spot above the level of the solvent. 1. Apply a small but concentrated spot of the solution on a piece of chromatography paper. 2. Suspend the chromatography paper in a beaker or boiling tube of solvent with the spot above the level of the solvent. Paper Chromatography

22 3. Separation takes place because some components of the liquid mixture travel at a faster pace than other components on the paper or any other absorbent material. Paper Chromatography 3. Separation takes place because some components of the liquid mixture travel at a faster pace than other components on the paper or any other absorbent material.

23 Paper Chromatography 3. As the solvent travels up the paper, the mixture is separated into its respective components. A chromatogram of the separated components is obtained. Paper Chromatography 3. As the solvent travels up the paper, the mixture is separated into its respective components. A chromatogram of the separated components is obtained.

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27 Applications analysing ink dyes for forgery casesanalysing ink dyes for forgery cases analysing food dyes to ensure thatanalysing food dyes to ensure that only permitted colourings are used in foodstuffs checking whether pesticides on vegetables exceed safe levels detecting trace levels of drugs indetecting trace levels of drugs in urine samples Applications analysing ink dyes for forgery casesanalysing ink dyes for forgery cases analysing food dyes to ensure thatanalysing food dyes to ensure that only permitted colourings are used in foodstuffs checking whether pesticides on vegetables exceed safe levels detecting trace levels of drugs indetecting trace levels of drugs in urine samples

28 The End

29 ACE Suggestion 1. Production of whisky by distillation of barley mash

30 ACE Suggestion 2. Commercial Production of sodium chloride by: (i) Mining (ii) Evaporation of sea water


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