2 TEMPERATURE, THERMAL ENERGY, AND HEAT – 5.1 A. Temperature1. Matter in motion2. Kinetic energy and temperaturea. Please Define Temperature:Measure of the average kinetic energy of allthe particles that make up an object.
3 B. Thermal Energy 1. Please Define Thermal Energy: Sum of the kinetic and potential of the particles that make up an object.
4 2. Temperatures and thermal energy 3. Mass and thermal energy C. Heat 1. Please Define Heat:Energy that is transferred betweenobjects due to a temperature difference between those objects.
5 1. Please Define Specific Heat: Amount of heat needed to raise D. Specific Heat1. Please Define Specific Heat:Amount of heat needed to raisethe temperature of 1 kg of a material 1oC.
6 2. Water as a coolant 3. Calculating thermal energy changes
8 F. Measuring Specific Heat 1 F. Measuring Specific Heat 1. How does the Calorimeter measure the specific heat of a substance? The scientists heats a sample of matter, measures the sample’s temperature change, its mass, and how much energy was transferred from the sample of matter to water inside the Calorimeter.
9 CONDUCTION, CONVECTION, AND RADIATION – 5.2 A. Conduction1. Please Define Conduction:Transfer of thermal energy by collisions betweenthe particles that make up matter.
11 3. Thermal conductors a. Name three excellent conductors: 1. Silver 2 3. Thermal conductors a. Name three excellent conductors: 1. Silver 2. Copper 3. Aluminum
12 1. Please Define Convection: Transfer of thermal energy in a fluid B. Convection1. Please Define Convection:Transfer of thermal energy in a fluidby the movement of warmer and cooler fluid from one place to another.
13 2. Convection currents a. How does convection occur 2. Convection currents a. How does convection occur? The rising of a heated fluid and at the same time the falling of a cooling fluid.
18 E. Thermal insulators 1. Please Define Thermal Insulator: A material through which thermal energy moves slowly.
19 a. Why is fleece a “good” insulator? 2. Insulated clothinga. Why is fleece a “good” insulator?The fibers in the fleece trap theair and hold it next to you. Theair slows the transfer of your body’sthermal energy into its surroundings.Under the jacket, a blanket of warmair covers you.
20 a. Why is fiberglass a “good” insulator? 3. Insulated buildingsa. Why is fiberglass a “good” insulator?The fiberglass insulation containsfluffy material that contains pocketsof trapped air which slows the transferof heat to the surroundings.
21 a. Why are Thermoses “good” insulators? There is a vacuum between the twosurfaces of a thermos bottle. Thisminimizes the transfer of thermalenergy by conduction and convection.Thermos bottles also have reflectivesurfaces, which minimize energy transfersby radiation.
22 USING THERMAL ENERGY – 5.3A. Heating Systems1. Forced-air systems
25 a. Passive solar heating 1. How do Passive solar heating systems work? In passive solar heating systems, materialsinside a building absorb radiant energy fromthe Sun and heat up during the day. At nightwhen the building begins to cool, thermalenergy absorbed by these materials helpskeep the room warm.
26 b. Active solar heating 1. What is a solar collector b. Active solar heating 1. What is a solar collector? Device used in an active solar heating system that transforms radiant energy from the Sun into thermal energy.
27 1. Please Define Thermodynamics: Study of the relationship between thermalenergy, heat, and work.
29 3. The first law of thermodynamics a. Please Define the First Law of Thermodynamics:States that if the mechanical energy of a systemis constant, the increase in the thermal energyof the system equals the sum of the thermalenergy transferred into the system and the workdone on the system.
31 5. The second law of thermodynamics a. Please Define the Second Law of Thermodynamics:States that energy spontaneously spreads from regionsof higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
32 Converting Thermal Energy into Mechanical Energy 1. Heat engines a. Please Define Heat Engine:Device that converts some thermal energyinto mechanical energy.
33 2. Internal combustion engine a. Please Define Internal Combustion Engine:Heat engine that burns fuel inside theengine in chambers or cylinders.
34 Doing Work to Transfer Thermal Energy 1. Refrigerators
35 Doing Work to Transfer Thermal Energy 2. Air conditioners
36 Doing Work to Transfer Thermal Energy 3. Heat pumps
37 Doing Work to Transfer Thermal Energy 4. Energy transformations and thermal energya. Friction converts mechanical energyinto thermal energy when electricalgenerators rotate.
38 Doing Work to Transfer Thermal Energy 4. Energy transformations and thermal energyb. A laptop computer converts electricalenergy into thermal energy.
39 A. Please do Check Concepts 29-35 on page 164 in your Text. CHAPTER 5 REVIEWA. Please do Check Concepts on page 164 in your Text.B. Please do Standardized Test Practice 1-8 on page 166 in your Text.C. I will type out a Pre-Test with an Equation sheet for you to practicebefore your Test on Chapter 5.