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Slide 1 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General Semantics and Lateral Thinking If you can see the world.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General Semantics and Lateral Thinking If you can see the world."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General Semantics and Lateral Thinking If you can see the world clearly then your thinking and actions will be appropriate. Edward de Bono

2 Slide 2 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Presentation Outline Definition Modes of Thinking Practical Example Lateral Thinking Techniques Other Techniques Conclusion...if you can learn how to 'think' in terms of 'facts' instead of definition, we will have achieved what we wanted to achieve. Alfred Korzybski

3 Slide 3 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Theme In order to investigate problem solving, we need to distinguish between a general structure or process for the solving of problems and the techniques used within that process. These techniques will vary depending on the domain of operation and the specific problem.

4 Slide 4 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method F =Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up/Define.

5 Slide 5 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method F =Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up. A=Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions (gather information)

6 Slide 6 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method F =Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up. A=Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions (gather information) C=Consider/Cogitate/Comprehend/Change (analyse information, create, consider and change solutions)

7 Slide 7 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method F =Find the problem or be found by it. Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up. A=Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions (gather information) C=Consider/Cogitate/Comprehend/Change (analyse information, create, consider and change solutions) T=Task/Tell/Transmit/Try/Test/Trial (make decision, implement, check)

8 Slide 8 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method

9 Slide 9 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method The Scientific Method 1.Identify a Problem 2.Analyse it 3.Form possible solutions 4.Experiment 5.Observe 6.Form conclusions (From Twelve General Semantics Lessons for Middle School Students, Martin Levinson, Ph.D.)

10 Slide 10 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1 Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor: Vertical and Lateral

11 Slide 11 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1 Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor: Vertical and Lateral Jerome Bruner, American psychologist: Paradigmatic (propositions) and Narrative (story)

12 Slide 12 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1 Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor: Vertical and Lateral Jerome Bruner, American psychologist: Paradigmatic (propositions) and Narrative (story) Robert Graves, English poet: Prose (logical/scientific) and Poetic (associational/mythic) Analeptic (past) and Proleptic (future)

13 Slide 13 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet: Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and Fancy

14 Slide 14 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet: Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and Fancy William Blake, English poet: Daughters of Imagination and Daughters of Memory

15 Slide 15 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet: Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and Fancy William Blake, English poet: Daughters of Imagination and Daughters of Memory Ships sail the sea (Keels plough the earth): Synecdoche, Metaphor and Metonymy

16 Slide 16 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian

17 Slide 17 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc

18 Slide 18 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc Part and Whole (Gestalt)

19 Slide 19 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc Part and Whole (Gestalt) Divergent and Convergent Thinking

20 Slide 20 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3 Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian Waking and Dream: Einstein's Thought Experiments, etc Part and Whole (Gestalt) Divergent and Convergent Thinking Thesis--Antithesis--Synthesis

21 Slide 21 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Jung's Psychological Types Judgement and Perception

22 Slide 22 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Multiple Intelligences Visual/spatial Verbal/linguistic Logical/mathematical Bodily/kinesthetic Musical/rhythmic Interpersonal Intrapersonal (From the work of Howard Gardner.)

23 Slide 23 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method A Practical FACT

24 Slide 24 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method TEC T=Target: the precise focus of the thinking Task: the thinking task that is to be performed (e.g. review, fault finding/correction, problem finding/solving E=Expand/Explore (positive and free-flowing) C=Contract/Conclude (a narrowing down phase; trying to make sense of what was found and to find a conclusion) A very simple structure for focussing thinking and making of it a deliberate task. Can be done as a five-minute think: T (1 min), E (3 mins), C (2 mins).

25 Slide 25 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method GS Principles and Techniques The map is not the territory. The map doesn't cover all the territory. The map is self-reflexive. The word isn't the thing. Extensional/Intensional. Non-Allness. Non-Elementalism. Non-Identity. Organism-as-a-Whole-in- Environments. Over-/Under-/Un-Defined Words. Dating. Delayed Evaluating. Et Cetera (Etc.). Hyphens. Indexing. Logical Fate. Multiordinality. Multi-valued Orientation. Quotes. Self-reflexiveness. Structure, Relations, Order. Structural Differential. Time-binding.

26 Slide 26 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Logic bubble That bubble of perception within which a person is acting and which involves that persons beliefs, understandings, experience and their perceptions of circumstance, structure, context and relationships.

27 Slide 27 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Logic bubble That bubble of perception within which a person is acting and which involves that persons beliefs, understandings, experience and their perceptions of circumstance, structure, context and relationships. Logical Fate

28 Slide 28 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method AGO (F/A) A=Aims G=Goals O=Objectives This is an example of an attention-directing thinking tool. Although there are differences between these words, these are ignored for the sake of doing some attention- directing: the task is to set up objectives or to discover the objectives that already seem to be in use.

29 Slide 29 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method AGO (F/A) A=Aims G=Goals O=Objectives This is an example of an attention-directing thinking tool. Although there are differences between these words, these are ignored for the sake of doing some attention- directing: the task is to set up objectives or to discover the objectives that already seem to be in use. Multiordinality, Time-binding, Extensional Thinking

30 Slide 30 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method FIFO (A) inFormation In, inFormation Out A deliberate survey of what is available and what is still needed. FI: the information already gathered is examined using dense reading (reading between the lines and considering the implications of what is read) and all implications and inferences are extracted. FO: the gaps in the information are then identified, and filled in as much as possible. DIV

31 Slide 31 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method FIFO (A) inFormation In, inFormation Out A deliberate survey of what is available and what is still needed. FI: the information already gathered is examined using dense reading (reading between the lines and considering the implications of what is read) and all implications and inferences are extracted. FO: the gaps in the information are then identified, and filled in as much as possible. Map/Territory, Multi-valued Orientation DIV

32 Slide 32 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Brainstorming (A/C) Generally, a solution-generating tool. My guidelines: 1)The more the merrier 2)The wilder the better 3)No self-criticism or other-criticism Is better performed individually than in groups. Do something only you can come up withthat none of your friends or family would think of. DIV

33 Slide 33 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Brainstorming (A/C) Generally, a solution-generating tool. My guidelines: 1)The more the merrier 2)The wilder the better 3)No self-criticism or other-criticism Is better performed individually than in groups. Do something only you can come up withthat none of your friends or family would think of. Delayed Evaluating, Etc. DIV

34 Slide 34 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method PO (A/C) HypothesisSupposePossiblePoetry PO can stand for provocative operation, an attempt to move thinking into newer, more productive areas, a method of movement not of judgement. Three possible methods: 1)The Stepping Stone (Po cars would limit their own parking; The po factory should be downstream of itself) 2)The Escape Method (looking at things in a situation that we may take for granted) 3)The Random Stimulation Method (through the use of a random word or object or person or magazine or exhibition, and following associations) DIV

35 Slide 35 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method PO (A/C) HypothesisSupposePossiblePoetry PO can stand for provocative operation, an attempt to move thinking into newer, more productive areas, a method of movement not of judgement. Three possible methods: 1)The Stepping Stone (Po cars would limit their own parking; The po factory should be downstream of itself) 2)The Escape Method (looking at things in a situation that we may take for granted) 3)The Random Stimulation Method (through the use of a random word or object or person or magazine or exhibition, and following associations) Structure-Relations-Order, Non-Allness, Etc. DIV

36 Slide 36 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method APC (A/C) A=Alternatives P=Possibilities C=Choices This is another attention-directing tool. In different situations one or other word may seem more appropriate, but no attempt should be made to distinguish between them. Doing an APC means making a deliberate effort to generate alternatives at any particular point. DIV

37 Slide 37 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method APC (A/C) A=Alternatives P=Possibilities C=Choices This is another attention-directing tool. In different situations one or other word may seem more appropriate, but no attempt should be made to distinguish between them. Doing an APC means making a deliberate effort to generate alternatives at any particular point. Non-Allness, Non-Elementalism, Non-Identity, Etc. DIV

38 Slide 38 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method EBS (A/C) Examine Both Sides This type of exploration of both sides of a situation/argument is meant to be neutral and objective. The intention is to examine the territory of the situation for a constructive purpose. The tool leads easily into ADI. DIV

39 Slide 39 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method EBS (A/C) Examine Both Sides This type of exploration of both sides of a situation/argument is meant to be neutral and objective. The intention is to examine the territory of the situation for a constructive purpose. The tool leads easily into ADI. Organism-as-a-Whole-in-Environments DIV

40 Slide 40 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method OPV (A/C) Other Person's Views This thinking tool overlaps with the EBS and the logic bubble. In using this tool, the thinker tries to put him/herself into the shoes of the other person, in order to be able to perceive the world as that person sees it. There are two parts: 1) identifying the people involved and 2) putting oneself in their shoes. The tool effectively requires the thinker to be objectively trying to see the world from the other persons point of view. DIV

41 Slide 41 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method OPV (A/C) Other Person's Views This thinking tool overlaps with the EBS and the logic bubble. In using this tool, the thinker tries to put him/herself into the shoes of the other person, in order to be able to perceive the world as that person sees it. There are two parts: 1) identifying the people involved and 2) putting oneself in their shoes. The tool effectively requires the thinker to be objectively trying to see the world from the other persons point of view. Non-Allness DIV

42 Slide 42 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method ADI (A/C) A=Agreement D=Disagreement I=Irrelevance Used after the EBS mapping exercise. The two maps are compared (from the examination of both sides) and the areas of agreement are noted. Next, the areas of disagreement; finally, the areas of irrelevance. CON

43 Slide 43 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method ADI (A/C) A=Agreement D=Disagreement I=Irrelevance Used after the EBS mapping exercise. The two maps are compared (from the examination of both sides) and the areas of agreement are noted. Next, the areas of disagreement; finally, the areas of irrelevance. The map doesn't cover all the territory. CON

44 Slide 44 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method CAF (A/C) Consider All Factors Another attention-directing tool. The tool means considering all the factors that are pertinent to a particular situation, without any effort to evaluate the factors. When doing a CAF, we are trying to discover what has been left out and what we ought to consider as well. DIV/CON

45 Slide 45 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method CAF (A/C) Consider All Factors Another attention-directing tool. The tool means considering all the factors that are pertinent to a particular situation, without any effort to evaluate the factors. When doing a CAF, we are trying to discover what has been left out and what we ought to consider as well. The word isn't the thing. DIV/CON

46 Slide 46 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method HV/LV (A/C) High Value/Low Value A useful attention-directing tool, to distinguish the values occurring in any situation. In general the high values are those that determine action and the low ones are those that have need to be taken into account. They can be different for different people involved in the situation. DIV/CON

47 Slide 47 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method HV/LV (A/C) High Value/Low Value A useful attention-directing tool, to distinguish the values occurring in any situation. In general the high values are those that determine action and the low ones are those that have need to be taken into account. They can be different for different people involved in the situation. Non-Allness DIV/CON

48 Slide 48 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method PMI (A/C) P=Plus (the good points; the things that worked) M=Minus (the bad points; the things that may not have worked or could have work better) I=Interesting (the interesting points; It might be interesting to see if...) Another attention-directing tool, usually done over a two- or three-minute period. DIV/CON

49 Slide 49 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method PMI (A/C) P=Plus (the good points; the things that worked) M=Minus (the bad points; the things that may not have worked or could have work better) I=Interesting (the interesting points; It might be interesting to see if...) Another attention-directing tool, usually done over a two- or three-minute period. The map is self-reflexive. DIV/CON

50 Slide 50 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method C & S (A/C/T) Consequences and Sequels This tool is used to consider the consequences of an action or a decision. Four time zones are established (usually arbitrary): Immediate (up to one year), Short-term (one to five), Medium-term (five to 20), Long-term (over 20). Each time zone is focussed on in turn. CON

51 Slide 51 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method C & S (A/C/T) Consequences and Sequels This tool is used to consider the consequences of an action or a decision. Four time zones are established (usually arbitrary): Immediate (up to one year), Short-term (one to five), Medium-term (five to 20), Long-term (over 20). Each time zone is focussed on in turn. Logical Fate, Dating, Indexing. CON

52 Slide 52 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method PISCO 1 (FACT) P = Purpose The purpose of the thinking. The expected result. the reason for the thinking. Similar to T of TEC, but with more emphasis in why the thinking is being done. I = Input The input of information, experience and all the ingredients that need to go into the thinking. Similar to the E of TEC. Tools such as CAF, C & S, OPV can be used to develop a rich map.

53 Slide 53 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method PISCO 2 (FACT) S = Solutions The finding of alternative solutions, ideas or approaches to the matter at hand. A narrowing down similar to the C of TEC. C = Choices The choice between the alternatives on offer, using evaluations and decisions until only one alternative remains. O = Operation The action stage. The implementation of the final idea. What steps are to be taken to put the final choice into place? Extensional

54 Slide 54 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Transformations 1 One general technique, as identified by David Hewson, is to transform some aspect of the original problem to produce a version that can more easily be solved or has already been solved. Transformations can include: Korzybski Bypass: Solve the problem of the assumptions. Abstracting Bypass 1: Abstract a simpler problem and solve. Abstracting Bypass 2: Use higher semantic category to replace lower one. Abstracting Bypass 3: Abstract the problem to a map. Analogy Bypass: Solve an analogous problem in another domain. Viewpoint Bypass: Solve problem by shifting the viewpoint.

55 Slide 55 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Transformations 2 Whether or not these transformations are made consciously or unconsciously, they can be seen as a variation of the logical fate concept: A 1 would be the initial assumptions or structure of the problem, with C 2 the desired outcome. A 2 would then be the new assumptions or structure after the transformation operation I. The arrow II represents the solution process of the new version of the problem, plus the inverse transformation that reveals the solution of the original problem.

56 Slide 56 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Tool and Structure Chart

57 Slide 57 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method General Semantics Chart

58 Slide 58 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Solution of the Example (T)

59 Slide 59 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Solution of the Example (T)

60 Slide 60 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Brain Rules 1 #1Exercise boosts brain power. Walk several times a week. #2The human brain evolved, too. Develop strong emotional environments for learning. #3Every brain is wired differently. Customise environments for individual learning styles. #4We don't pay attention to boring things. Do one thing at a time. Design learning as short segments, with emotional hooks.

61 Slide 61 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Brain Rules 2 #5Repeat to remember. Reproduce the learning situation for better recall. #6Remember to repeat. Incorporate new information gradually and repeat it in timed intervals. #7Sleep well, think well. Match chronotypes. Promote naps. Sleep on it. #8Stressed brains don't learn the same way. Get control back into your life.

62 Slide 62 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Brain Rules 3 #9Stimulate more of the senses. To learn best, stimulate several senses at once. #10Vision trumps all other senses. We learn and remember best through pictures. #11Male and female brains are different. Create environments where gender differences (gist and details) are both noted and celebrated. #12We are powerful and natural explorers. Stay curious.

63 Slide 63 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Conclusion 1 We have examined the relationships between General Semantics and Edward de Bono's 'Lateral Thinking' in regard to problem solving. We have seen how many problem solving techniques and concepts can be slotted into the FACT Method, which is primarily based on divergent and convergent thinking, as well as the recognition of different modes of thinking or evaluating: thought, intuition, feeling, sensation. As a man is, So he Sees. William Blake A person does what he does because he sees the world as he sees it. Alfred Korzybski

64 Slide 64 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Conclusion 2 Thus, it seems to me the best way of approaching problem-solving is through an awareness of, and a combination, of processes, techniques and perceptions from a number of disciplines: General Semantics, Lateral Thinking, Narratology, Psychology, Neuroscience, etc. FAC(T)IFS

65 Slide 65 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Bibliography 1 De Bono, Edward. Edward De Bonos Thinking Course. Harlow: BBC Active, 2007, De Bono, Edward. Serious Creativity. London: HarperCollins, Hewson, David. 'Problem Solving with General Semantics'. Etc, Summer Kodish, Susan Presby and Kodish, Bruce I. Drive Yourself Sane: Using the Uncommon Sense of General Semantics. Pasadena: Extensional Publishing, Medina, John. Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School. Seattle: Pear Press, 2008.

66 Slide 66 Earl Livings 2010The FACT Method Bibliography 2 Smith, Pamela Jaye. Inner Drives: How to Write & Create Characters Using the Eight Classic Centers of Motivation. Studio City: Michael Wise Productions, Websites: 22 August August August process.pdf, 22 August 2010.


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