Presentation on theme: "A corpus-based study of loan words in original and translated texts"— Presentation transcript:
1 A corpus-based study of loan words in original and translated texts Ana Frankenberg-GarciaISLA - Lisbona n a . f r a n k e n b e r s a p o . p t
2 Loan words in monolingual settings 1. When people fail to retrieve equivalent words in the language they are speakinglanguage loss2. To evoke meanings that go beyond the propositional meaning of the words usedlanguage enrichment
3 Loan words in translation 1. Culturally-bound concepts difficult to translatelast resort for want of a better solution2. Conveying source-text cultureintentional translation strategy
4 Loan words in translation Vinay & Darbelnet (1958): empruntsTo fill in semantic gaps or add local colourEasy way outNewmark (1988): transferenceTo use with moderationTranslator’s job is to translate, to explainVenuti (1995)Option to domesticate or foreignizeTranslators should keep foreign texts foreignToury (1995)Relative status of source-text language and cultureAffects the extent to which it interferes in the translation
5 Motivation The use of loans is not a prerogative of translations When looking at loan words in translation, it makes sense to look at how loans are used in texts that are not translations
6 Loan words in original and translated texts Are there more loans in translations than in source texts?Is the superimpostion of languages in source texts effaced by translation?Does the relative status of the ST language and culture affect the use of loans in translation?Questions such as these are much easier to tackle with the help of corpora
7 Bidirectional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese MethodCOMPARA 6.0[Dec 2004 – Mar 2005]Bidirectional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese(published fiction)Original PortugueseTranslatedEnglishOriginal EnglishTranslatedPortugueseFocus on frequency and language distribution of loans
8 Method sub-corpus 1,197,168 words COMPARA contains over 2 million words, with texts published between 1837 and 2000Sub-corpus of texts published in the last 30 years:15 original Portuguese fiction extracts (277,243 words)13 original English fiction extracts (191,913 words)15 extracts of Portuguese fiction in English translation (312,322 words)15 extracts of English fiction in Portuguese translation (415,690 words)1,197,168 words
9 Method sub-corpus: note 1 Not all stories set exclusively in English or Portuguese speaking worldsNot all stories take place in the last thirty yearsMay affect how loans are used, but typical of fiction!What matters is:Stories written by modern English and Portuguese-speaking writersStories read by English and Portuguese-speaking readers of today
10 Method sub-corpus: note 2 English (28 texts)5 authorsDavid Lodge, Joanna Trollope, Julian Barnes, Nadine Gordimer, Richard Zimler10 translatorsAlan Clarke, Cliff Landers, David Brookshaw, Ellen Watson, Giovanni Pontiero, Gregory Rabassa, John Byrne, John Parker, Mary Fitton, Richard ZenithPortuguese (30 texts)12 authorsAutran Dourado, Cardoso Pires, Chico Buarque, Jorge de Sena, José E. Agualusa, José Saramago, Marcos Rey, Mário de Carvalho, Mia Couto, Patrícia Melo, Paulo Coelho, Rubem FonsecaAna M. Amador, Carlos G. Babo, Geraldo G. Ferraz, Helena Cardoso, J. Teixeira Aguilar, José Lima, Lídia C-Luther, M. Carlota Pracana, M. Carmo Figueira, Paula Reismore individual author differences in Portuguese
11 Method sub-corpus: note 3 EnglishPortugueseDifferent varieties of English and Portuguese not taken into account
12 Method What was considered a loan How loans were counted How loans were sorted by language
13 Defining loansDisagreement among individuals and within language communitiesLoans:words in a language other than the main language of the text that authors and translators (or publishers) chose to set off by highlighting- criterion used in COMPARA to mark foreign words- can be retrieved automaticallyNote 1readers (and corpus makers & users) may have different perceptionsNote 2same word can be a loan in some texts but not in others
14 Defining loans same word classified differently in different languages EBDL5 (262):`What d'you take me for, a robot?´EBDL5 (262): -- O que é que você pensa que eu sou? Algum robot?
15 Defining loans same word classified differently in same language PBRF1 (318): Usava jeans apertados, suas pernas eram grossas e os braços finos.PBPC2 (934): A única coisa que mantinha o sentido de reali-dade eram nossos trajes, jeans e camisetas com vieiras costuradas.EBDL3T1(1279): Boon tinha realmente chegado, provocante-mente vestido com camiseta e jeans e acompanhado duma bela e altiva Pantera Negra, que ia entrar no programa dessa noite.EBJT1 (1962): Era um rapaz, um rapaz magro de jeans e com um blusão de cabedal.Instead of external parameters, definition reflects opinions of authors and translators (and editorial policies)
16 Defining loans titles and named entities marked foreign not included EBJB1(64): Besides, I remember the end of L'Education Sentimentale.PBRF1(560): Até que o Fleming escolheu um bom título, Diamonds are Forever, pensei, mas o filme de Guy Hamilton era medíocre.PBAA2(603): It looks like a ship is arriving, and it's the Cruzeiro.´EBDL3T2 (1153): Teve uma lua-de-mel de curta duração com a Radio One, que se transformou numa espécie de casamento sadomasoquista.
17 Counting loans single words and multi-word expressions counted as one loan EBJB2 (500): …he was going to get the best quid pro quo out of God in the forthcoming negotiations.= 1 loanEBJT2 (241): `I shall bring tapas also,´ José said, moving towards the door.
18 Counting loans quotations counted as one loan EURZ1 (1275): …a weedy boy with pale-green eyes yells at her in a prideful voice, « Vai-te foder, vaca! , fuck off, cow!»= 1 loanEBJB1(188): …he found himself constantly irritated by a parrot which screamed, `As-tu déjeuné, Jako? ´ and `Cocu, mon petit coco.´= 2 loans
19 Counting loans lists and repetitions counted as separate loans PBPM1 (99): Urutus, jararacas, cascavéis, jararacuçus, surucutingas, cotiaras -- I saw these and many other serpents in the slides that Melissa projected during her talk.= 6 loansEBJT2 (368):`The little eggs of the codoniz , what is the codoniz ?´= 2 loans
20 Sorting loans co-text used to resolve ambiguity EBDL5(1802): `Can I take this thing off?´ he said, plucking at his lei .lei = Hawaiian, not ItalianEBJT2(95): `You must look after yourself, querida .´querida = Spanish, not Portuguese
21 Sorting loans loans classified according to their origins EBDL5(262): -- O que é que você pensa que eu sou? Algum robot ?robot = CzechEBDL1T2(889): a plastic container of frozen moussaka could be concealed without much difficulty.moussaka = Greek
22 Results distribution of loans Original PortugueseOriginal English9 (out of 15) texts had no loans at allJust 1 (out of 13) texts did not have any loans1.5 loans/ 10 K words16.9 loans/ 10 K wordsOriginal English fiction more permeable to loans than original Portuguese fiction
23 Results distribution of loans Translated PortugueseTranslated EnglishAll texts contained loansOne third of the texts contained no loans at all24.3 loans/ 10 K words4.1 loans/ 10 K wordsWhen reading translated fiction, Portuguese readers more exposed to loans than English readers
24 Results distribution of loans Original PortugueseTranslated PortugueseMore than half the texts contained no loans at allAll texts contained loans1.5 loans/ 10 K words24.3 loans/ 10 K wordsPortuguese readers must notice a big difference….
25 Results distribution of loans Original EnglishTranslated EnglishAll but one text contained loansOne third of the texts contained no loans at all16.9 loans/ 10 K words4.1 loans/ 10 K wordsThe number of loans in present in text shouldn’t add a particularly foreign ring to English translations….
26 Results (so far)Loan words seem to enter the Portuguese language more through fiction translated from English than through original fictionThe opposite seems to occur in EnglishDo Portuguese translators tend to foreignize texts?Do English translators tend to domesticate texts?What happens to loans in the process of translation
27 Results net difference in overall number of loans ST(English)TT(Portuguese)3 XST(Portuguese)TT(English)Both Portuguese and English translations tripled the total number of loans present in source textsEnglish translators not really sheltering readers from loansFew loans in Portuguese source texts makes loans in translated English seem scant by comparison
28 Results Loans in common, loans added and loans removed ST(English)TT(Portuguese)ST(Portuguese)TT(English)Both PT and EN translators tend to:Preserve loans originally present in source textsAdd more loans of their ownRemove very few loans (except…)
29 Results language distribution of loans Original PortugueseTranslated PortugueseLoans from just 4 languages:English(22 loans in 2 texts)Latin(15 loans in 2 texts)French(4 loans in 4 texts)German(1 loan in 1 text)None prevailsLoans from 14 identified languagesEnglish prevails(475 loans in 13 texts)French noticeable(238 loans in 13 texts)
30 Results language distribution of loans Original EnglishTranslated EnglishLoans from 12 identified languagesFrench prevails(117 loans in 10 texts)Portuguese is rare(14 loans but all in 1 text)Loans from just 8 identified languagesFrench prevails(43 loans in 6 texts)Portuguese is noticeable(35 loans in 7 texts)
31 Results language distribution of loans (English)TT(Portuguese)More loan languages: + 2Lots of loans from source text language: + 475More French: 117 → 238 (+121)More Latin: → 34 (+15)More Italian: → (+9)Less Spanish: 25 → (-3)Portuguese effaced: -14 (no compensation)
32 Results language distribution of loans (Portuguese)TT(English)More loan languages: + 4Few loans from source text language: + 35More French: 4 → 43 (+39)More Latin: 15 → 19 (+4)Spanish introduced: 0 → 4 (+4)Italian introduced: → 7 (+7)English effaced: -22(2 loans compensated by French)
33 Overall Results EN Toury (1995) Original PT Translated EN Original EN Translated PTENToury (1995)Tolerance of interference is likely to be greater when translation is carried out from ‘major’ to ‘minor’ language/cultureBoth PT and EN translation tripled the number of loansIncreased the number of loan languagesDid not remove superimpostion of languages in ST (except when loans were from translation language)Difference between number of loans in English originals and translations not as conspicuous, but…Loans from ST abound in translated Portuguese, but used very sparingly in translated EnglishHuge difference between Portuguese originals and translationsMore loans and more loan languages in original English fiction
34 ConclusionCommentaries on use of loans often controversial and based on anectodal evidenceThis study examined some hard data on use of loans in original and translated textsOnly possible thanks to a corpus and corpus techniquesFuture: more research using more texts, different genres & other language pairsObrigada!