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Construction Hazards and Standards MODULE 21
2©2006 TEEX Construction vs. General Industry Construction, alteration and/or repair, including painting and decorating is under 29 CFR 1926 – 29 CFR 1910.12 Repair of existing facilities; replacement of structures and their components Interpretation: Construction vs. Maintenance
3©2006 TEEX 29 CFR 1926 Organization A.General B.General Interpretations C.General Safety and Health Provisions D.Occupational Health and Environmental Controls E.Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment F.Fire Protection and Prevention G.Signs, Signals, and Barricades H.Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal I.Tools – Hand and Power
4©2006 TEEX 29 CFR 1926 Organization J.Welding and Cutting K.Electrical L.Scaffolds M.Fall Protection N.Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors O.Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations P.Excavations Q.Concrete and Masonry Construction R.Steel Erection
5©2006 TEEX 29 CFR 1926 Organization S.Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air T.Demolition U.Blasting and the Use of Explosives V.Power Transmission and Distribution W.Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection X.Ladders Y.Commercial Diving Operations Z.Toxic and Hazardous Substances
6©2006 TEEX Hazards and Standards What hazards are employees exposed to: When they set up a drilling site? When they grade land or excavate? When they clear a site for use? Regulations in 29 CFR 1926: Subpart P – Excavations Subpart O – Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations If blasting: Subpart O
Excavations 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P
8©2006 TEEX Excavation Hazards Excavating is recognized as one of the most hazardous construction operations Fatality rate for excavations is twice that of construction as a whole Cave-ins: More likely to result in fatalities than other excavation hazards
9©2006 TEEX Hazards of Excavation Work Cave-ins Underground utilities Materials/equipment falling into excavation sites Asphyxiation Explosion Falls Drowning
10©2006 TEEX Soil Mechanics Unit weight of soils: Varies with type and moisture content 1 cubic foot can weigh 100 to >140 lbs 1 cubic meter can weigh >3000 lbs
11©2006 TEEX Types of excavation collapse
12©2006 TEEX Heaving or Boiling
13©2006 TEEX Definitions Excavation: any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface, formed by earth removal. Trench (Trench excavation): a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. Depth>width; width <15 feet <15 feet between structure and side
14©2006 TEEX Definition – Competent Person Training, experience, and knowledge of: Soil analysis Use of protective systems Requirements of 29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart P Ability to detect: Conditions that could result in cave-ins Failures in protective systems Hazardous atmospheres Other hazards including those associated with confined spaces Authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate existing and predictable hazards and to stop work when required
15©2006 TEEX 1926.651 Specific Excavation Requirements a.Remove or support surface encumbrances (competent person) b.Determine location of all underground utilities before opening excavation OneCall system / 811 Use safe means to determine exact locations & protect underground utilities
16©2006 TEEX 1926.651(c) Access & Egress Structural ramps for access and egress designed by competent person & constructed according to design Bar is higher for equipment ramps Access & egress ramps designed to avoid slipping or tripping
17©2006 TEEX 1926.651(c) Access & Egress Stairway, ladder, ramp, other safe egress within 25 feet of employees in trenches >4 feet deep Ladder requirements apply, including extending 3 feet above top surface Every 25' 4' or greater
18©2006 TEEX 1926.651 Specific Excavation Requirements d.In traffic areas, reflective vests required e.No workers underneath loads handled by lifting or digging equipment. f.Barricades, stop logs or hand signals for mobile equipment operating near excavations
19©2006 TEEX 1926.651(g) Hazardous atmospheres In excavations 4 feet or more where hazardous atmospheres are likely to exist must test atmosphere before entering and retest as necessary Unsafe below 19.5% oxygen Stay below 20% of lower flammable limits Ventilation or PPE must be used as required Rescue equipment available
20©2006 TEEX 1926.651(h) Water Accumulation Precautions required before working for water in excavations Competent Person must monitor control measures If diverting surface water, must take steps to prevent water from entering trench
21©2006 TEEX 1926.651(i) Stability of adjacent structures Structures adjacent to excavations must be supported if stability is affected No excavation below adjacent footings unless underpinned, or stable rock, or approved by PE No undermining pavements unless supported
22©2006 TEEX 1926.651 Specific Excavation Requirements j.Protect employees from falling rock, soil, or materials/equipment falling into excavations. Keep materials 2 feet from edge Retaining devices/barricades k.Inspections by competent person, daily and as needed during shift l.Walkways to cross excavations
23©2006 TEEX 1926.652 Requirements for protective systems Protection of employees in excavations Design of sloping and benching systems Design of support systems, shield systems, and other protective systems Materials and equipment Installation and removal
24©2006 TEEX 1926.652(a) Protection of employees in excavations Use adequate protective system, except Excavations entirely in stable rock <5 feet and competent person sees no potential for cave-in Capacity for all reasonably expected loads
25©2006 TEEX 1926.652(b) and (c) Design of sloping and benching systems Four choices for sloping: Slope for type C, no steeper than 34° Use sloping choices from Appendices A, B Tabulated data determined by a PE Designed by a PE For support systems, shield systems, other: Design using Appendices A, C, D Manufacturers tabulated data Other tabulated data determined by a PE Designed by a PE
26©2006 TEEX 1926.652(d) Materials and equipment Materials for protective systems free from damage & defects Used according to manufacturers specifications If damaged, competent person must determine suitability for continued use
27©2006 TEEX 1926.652(e) Installation and removal of support Support system members securely connected together Installed & removed to assure employee safety Keep within design capacity Remove from bottom first, and backfill as you remove
28©2006 TEEX 1926.652(f) Sloping and benching systems No working on sloped or benched faces unless employees below are protected
29©2006 TEEX 1926.652(g) Shield systems Shield systems not subject to loads exceeding their capacity Installed to restrict lateral movement Employee protection provided while entering/exiting shields No employees in trench during installation or removal of shields May excavate up to 2 feet below shield with proper conditions
Subtitles & Transitions FOR EXAMPLE… Trench box Shielding Shoring
31©2006 TEEX 1926 Subpart P Appendix A - Soil Classification A method of categorizing soil and rock deposits in a hierarchy: Stable Rock Type A – cohesive soil >1.5 tsf – with exceptions Type B – cohesive soil >.5-1.5 tsf or granular, disturbed, vibrated, fissured, layered Type C – cohesive soil <.5 tsf or granular, submerged, layered…
33©2006 TEEX Soils - Types & Particle Size Gravel larger than 2 millimeters Sand Between 0.075 and 2 millimeters Silt Between 0.002 and 0.075 millimeters Clay Smaller than 0.002 millimeters.
34©2006 TEEX Additional soil classification Layered geological strata: based on weakest layer May be classified individually if weaker is on top of stronger
36©2006 TEEX 1926 Subpart P Appendix A - Soil Classification Each soil and rock deposit shall be classified by a competent person Classification made based on at least one visual and one manual analysis
37©2006 TEEX Visual tests: Particle size
38©2006 TEEX Visual tests Clumping Cracks or spalling Existing utilities/previously disturbed soil Layers and slope Water in surface, seeping, water table Vibration sources
39©2006 TEEX Manual tests Plasticity Dry strength Thumb penetration Pocket penetrometer or shearvane Drying test
Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations 29 CFR 1926 Subpart O
41©2006 TEEX Organization of Subpart O 1926.600 - Equipment. 1926.601 - Motor vehicles. 1926.602 - Material handling equipment. 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment. 1926.604 - Site clearing. 1926.605 - Marine operations and equipment. 1926.606 - Definitions applicable to this subpart.
42©2006 TEEX 1926.600(a) Equipment - General Requirements Lights/reflectors on unattended equipment next to highway Protection for tire changes on split rims Elevated equipment: protect from falling Parking brake, plus chocks for inclines Batteries: by Subpart K Cab glass: safety glass with no visible distortion Movement around power lines or transmitters Stops for railroad cars on spurs
43©2006 TEEX 1926.601 – Motor Vehicles a.Coverage. Motor vehicles that operate within an off- highway jobsite, not open to public traffic Not for material handling equipment covered under 1926.602.
44©2006 TEEX 1926.601(b) General requirements Brake system in operable condition: Service brake system Emergency brake system Parking brake system 2 headlights & 2 taillights if needed, depending on visibility Brake lights regardless of visibility
45©2006 TEEX 1926.601(b) General requirements Audible warning device (horn) Obstructed rear view: must have Reverse signal alarm audible above surrounding noise level or Backed up only when observer signals that it is safe Windshields & powered wipers on cabs Fix cracked glass Defogger/defroster where necessary
46©2006 TEEX 1926.601(b) General requirements Haulage vehicles: cab shield and/or canopy adequate to protect the operator from shifting or falling materials Secure tools and material from movement in compartments with employees Seats firmly secured and adequate for employees being carried
47©2006 TEEX 1926.601(b) General requirements Seat belts and anchorages meeting 49 CFR Part 571 Dump bodies supported, locked into position for maintenance or inspection Latch on hoisting/dumping devices to prevent accidental operation Trip handle of dump truck tailgate: operator must be clear when dumping
48©2006 TEEX 1926.601(b) General requirements Rubber-tired equipment must have fenders or mud flaps Vehicles checked at beginning of shift: All brake systems Tires Horn Steering Coupling Seat belt Controls Safety devices Lights/reflectors Wipers/defrosters Fire extinguishers
49©2006 TEEX 1926.602 – Material Handling Equipment Application: Scrapers, loaders, crawler or wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and similar equipment Compactors and rubber-tired "skid-steer" equipment: reserved
50©2006 TEEX 1926.602(a)(2) Seat belts Provided and must meet standards Not necessary for standup operations Not necessary for equipment without roll-over protective structure (ROPS) or canopy protection ROPS: See 1926 Subpart W
51©2006 TEEX 1926.602(a) Earthmoving equipment; General Access roadways and grades Must be constructed and maintained for safe movement of equipment involved Emergency access ramps or berms to restrain and control runaway vehicles Service braking system Capable of stopping and holding fully loaded equipment SAE standards apply
52©2006 TEEX 1926.602(a) Earthmoving equipment; General Fenders on pneumatic-tired earth- moving equipment >15 mph Suspended pending reevaluation ROPS and overhead protection: Subpart W Horns for bidirectional machines Reverse signal alarm Guard all scissor points
53©2006 TEEX 1926.602(b) Excavating and other equipment Seatbelts for tractor operation Power Crane and Shovel Associations Standards No. 1 and No. 2 of 1968, and No. 3 of 1969 adopted
54©2006 TEEX 1926.602(c) Lifting and hauling equipment Other than that covered by Subpart N 1926.600 and: Ratings clearly visible and not exceeded No modifications or additions without manufacturers written approval Multiple trucks together: proportion of load must not exceed capacity Steering knobs not attached unless spinning prevented
55©2006 TEEX 1926.602(c) Lifting and hauling equipment Overhead guards for high lift rider industrial trucks ANSI B56.1-1969 Riding on industrial trucks: No unauthorized personnel Safe place to ride
56©2006 TEEX 1926.602(c)(1)(viii) Lifting Personnel Only where designed for that purpose by manufacturer! (interpretation)interpretation Safety platform secured to lifting carriage or forks Riding personnel must be able to shut off power to truck Falling object protection
57©2006 TEEX Powered industrial truck training Identical to 1910.178
58©2006 TEEX 1926.603 Pile driving equipment General requirements Barges or floats: 1926.605 Pile driving equipment
59©2006 TEEX 1926.604 Site clearing Protect from toxic/irritant plants Instruct in first aid treatment Rollover guards Overhead and rear canopy guards: At least 1/8 steel plate or 1/4 wire mesh with up to 1 openings Rear of canopy: at least 1/4 wire mesh with up to 1 openings
60©2006 TEEX 1926.605 Marine operations and equipment Material handling: 1918, Longshoring Access to barges Working surfaces of barges First-aid and lifesaving equipment Commercial diving operations: 1926 Subpart T
61©2006 TEEX 1926 Subpart W: Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) This construction equipment must have ROPS meeting minimum performance standards: Rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers Rubber-tired front-end loaders Rubber-tired dozers Wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors Crawler tractors Crawler-type loaders Motor graders, with or without attachments NOT sideboom pipe laying tractors
62©2006 TEEX Rollover Protective Structures Purpose: Prevent complete overturn; minimize possibility of crushed operator Driver could still be crushed if not wearing a seatbelt! Also in subpart W: Testing provisions Rule for overhead protection
Scaffolds 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L
64©2006 TEEX Application of Scaffold Regulations What is a scaffold? What is covered by 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L? Where are scaffolds used in oil and gas?
Mechanized Equipment. Subpart G, Most Frequently Cited (1999) (a)(9)(ii) No reverse alarm signal on earthmoving equipment (a)(9)(I) No.
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