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R-410A Refrigerant Certification Course

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Presentation on theme: "R-410A Refrigerant Certification Course"— Presentation transcript:

1 R-410A Refrigerant Certification Course

2 Topics Links to info. sites History & Names HFC phase-out
Properties of R-410A Chemistry Temp./ Pressure chart Safety Rules & Regulations Oils Tools Charging Recommendations DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

3 About website links Some slides contain links to websites where you can access added information. These links are in light blue text. Depending on the speed of your internet connection, you may have to wait for the linked sites to load and appear on screen. After visiting a site, just close the window while leaving your browser open. This will return you to this training program. If you aren’t interested, just don’t click the links. If you don’t have a high-speed internet connection, you have probably already learned patience. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

4 Who invented R-410A? AlliedSignal was an aerospace, automotive and engineering company that acquired and merged with Honeywell for $15 billion in 1999, after which the new group adopted the Honeywell name. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

5 Allied Signal Products include Fram filters, Autolite spark plugs and Prestone anti-freeze. Genetron refrigerants. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

6 Names, lots of names Genetron AZ-20 is Honeywell's original name for R-410A, a Honeywell invention that entered the scene in a test market in 1993 as a chlorine-free R-22 replacement. With its energy efficiency and none-ozone depletion advantages over R-22, R-410A is now the leading replacement for R-22 in new residential air conditioners. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

7 Other Names Carrier calls it Puron Dupont calls it Suva 9100
Rheem calls it ProZone Lennox calls it Environ Sanyo calls it Cooleron DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

8 It’s all the same stuff . . . R-410A
In fact, if you buy a jug of “Puron”, it will probably have Allied Signal’s or Honeywell’s name on it. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

9 Bye-bye R-22! R-22 will disappear from the new equipment marketplace by year 2010. Manufacturers have already begun to phase out their R-22 equipment offerings. R-410A is the refrigerant of choice to replace R-22. It has already begun to do so. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY


11 R-22 Phase-out News Update
Final phase-out remains year 2020. Previously mandated reductions were 65% of 1989 production levels by 2010. Revised reductions are 75% by 2010. China, India & Mexico will move up their R-22 equipment phase-out by 10 years. Source: The News; Oct. 2007 DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

12 Some advertisers may be guilty of exaggeration.
For an impartial, third party discussion of the phase-out of HCFCs like R-22, you and your customers can go to the website of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at: R-22 phase-out discussion at EPA website DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

13 Why is R-410A so desirable? Operates in the same temperature ranges as R-22. The cooling equipment can share the same basic design as traditional equipment. For example . . . DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

14 70 235 R-22 122 380 41° F. R-410A 113° F. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

15 R-410A Cylinder color: rose (pink). R-22 comes in a green cylinder.
Never mix these refrigerants together. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

16 Characteristics of R-410A
Operates at pressures about 60% higher than R-22. Used with POE oil. For new, specially-designed equipment only. Cannot be retrofitted into older equipment !!! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

17 Other characteristics
A 500 micron vacuum will NOT remove all moisture from the system. The POE oil grabs onto water and won’t give it up to our vacuum pumps. Always install a filter drier on the liquid line whenever the system has been open to the atmosphere; even new systems! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

18 Replacing Driers Always cut out the old drier.
Never use your torch for removal. The heat will drive the captured moisture out of the drier back into the system. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

19 Basic chemistry CFC = chlorofluorocarbon (ie: R-12).
HCFC = hydrochlorofluorocarbon (R-22). HFC = hydrofluorocarbon (R-410A). DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

20 CFCs Comprised of chlorine, fluorine & carbon.
Extremely stable and long-lived. Drift into the highest levels of the troposphere where they will destroy many ozone molecules for many years. Phased out of production in 1996. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

21 HCFCs Comprised of hydrogen,chlorine, fluorine & carbon.
Less stable and long-lived. Break down quickly in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Only 2% to 5% of the ozone depletion potential of CFCs. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

22 HFCs Comprised of hydrogen, fluorine & carbon. No chlorine atom.
Zero ozone depletion potential. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

23 Some new terms: When two blended refrigerants separate easily, they are called Zeotropic. When blended refrigerants don’t segregate in the system, but form a stable chemical composition they are called Azeotropic. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

24 R-410A Chemistry Whew ! easy for you to say !
% blend of HFC-32 and HFC-125. Near-azeotropic properties. Chemical name: Difluoromethane, Pentafluoroethane Whew ! easy for you to say ! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

25 Concerns with Blends Fractionation Temperature glide

26 Fractionation The tendency of one or more components of a blend to leak at a faster rate than other components. Changes the composition of the remaining blend still in system. Loss of performance results. Occurs in zeotropic blends like R-407C. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

27 What is Temperature Glide?
Difference in two temperatures at a given constant pressure. For example . . . DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

28 In the evaporator . . . The temperature at which liquid refrigerant first begins to boil is known as the saturated liquid temperature, (also known as the bubble point temperature). DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

29 2nd Temperature The temperature at which the last drop of liquid refrigerant has boiled off is known as the saturated vapor temperature, (also known as the dew point temperature). DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

30 Temperature Glide At a constant pressure, the difference between the saturated vapor temperature and the saturated liquid temperature is referred to as the temperature glide of the refrigerant. The temperature glide of a single compound refrigerant like R-22 is zero. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

31 R-410A Temperature Glide The temperature glide of R-410A is 0.2°F or essentially zero as well. This is good! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

32 Key Attribute of R-410A Near-Azeotropic properties means it acts like a single compound with minimal temperature glide or fractionation potential. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

33 Benefit to you is . . . A temperature-pressure chart can easily be used for charging, refrigerant cycle analysis and diagnosis. Advance to the temperature pressure chart for R-410A DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

34 Temp. °F Press. 26.3° 90 28.9° 95 31.4° 100 33.8° 105 36.2° 110 38.5° 115 40.7° 120 42.8° 125 44.9° 130 47° 135 49° 140 50.9° 145 52.8° 150 Temp. °F Press. 54.7° 155 56.5° 160 58.3° 165 60° 170 61.7° 175 63.4° 180 65° 185 66.6° 190 68.2° 195 69.8° 200 71.3° 205 72.8° 210 74.2° 215 Temp. °F Press. 75.7° 220 77.1° 225 78.5° 230 79.9° 235 81.3° 240 82.6° 245 83.9° 250 86.5° 260 89° 270 91.5° 280 93.9° 290 96.3° 300 98.5° 310 Temp. °F Press. 100.7° 320 105° 340 109.1° 360 113.1° 380 116.9° 400 120.5° 420 124.1° 440 127.5° 460 130.8° 480 134° 500 137.2° 520 140.2° 540 143.2° 560 DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

35 Tech Tip You never want to see a suction pressure below 100 psi with R-410A air conditioning systems. Why? Look it up on the previous slide. At 100 psi, the evaporator will begin to frost over. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

36 Refrigerant Comparison
Refrigerant R-12 R-22 R-410A ODP* GWP° Type CFC HCFC HFC Developed * ODP = ozone depletion potential ° GWP = global warming potential. Source: IPCC Climate Change 2001 DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

37 Automotive Refrigerants
Refrigerant R-134A R-744 (CO2) ODP* 0 0 GWP° Type HFC natural element Developed 1990s 1850s * ODP = ozone depletion potential ° GWP = global warming potential. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

38 HFCs in Europe In 2011, the current HFC R-134A will be forbidden for use in air conditioning of new vehicle types throughout the European Community. The German car manufacturers have agreed on the use of R-744 (carbon dioxide). Toyota will reportedly follow suit. The global warming potential of R-744 is less by a factor of 1,300 than that of R134A. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

39 Is R-410A a “Perfect Refrigerant”?
No. There is no “perfect refrigerant.” It has a slightly higher Global Warming Potential than R-22. However, this is somewhat offset because R-410A has a 5 - 6% higher Energy Efficiency Rating than R-22. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

40 Don’t vent R-410A ! R-410A is covered by the same rules of the Clean Air Act as all other refrigerants. Just because it doesn’t deplete the ozone layer, doesn’t mean you can release it. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

41 Myths For a somewhat dated discussion of a few of the common myths related to R-410A, click the link below to go to the Honeywell website: Common R-410A Myths DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

42 Myth #1 Lower capacity at high outdoor ambient temperatures.
True, but capacities are 95°F. 9% capacity loss at 130°F, but that’s not a concern in most of the United States. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

43 Safety Most of the safety precautions are the same for R-410A as R-22.
For example, never expose cylinders of either refrigerant to temperatures above 125° F. Use the same storage rules for both. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

44 Safety R-410A has been confirmed to be in the low toxicity range.
ASHRAE Safety Group: A1/A1. UL Class: Practically Non-flammable. DOT Green Label: Non-flammable. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

45 Safety Ingestion: Don’t drink it!
Don’t induce vomiting if someone else does. Seek immediate medical attention. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

46 Safety Skin or Eye Contact:
Same as other refrigerants; causes frostbite. Flush with lukewarm water. Seek immediate medical attention. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

47 Safety Avoid exposing it to high temperatures. Watch your torch!
Exposure to flame can produce toxic compounds. Contact with red hot metals like abraded aluminum can result in exothermic or explosive reactions. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

48 Safety Inhalation: Same as other refrigerants.
Attacks central nervous system. Causes dizziness & then unconsciousness. Slurred speech; loss of muscle coordination. Can cause cardiac irregularities & ultimately, death. Get to fresh air & seek immediate medical attention. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

49 Safety R-410A is heavier than air. It will displace oxygen.
If a leak has occurred in a confined area, ventilate with fresh air before entering. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

50 Material Safety Data Sheet
Click the link below to access and print your own copy MSDS for Genetron AZ-20 DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

51 Oils R-22 uses alkylbenzene oil. R-410A uses polyol ester (POE) oil.
Oils must be miscible with refrigerant. miscible = able to mix together. Oils must be matched with the proper refrigerant. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

52 Advantages of POE Oil Better oil return properties.
Better heat transfer characteristics. Better lubrication ability. Wax free. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

53 Oil Characteristics Great lubricant.
But ! It’s “hygroscopic”: strong attraction to moisture. Will absorb water vapor right into the oil. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

54 Oil Handling Procedures
Keep POE oil sealed in metal containers. Keep condensing unit and compressors sealed until right before brazing. Always install a liquid line drier whenever R-410A systems have been exposed to the atmosphere. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

55 POE Oil Warning! POE oil is manufactured by combining alcohol and acid which then gives off water. The water is then removed. Allowing moisture to enter the system can reverse this process and turn the POE oil to a combination of acid and organic salts! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

56 Oil Disposal It’s against the law to just dump waste oil.
EPA does not classify refrigeration oils as hazardous waste, but . . . Do not mix oils with other wastes. Do not mix refrigeration oils with waste oils from other sources. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

57 Oil Disposal Waste oil is your responsibility.
Legally you own it for life! Recycle it. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

58 POE Oil Safety POE oil irritates the skin.
Wash affected skin with soap & water. POE oil has been known to damage some rubber roofs! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

59 Myth #3 “The higher pressures are unsafe.”
Up to 60% higher pressures, but the equipment is designed to safely handle them. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

60 Myth #4 “Can’t “top off” the refrigerant charge.”
False! Because it’s a near-azeotropic blend, it acts like a single element. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

61 Leak repair regulations
EPA 608 requires technicians to find & repair leaks that are over 15% of the total system charge annually. R-410A is covered by this rule as well. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

62 Leak Testing Electronic leak detectors designed for HFCs work well.
So do mixtures of dry nitrogen & R-410A. “Bubbles” and Ultrasonic leak detectors can also be used. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

63 Leak Testing Caution! Do not use halide leak detectors designed for R-22. Never use a mixture of compressed air and R-410A to check for leaks as this mixture is flammable above one atmosphere (ie: 14.7 psi.). DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

64 A Word About Driers Driers must be rated for R-410A.
Most new driers can be used for all refrigerants. Pressure rating of drier’s shell must be higher. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

65 Replacing old R-22 Systems
The condensing unit and evaporator coil must be replaced with new matched components engineered for the higher pressures of R-410A. Expansion valves (TXVs) must be specific to R-410A. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

66 Reusing existing line sets?
Properly-sized, copper line sets in good condition w brazed connections can be reused with new R-410A equipment. They should be cleaned to remove all traces of the old mineral oil. Here is one possible flushing agent: Rx11 Flush Click here to research DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY


68 Recovery Units Must be rated for R-410A. Oil-less design is best.

69 Gauges & Hoses High side range to 800 psi.
Low side range to 250 psi. with a 550 psi retard. Hoses must be rated to 800 psi. Do NOT mix refrigerants in your tools. Dissimilar oils will become contaminated. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

70 Recovery Cylinders Rated for 400 psi. Color: Gray with yellow top.
NOT 300 psi like standard cylinders. Color: Gray with yellow top. DOT 4BA400 or 4BW400 Do NOT recover different refrigerants into the same cylinders! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

71 Recovery Cylinders Must be replaced or tested (w date stamp) every 5 years. Do not mix refrigerants in the same recovery tank! Never fill above 80% full. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

72 Charging R-410A Systems Most new equipment will employ thermostatic expansion valves (TXVs) to meter refrigerant into the evaporator. This is a highly desirable feature which allows improved comfort control by maintaining a fully active evaporator under a wide array of operating conditions. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

73 Charging Procedure Charge as a liquid Invert cylinder

74 When charging with liquid . . .
Use a charging valve Such as Ritchie # 41123 This will flash the refrigerant to the vapor state so that it can safely be put into the suction line of the system. 5/16” for most mini-splits. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY


76 Charging by Sub-cooling
Charging is often done by sub-cooling. You may already be familiar with this method if the R-22 systems you were installing had TXVs. We’ll review it now: DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

77 Charging by Sub-cooling
Operate the system to stabilize temperatures & pressures. If the outdoor temperature is less than 65°F., restrict the air flow across the condenser until the high side pressure on your red gauge reaches 350 psig. If over 65°F., simply measure the liquid line pressure. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

78 Charging by Sub-cooling
Determine the saturation temperature that corresponds to that pressure. You can read this off your red gauge or use a chart for R410A. Measure the liquid line temperature at the service valve on the condensing unit using a fast-acting digital thermometer clamped to the liquid line and insulated from ambient temperatures. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

79 Charging by Sub-cooling
Subtract the liquid line temperature from the saturation temperature to get the sub-cooling. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

80 Adjusting the Charge If sub-cooling is too low, add refrigerant.
If sub-cooling is too high, recover refrigerant. If the equipment manufacturer does not state a target sub-cooling, use 10°-15°F. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

81 Charging Rheem units: It’s even easier!
Compare the high side pressure on the chart attached to the unit’s access door with your gauge pressure for any given outdoor temperature and adjust accordingly. Add refrigerant to raise pressure. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

82 Sample Charging Chart Outdoor Temp. Liquid Press. Suction Pressure

83 Using charging charts Outdoor Temp. = 80° F. Liquid Press. should be
306 psig Suction Pressure = 125 psig DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

84 Of course . . . Airflow must be correct;
Refrigerant line sizing must be correct; Let the system run for minutes to stabilize temperatures & pressures. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

85 Charging by weight The preferred method.
Use the manufacturer’s data to determine how many ounces of refrigerant to add or recover. Based on factory charge plus length and diameter of liquid line. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

86 More charging tips: Sight Glass
Most systems will not have a sight glass. Do NOT try to clear the sight glass when charging. You risk an overcharge. It is normal for part of the blend to flash to a vapor in the sight glass. This will reform into 100% liquid later. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

87 Fast Facts R-410A will replace R-22 in new equipment by 2010.
R-410A can only be used in equipment designed specifically for it. R-410A operates at pressures 60% higher than R-22. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

88 Fast Facts 2 The saturation temperatures of R-410A are similar to those of R-22. Technicians need special tools to work on R-410A systems. R-410A comes in pink cylinders. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

89 Fast Facts 3 R-410A was invented by Allied Signal (now called Honeywell). R-410A is non-flammable. Do not expose cylinders of R-410A to temperatures above 125° F.* * The same is true of cylinders of R-22. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

90 Fast Facts 4 R-410A uses POE oil which is highly hygroscopic (attracts water). Always evacuate systems to 500 microns. All R-410A systems must have a drier installed in the liquid line. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

91 Fast Facts 5 Cylinders of R-410A must be inverted when adding refrigerant to a system. R-410A must leave the cylinder as a liquid with a charging valve used to flash the liquid to a vapor before being added to a system. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

92 Fast Facts 6 R-410A does not deplete the ozone layer, but it can never be vented to the atmosphere. It must be treated like all other refrigerants covered by the Clean Air Act. It is not classified as Hazardous Waste. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

93 Fast Facts 7 Recovery cylinders are gray with yellow tops.
Recovery cylinders should only be filled to 80% of their capacity by weight. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

94 Fast Facts 8 The old line set can be reused when replacing R-22 systems with R-410A equipment. Clean the old line set to remove all traces of mineral oil. Refrigerants & oils should not be cross-mixed. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

95 Frequently asked questions:
There is a good discussion of R-410A questions at the Emerson Climate Technologies website. They make the Copeland Scroll compressor that many OEMs use in their equipment. Click here for FAQs DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

96 Prediction It is likely that many manufacturers of air conditioning equipment will convert all of their products to R-410A before the January 2010 deadline. Don’t procrastinate! DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

97 In Conclusion DESIGN AIR has been selling air conditioning equipment using R-410A for over 5 years. These are highly-reliable, efficient and “Green” systems. Consumers find them highly-desirable. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY



100 About the exam The exam is written in a pdf-type file which requires software called Acrobat Reader from Adobe Systems Inc. Most computers already have Acrobat Reader installed, but if yours doesn’t, you can download it for free here: Get Acrobat Reader here DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

101 Time to get certified. Go to the Certification Exam
Fax it to for grading and to complete the certification process. Include your return fax number to receive your score. Note: no certificate or diploma will be sent. DESIGN AIR UNIVERSITY

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