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Spencer Niles, Pennsylvania State University

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1 Spencer Niles, Pennsylvania State University
The Hope-Centered Model of Career Development A New Approach to Effective Career Counseling Spencer Niles, Pennsylvania State University

2 Agenda Three theories combined to form one model
Hope-Centered Model of Career Development (HCMCD) Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI) A case A conclusion 2

3 Hope-Centered Career Development Research Team

4 Three Goals What are 3 goals you hope to accomplish in the next 3 years? Identify 3 action steps you will need to take to achieve each goal (3 steps per goal). Rate yourself on a scale of 1-5 for each goal relative to whether you think you can and will take the actions you identified as necessary for achieving your goals. 1= Not gonna happen 5= It’s in the bag

5 Hope and Optimism Optimism involves having a belief that things will turn out well. Hope is more directly connected to goal-directed actions one takes

6 Three Theories Converge into the Hope-Centered Career Model
Snyder’s Hope Theory Goals Pathways Agency Metacompetencies in Hall’s Protean Career Theory Self-identity (Self-clarity) Adaptability Bandura’s Human Agency Theory Self-reflectiveness (Self-reflection) Forethought (Visioning) Intentionality (Goal Setting) Self-reactiveness (Implementing) Bandura (2001) proposed four core features of human agency as follows: - Self-reflectiveness: thinking about one’s interests, - Forethought: looking ahead and imagining the consequences of one’s plans - Intentionality: having an intention, goal, or vision in mind - Self-reactiveness: executing and monitoring one’s goals or plans

7 The Role of Hope Helps translate self-efficacy to action
Maintains persistence Essential in the adaptability process Research evidence consistently has shown that hope is associated with a number of career and academic variables across cultures. Specifically, high hope has been correlated with high levels of job performance, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, vocational identity, career decision self-efficacy, and academic achievement among other variables. Lack of hope has been correlated with high levels of absenteeism and school dropout rates. Limited evidence indicated that hope can be fostered by interventions.

8 Pathways (planning to meet goal)
“Hope is defined as the perceived capability to derive pathways to desired goals, and motivate oneself via agency thinking to use those pathways" (Snyder, 2002, p. 249) I can/will do this! (Agency: goal-directed energy ) Goal Pathways (planning to meet goal)

9 Pathways and Agency Thinking
Pathways and Agency are inseparable Pathways without positive agency thinking -> lack of persistence toward goal Agency thinking without pathways -> frustration and stagnation

10 Hope is a hierarchically organized belief system
Global hope = I am generally the sort of person who can achieve my goals Domain-specific hope = I am generally able to achieve my goals in athletics but I am less confident that I can achieve my goals in school Goal-specific hope = I am generally able to achieve my goals in the life roles that I play but I am not sure that I can achieve my goal of earning an “A” in my chemistry examination

11 Predictive Validity of Hope
Higher hope  better performance (in sports, in illness recovery, in academics, and in attitude) Snyder (2000) found the following: The more important a goal and the greater the perceived likelihood of success in attaining that goal, the greater will be the positive affect experienced by the person. The opposite is also true.

12 Hope-Centered Career Development Model
Hope Centered Adapting Involves using new information about the self and/or the environment to adjust one’s goals and/or plans when necessary. Hope Centered Goal Setting and Planning Involves the process of crystallizing what one wants to achieve and identifying specific steps one can take to achieve one’s goals. Hope Centered Visioning Involves brainstorming future possibilities for your career and identifying your desired future outcomes. Hope Centered Self-reflection Involves examining your thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and circumstances. Hope Centered Implementing Involves taking action to achieve one’s goals. Here’s the hope-centered career development model. Hope, self-reflection, self-clarity, visioning, goal setting & planning, implementing & adapting, and self-reflection.. As you can see, hope in at the center of this model. Without hope, these processes might not be completed successfully. Hope is essential element. Hope Centered Self-clarity Involves having a clear understanding about one’s important self-characteristics (e.g., interests, values, skills, motivation, goals).

13 Hope-Centered Career Development Model
Here’s the hope-centered career development model. Hope, self-reflection, self-clarity, visioning, goal setting & planning, implementing & adapting, and self-reflection.. As you can see, hope in at the center of this model. Without hope, these processes might not be completed successfully. Hope is essential element.

14 Hope Centered Interventions
Create a sense of “mattering” Provide informational, appraisal, and emotional support Provide mentoring/ guidance/counseling/ tutoring Offer educational/career information Support challenging academic programs of study Provide contextual supports: Information to parents/guardians Create work-related opportunities Animation effect (?)

15 Accomplishment Interview
Career Client Identify something you’ve done about which you feel very proud. Describe what you did to make this happen. Career Counselor Help the client deconstruct the experience. Get the detail of the experience. Ask, “What did you have to do to make that happen?” Summarize and repeat. Recorders 1. List all of the transferable skills you hear the client describe.

16 Implementing & Adapting Implementing & Adapting
Self- Reflection Problem Solving / Counseling Implementing & Adapting Environment Environment Coaching Implementing & Adapting Goal Setting & Planning Self-Reflection Self-Clarity Visioning Self- Reflection Self-Clarity Career Counseling Visioning Goal Setting & Planning Problem Solving Visioning Self-Clarity Brainstorming Implementing & Adapting Hope Is it important to me? Do I know how to do it? Can / will I do it? Goal Setting & Planning Environment Environment

17 Hope-Centered Career Inventory (HCCI)
Purpose To assess the degree of clients’ hope-centered career competencies. Target Population 8th graders or above Items 28 items and the following subscales: 1) hope ) goal setting & planning 2) self-reflection 6) implementing ) self-clarity 7) adapting 4) visioning Response Options 4 point Likert scale Joon -Niles, Yoon, & Amundson, 2010

18 Goal Setting & Planning
Sample Items Hope I am hopeful when I think about my future. Self-Reflection I take time to think about my thoughts and feelings. Self-Clarity I can list at least five things that I am good at. Visioning I often imagine possible future events in my life. Goal Setting & Planning I set deadlines to complete my goals. Implementing I take the next steps to meet my goals. Adapting I am open to making changes to my plans.

19 Goal Setting and Planning
Reliability of HCCI HCCI Subscales Coefficient α Overall .92 Hope .82 Self-Reflection .72 Self-Clarity .79 Visioning .86 Goal Setting and Planning .77 Implementing .83 Adapting .81 Joon N=380 (173 Undergraduate Students, 207 Graduate Students)

20 A Web-based system for HCCI
Web-based HCCI: the only available format at this moment Both practitioners and researchers can request the use of the web-based HCCI by contacting Dr. Hyung Joon Yoon Individuals who have a pass code can take the HCCI and download an automated report in a PDF format iVFHs0O   (will expire on March. 31, 2012)

21 Emily 16-year-old student who has started her junior year in high school. She is the oldest of three children and is a shy but friendly person. She is a “B” student. Currently, her plan is to attend university after high school. Emily would be the first person in her family to pursue a university degree. She is tentatively interested in majoring in psychology or sociology because they involve learning about people. Emily’s role model is her high school counselor Emily has volunteered as a camp counselor for elementary school studentsover the past two summers. On Sunday mornings Emily also helps out in the daycare at her church. She is getting nervous because she feels like she is behind compared to her friends who have more volunteer and work experience and have stronger grades than she does. Several of her friends also seem to know exactly what occupations they want to do after they graduate from the university. When she talks with these friends, Emily feels “stupid” and loses her confidence.

22 Emily’s HCCI Result Heptagon, Heptangular 

23 Case Study Form a discussion group of 3-4 people.
Think about how you would help Emily. Share your ideas with your group members. Consider Emily’s HCCI scores and apply the Hope CenteredModel of Career Development (HCMCD) to design career counseling interventions for her. Appoint a spokesperson for your group and be prepared to share your responses.

24 Without Hope Striving for success makes no sense
Planning for the future is a waste of time Setting goals is meaningless

25 With Hope Engaging in self-reflection to develop self-clarity makes sense Creating a vision of future possibilities has purpose Setting goals and making plans is meaningful Taking action is logical Adjusting plans is reasonable and adaptive

26 Contact Information Dr. Spencer Niles Hyoyeon In Naifen Su Dr. Hyung Joon Yoon

27 Thank You!

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