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1 Why Is Special Inspection Good For Us?. 2 Brief history of testing and Special Inspection Notable past failures Notable present-day failures Less dramatic,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Why Is Special Inspection Good For Us?. 2 Brief history of testing and Special Inspection Notable past failures Notable present-day failures Less dramatic,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Why Is Special Inspection Good For Us?

2 2 Brief history of testing and Special Inspection Notable past failures Notable present-day failures Less dramatic, but more common failures Agenda

3 3 Materials Testing, A Brief History Post-Civil War: engineers identify the need to better understand physical properties 1870s: Riehle Brothers manufacture compression testing machines 1880: Tinius Olsen invents the Little Giant universal testing machine

4 4 Materials Testing, A Brief History 1898: American Society for Testing and Materials is formed to address frequent breaks in rail lines 1901: A1 standard on steel rails 1909: first cement and concrete standards 1920s: first road and paving standards 1930s: first masonry standards 1930s: first soil standards

5 5 Skyline Towers, Arlington, VA, people die Caused by removal of shoring before adequate concrete strength is reached

6 6 Hartford Civic Center Roof Collapse, 1978 Caused by design and construction changes Space Frame Roof Detail

7 7 Hartford Civic Center Angle Connection Details As Built As Designed

8 8 Kemper Arena Roof Collapse, Kansas City, 1979 Caused by inadequate roof drains Ponding water on roof Miscalculated hanger bolt strengths

9 9 Harbor Cay Condominiums, FL, People die Engineering errors Thin slabs Improper rebar placement

10 10 Hyatt Regency Skywalk Collapse, Kansas City, people die Caused by construction changes without engineering review

11 11 U.S. House Sub-Committee on Science and Technology 1982 studies structural failures 1984 presents report of findings Need for improved communications during the construction process Need for construction inspection

12 12 LAmbiance Plaza, Bridgeport, CT, people die Stacked slab construction Unknown exact cause

13 13 and…..Special Inspections is Born 1988 Special Inspections adopted in BOCA 2000 Chapter 17 of the IBC was created from the legacy codes (UBC, BOCA, SBC) ++ =

14 14 IBC, Section 1704 – Special Inspections Required by code Special Inspector must be qualified Special Inspector must be approved by the Building Official Special Inspector must be hired by the owner or his direct representative (such as SE or architect)

15 15 World Trade Center Collapse, ,752 people die Substandard fireproofing is a major contributor

16 16 McGuire Apartments, Seattle, Built 2002 Improperly sealed PT cables Corroded cables, cracked concrete, structural integrity of entire structure compromised Demolished in 2011

17 17 I-35 Bridge Collapse Minneapolis, people die Under-designed gusset plates Weight from additional 2 deck concrete (>5 million lbs.) 578,000 lbs. construction equipment and materials

18 18 Harmon Tower, Las Vegas Completed in 2008 Missing critical rebar Reduced from 49 to 28 stories Scheduled for demolition

19 19 Block 7, Lotus Riverside, Shanghai, 2009 Unsupported garage excavation Saturated soils 1 person dies

20 20 Indiana State Fair Stage Collapse, people die Insufficient wind support

21 21 Masonry Problems

22 22 Form Mistakes

23 23 When Welds Go Bad

24 24 More Masonry Problems

25 25 Concrete Consolidation Problems

26 26 So … Why is Special Inspection Required? Because it saves time, money,… and lives.

27 27 Thank You Questions?


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