Presentation on theme: "Case Study of Energy Efficiency in Asia and Internationally: Some Examples and Food for Thought Peter du Pont, Ph.D. Chief of Party, ECO-Asia Clean Development."— Presentation transcript:
Case Study of Energy Efficiency in Asia and Internationally: Some Examples and Food for Thought Peter du Pont, Ph.D. Chief of Party, ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program 14 May 2009 Presented at: First Mekong Energy and Ecology Training (MEE NET) Bangkok, Thailand
2 U.S. contribution to offset emissions of officials flying to international climate change meetings
Whats Happening? Chaos or Opportunity?
Disclaimer I am not Asian I do not represent Asia I live in Asia, and have for 17 years My role is as a consultant and facilitator Designing, implementing, and monitoring EE programs Lots of failures, a few successes ;-) I have been involved with a number or regional and international organizations International Institute for Energy Conservation APEC Energy Standards Information System (www.apec.esis.org)www.apec.esis.org APEC Expert Group on Energy Efficiency & Conservation (www.egeec.apec.org)www.egeec.apec.org International CFL Harmonisation Initiative (www.apec.esis.org/cfl)www.apec.esis.org/cfl Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) (www.efficientlighting.net)www.efficientlighting.net USAID ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program (www.cleanenergyasia.net)www.cleanenergyasia.net
Objectives of This Talk Identify key issues related to energy efficiency (EE) in context of energy policy Highlight and explain some case studies Address issue of how much EE costs Present some questions in a range of topic areas Caveats: This presentation discusses experience with in EE in commercial energy Does not address transportation energy Does not address links between energy and poverty
Topics Covered About the ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program Overview of energy and carbon scenarios What drives energy demand and how reliable are demand forecasts? Some case studies and examples of Energy Efficiency policies and programs How much does Energy Efficiency cost? Issues, themes and food for thought
About the ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program
9 ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program Geographic Coverage China India Indonesia Philippines Thailand Vietnam These 6 countries account for 96% of the GDP of Asias developing countries
10 USAID-funded review of clean energy priorities in Asia Objectives Identify clean energy priorities – technologies, sectors, and initiatives Identify opportunities for regional action Methodology organized listening tours with 220 key energy stakeholders in the 6 countries researched and prepared more than 300 profiles on clean energy institutions, policies, programs prepared in-depth country reports on the clean energy opportunities in the 6 countries
11 Current 26 billion metric tons CO billion metric tons CO 2 Source: APERC, TERI INCREASING CO 2 EMISSIONS Developing Asias CO 2 Emissions Will Increase 4-Fold
12 Projected CO 2 Emissions by Sector ( ) Source: APERC, TERI ELECTRICITY IS MAJOR SOURCE More than half of CO 2 emissions from power plants
13 Ranking of clean energy options for regional cooperation
14 Implementing Just These Options Can Reduce Future Emissions from Asias Developing Economies by 25%
ECO-Asia CDCP: Three sectors + three locations
What Drives Energy Demand and How Reliable are Demand Forecasts?
What Drives Energy Demand? Incomes rise People buy more stuff The force is basically unstoppable
Increased Saturation of Air Conditioners Helps Drive Demand Source: APERC 2006
Growth in Personalized Transport Will Fuel Demand for Oil Growth in Number of Vehicles in Asia ( )
How Scientific Are Demand Forecasts? Forecasting is an art, not a science Forecasters historically have tended to err on the side of overbuilding Forecasts to not tend to take into account possible EE improvements Cost of over building is rarely analyzed by fiscal agencies (no penalty for getting caught)
Over Time, Demand Forecasts Tend to be High (1) Actual Forecast
Actual Forecast Over Time, Demand Forecasts Tend to be High (2)
Over Time, Demand Forecasts Tend to be High (3) Actual 1997 Forecast
Some Case Studies and Examples of Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs
Policy Action on Energy Efficiency Can Clearly Make a Difference (U.S. States vs. Federal) Total Electricity Use, per capita, 1960 – 2001
DSM on Appliances and Equipment is Greatest Source of Savings (Australia) Abatement through Year 2010 from Australias Energy Efficiency Programs (Source: Australian Greenhouse Office)
Australia Example: Domestic Refrigerators, kWh/year Source: AGO Refrigerator use has fallen by more than 60%
U.S. Refrigerator Energy Use vs. Time, with Real Price Changes. U.S. Example: Domestic Refrigerators, (Source: Goldstein, NRDC 2005) Refrigerator use has fallen by more than 2/3 since 1973, while volume has increased and price has decreased
Korean Example (Standards and Labeling): Substantial Gains Can be Made Quickly Change in Average Market Efficiency of Korean Appliances, 1993 – 2000 (Source: Sun-Keun Lee, 2001)
CASE STUDY ON INFORMATION: APEC Energy Standards Information System
Objectives of APEC-ESIS 1.Established with APEC funding in Serves as clearinghouse for data and documents that specify aspects of energy efficiency, including: Test protocols Energy performance information and labeling Energy performance categories and minimum requirements Minimum energy performance requirements Other energy performance requirements 3.Facilitate and stimulate harmonization through the Standards Notification Procedure 4.Promote international cooperation (esp. within APEC) and reduce barriers to trade in energy-efficient products
View of Database from ESIS Home Page
View of a Country Page
Current Status of ESIS Broadening Participation in APEC-ESIS. 38 Economy contacts participating from 17 of the 21 APEC economies. Sponsorship with CLASP for Global Database. CLASP sponsored expansion of APEC ESIS database Development of Global Standards and Labeling Database launched in August 2005 Expanded from 21 APEC economies to include 54 economies worldwide More than 1,700 standards maintained. REEEP funding to expand ESIS to WESIS World Energy Standards Information System
CASE STUDY ON FINANCE: Thailand Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund EE Revolving Fund launched in January Objective: stimulate financial sector involvement in EE projects and to simplify project evaluation and financing procedures. Fund provides capital at 0% interest to Thai banks Banks can on-lend at 4% Projects vetted by DEDE to ensure they are EE or RE projects
Key Results from Phase 1 of the EE Revolving Fund ~ US$ 57m ~ US$ 103m ~ US$ 300m ~ US$ 630m
EE Savings by Measure in Phase 1 EE Revolving Fund Total EE cost savings = US$ 39 million/year
Phase 2 Launched in March 2006 THB 2,000 million 11 banks participating
How Much Does EE Cost?
Source: The World Bank (1993) World Bank Study of Fuel Options in Thailand
DSM vs. Cost of New Supply in Thailand (ACTUAL) Source: Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (2001)
World Bank Study of EE/DSM Potential in Relation to the Nam-Theun 2 Hydropower Project Carried out in 2005 Assess whether NT2 power (about 1,000 MW, 5,500 GWh/annum) is required by the Thai system by the projected commissioning date of 2010 Assess the achievable potential for Thailands initiatives at promoting EE and DSM when NT2 is proposed to come on line
Achievable DSM/EE Potential in 2011 Total potential of 2,459 MW
Commercial Costs of DSM/EE and NT2 Resources DSM/EE is 40% of the cost of NT2
Why Is It So Difficult to Mainstream EE? End Users Industrial, Commercial Government DEDP, EGAT, NEPO Finance ESCOs Bankers Finance Services Consultants ACs, RCs Services Trade Allies Suppliers, Service Providers Services Equipment Policies
Issues, Themes, and Food for Thought
List of Issues Why are DSM (demand side management) and EE separate in many countries? Institutional Issues Information and coordination Climate change
Why are DSM and EE Separate? Why are DSM and Energy Efficiency Separate? How does DSM related to Energy Standards & Labeling DSM Energy Standards & Labeling ? DSM Energy Efficiency & Conservation Is it possible to have a more Integrated Model? Energy Conservation: Efficiency, DSM, Standards & Labeling ? ? ? ?
Institutional Issues (1) QUESTION: How can you get the government commitment to allocate and train human resources to get the job done? Benchmarking of DSM in some Asian countries CountryYear Estd LocationNo. Staff Comments Thailand1994Utility1501,300 MW savings to date Funded through tariff Sri Lanka1999Utility15Start-up funding from World Bank Vietnam2001Utility MW target by 2007 Part-time staff in Power Companies Malaysia2001Energy Commission 8Start-up funding from Danida No long-term finding
Institutional Issues (2) Korea and Mexico have set up national agencies which direct implementation of EE KEMCO in Korea CONAE in Mexico This brings a coherence to EE policy and programs What does it take to seed and enable self-sustaining energy efficiency agencies within a country?
QUESTION: How Can We Rationalize and Coordinate Standards and Labeling? Suppliers Consumer s Country 3 Testing, MEPS, labeling Suppliers Consumer s Country 2 Testing, MEPS, labeling Country 1 Testing, MEPS, labeling Suppliers Regulatory Hurdles Consumer s
QUESTION: How Can We Set Carbon and Energy Use Targets that Are Equitable? ???
Myth: Western Consultants are Needed to Help Advise Asian Governments on How to Implement EE Sure, there is a lot of great experience in Europe and the U.S. But there is also a lot of great experience 2 Examples: Energy labeling in Thailand Air conditioners in Australia and East Asia QUESTION: How can we systematize sharing of information and EE best practices between countries in Asia?
Myth: CDM is a Mechanism that will Help Stimulate Investments in EE in Developing Countries Less than 95% of registered CDM projects are for EE Transaction costs are way too high QUESTION Programmatic CDM may be an answer, but how quickly will it happen?