4Three GoalsWhat are 3 goals you hope to accomplish in the next 3 years?Identify 3 action steps you will need to take to achieve each goal (3 steps per goal).Rate yourself on a scale of 1-5 for each goal relative to whether you think you can and will take the actions you identified as necessary for achieving your goals.1= Not gonna happen5= It’s in the bag
5Hope and OptimismOptimism involves having a belief that things will turn out well.Hope is more directly connected to goal-directed actions one takes
6Three Theories Converge into the Hope-Centered Career Model Snyder’s Hope TheoryGoalsPathwaysAgencyMetacompetencies in Hall’s Protean Career TheorySelf-identity (Self-clarity)AdaptabilityBandura’s Human Agency TheorySelf-reflectiveness (Self-reflection)Forethought (Visioning)Intentionality (Goal Setting)Self-reactiveness (Implementing)Bandura (2001) proposed four core features of human agency as follows:- Self-reflectiveness: thinking about one’s interests,- Forethought: looking ahead and imagining the consequences of one’s plans- Intentionality: having an intention, goal, or vision in mind- Self-reactiveness: executing and monitoring one’s goals or plans
7The Role of Hope Helps translate self-efficacy to action Maintains persistenceEssential in the adaptability processResearch evidence consistently has shown that hope is associated with a number of career and academic variables across cultures. Specifically, high hope has been correlated with high levels of job performance, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, vocational identity, career decision self-efficacy, and academic achievement among other variables. Lack of hope has been correlated with high levels of absenteeism and school dropout rates. Limited evidence indicated that hope can be fostered by interventions.
8Pathways (planning to meet goal) “Hope is defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways" (Snyder, 2002, p. 249)I can/will do this! (Agency: goal-directed energy )GoalPathways (planning to meet goal)
9Pathways and Agency Thinking Pathways and Agency are inseparablePathways without positive agency thinking -> lack of persistence toward goalAgency thinking without pathways -> frustration and stagnation
10Hope is a hierarchically organized belief system Global hope = I am generally the sort of person who can achieve my goalsDomain-specific hope = I am generally able to achieve my goals in athletics but I am less confident that I can achieve my goals in schoolGoal-specific hope = I am generally able to achieve my goals in the life roles that I play but I am not sure that I can achieve my goal of earning an “A” in my chemistry examination
11Predictive Validity of Hope Higher hope better performance (in sports, in illness recovery, in academics, and in attitude)Snyder (2000) found the following:The more important a goal and the greater the perceived likelihood of success in attaining that goal, the greater will be the positive affect experienced by the person. The opposite is also true.
12Hope-Centered Career Development Model Hope Centered AdaptingInvolves using new information about the self and/or the environment to adjust one’s goals and/or plans when necessary.Hope Centered Goal Setting and PlanningInvolves the process of crystallizing what one wants to achieve and identifying specific steps one can take to achieve one’s goals.Hope Centered VisioningInvolves brainstorming future possibilities for your career and identifying your desired future outcomes.Hope Centered Self-reflectionInvolves examining your thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and circumstances.Hope Centered ImplementingInvolves taking action to achieve one’s goals.Here’s the hope-centered career development model. Hope, self-reflection, self-clarity, visioning, goal setting & planning, implementing & adapting, and self-reflection.. As you can see, hope in at the center of this model. Without hope, these processes might not be completed successfully. Hope is essential element.Hope Centered Self-clarityInvolves having a clear understanding about one’s important self-characteristics (e.g., interests, values, skills, motivation, goals).
13Hope-Centered Career Development Model Here’s the hope-centered career development model. Hope, self-reflection, self-clarity, visioning, goal setting & planning, implementing & adapting, and self-reflection.. As you can see, hope in at the center of this model. Without hope, these processes might not be completed successfully. Hope is essential element.
14Hope Centered Interventions Create a sense of “mattering”Provide informational, appraisal, and emotional supportProvide mentoring/ guidance/counseling/ tutoringOffer educational/career informationSupport challenging academic programs of studyProvide contextual supports:Information to parents/guardiansCreate work-related opportunitiesAnimation effect (?)
15Accomplishment Interview Career ClientIdentify something you’ve done about which youfeel very proud.Describe what you did to make this happen.Career CounselorHelp the client deconstruct the experience.Get the detail of the experience.Ask, “What did you have to do to make that happen?”Summarize and repeat.Recorders1. List all of the transferable skills you hear the client describe.
16Implementing & Adapting Implementing & Adapting Self- ReflectionProblem Solving / CounselingImplementing & AdaptingEnvironmentEnvironmentCoachingImplementing & AdaptingGoal Setting & PlanningSelf-ReflectionSelf-ClarityVisioningSelf- ReflectionSelf-ClarityCareer CounselingVisioningGoal Setting & PlanningProblem SolvingVisioningSelf-ClarityBrainstormingImplementing & AdaptingHopeIs it important to me?Do I know how to do it?Can / will I do it?Goal Setting & PlanningEnvironmentEnvironment
17Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI) PurposeTo assess the degree of clients’ hope-centered career competencies.Target Population8th graders or aboveItems28 items and the following subscales: 1) hope ) goal setting & planning2) self-reflection 6) implementing ) self-clarity 7) adapting4) visioningResponse Options4 point Likert scaleJoon-Niles, Yoon, & Amundson, 2010
18Goal Setting & Planning Sample ItemsHopeI am hopeful when I think about my future.Self-ReflectionI take time to think about my thoughts and feelings.Self-ClarityI can list at least five things that I am good at.VisioningI often imagine possible future events in my life.Goal Setting & PlanningI set deadlines to complete my goals.ImplementingI take the next steps to meet my goals.AdaptingI am open to making changes to my plans.
19Goal Setting and Planning Reliability of HCCIHCCI SubscalesCoefficient αOverall.92Hope.82Self-Reflection.72Self-Clarity.79Visioning.86Goal Setting and Planning.77Implementing.83Adapting.81JoonN=380 (173 Undergraduate Students, 207 Graduate Students)
20A Web-based system for HCCI Web-based HCCI: the only available format at this momentBoth practitioners and researchers can request the use of the web-based HCCI by contacting Dr. Hyung Joon YoonIndividuals who have a pass code can take the HCCI and download an automated report in a PDF formatiVFHs0O (will expire on March. 31, 2012)
21Emily16-year-old student who has started her junior year in high school.She is the oldest of three children and is a shy but friendly person.She is a “B” student.Currently, her plan is to attend university after high school. Emily wouldbe the first person in her family to pursue a university degree.She is tentatively interested in majoring in psychology or sociologybecause they involve learning about people.Emily’s role model is her high school counselorEmily has volunteered as a camp counselor for elementary school studentsover the past two summers. On Sunday mornings Emily also helps out inthe daycare at her church.She is getting nervous because she feels like she is behind compared to her friends who have more volunteer and work experience and have stronger grades than she does.Several of her friends also seem to know exactly what occupations they want to do after they graduate from the university. When she talks with these friends, Emily feels “stupid” and loses her confidence.
23Case Study Form a discussion group of 3-4 people. Think about how you would help Emily.Share your ideas with your group members.Consider Emily’s HCCI scores and apply the Hope CenteredModel of Career Development (HCMCD) to design career counseling interventions for her.Appoint a spokesperson for your group and be prepared to share your responses.
24Without Hope Striving for success makes no sense Planning for the future is a waste of timeSetting goals is meaningless
25With HopeEngaging in self-reflection to develop self-clarity makes senseCreating a vision of future possibilities has purposeSetting goals and making plans is meaningfulTaking action is logicalAdjusting plans is reasonable and adaptive