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Canada Between the Wars 1919- 1939. Post War Canada Closing of War Industries major effects such as high inflation, women returning to home, rising unemployment,

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Presentation on theme: "Canada Between the Wars 1919- 1939. Post War Canada Closing of War Industries major effects such as high inflation, women returning to home, rising unemployment,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Canada Between the Wars

2 Post War Canada Closing of War Industries major effects such as high inflation, women returning to home, rising unemployment, increasing labour unrest Winnipeg General Strike workers went on strike (demanded.85 cents per hour, 8 hour day, right to collective bargaining) workers went on strike (demanded.85 cents per hour, 8 hour day, right to collective bargaining) Bloody Saturday; riots and violence led to 1 death and 30 injuries Bloody Saturday; riots and violence led to 1 death and 30 injuries Leaders arrested and sent to jail but more attention drawn to social and economic problems of workers Leaders arrested and sent to jail but more attention drawn to social and economic problems of workers Prohibition & Bootlegging ban of production, import and distribution of alcohol Led to bootleg booze- smuggled alcohol and speakeasies Spanish Flu Massive epidemic after veterans returned home Deadly strain killing up to 100 million people; Canadians

3 Social Issues Aboriginal Issues Policy of assimilation seen in the Indian Act 1867, creation of residential schools, and policy of enfranchisement (right to vote if give up Aboriginal status) Policy of assimilation seen in the Indian Act 1867, creation of residential schools, and policy of enfranchisement (right to vote if give up Aboriginal status) League of Indians- created in 1919 by Frederick Loft (Aboriginal war veteran) to make a united voice for Aboriginals League of Indians- created in 1919 by Frederick Loft (Aboriginal war veteran) to make a united voice for AboriginalsImmigration Xenophobia- intense dislike of foreigners Xenophobia- intense dislike of foreigners 1919 Immigration Act- made all immigrants pass an English literacy test (emphasis on assimilation) 1919 Immigration Act- made all immigrants pass an English literacy test (emphasis on assimilation) Chinese Exclusion Act: banned all Chinese immigrants except students, merchants and diplomats (from only 8 Chinese immigrants admitted to Canada) Chinese Exclusion Act: banned all Chinese immigrants except students, merchants and diplomats (from only 8 Chinese immigrants admitted to Canada)

4 Roaring Twenties

5 New Technologies & Movements New technologies : radio, automobile, passenger planes New technologies : radio, automobile, passenger planes Ford Model T or Tin Lizzie was most affordable car ($395 in 1924) and was mass produced by assembly line Ford Model T or Tin Lizzie was most affordable car ($395 in 1924) and was mass produced by assembly line Ted Rogers : Canadian who invented the worlds first battery-less radio Ted Rogers : Canadian who invented the worlds first battery-less radio Joseph Bombardier : Canadian who invented first snowmobile called B-7 for medical transport in winter Joseph Bombardier : Canadian who invented first snowmobile called B-7 for medical transport in winter Persons Case : Famous Five campaigned that women should be considered Persons under Canadian Law; finally granted by Britains Privy Council and Cairine Wilson was first women appointed to the Senate Persons Case : Famous Five campaigned that women should be considered Persons under Canadian Law; finally granted by Britains Privy Council and Cairine Wilson was first women appointed to the Senate

6 Entertainment & Sports Americanization Huge influence of culture & influence from United States Huge influence of culture & influence from United StatesFads mahjong, crosswords, contests, dancing marathons mahjong, crosswords, contests, dancing marathonsFashions flappers, rising hemlines, bob haircut, knickers, bow ties flappers, rising hemlines, bob haircut, knickers, bow tiesEntertainment: Jazz Age, Charleston dance Jazz Age, Charleston dance talkies (talking movies) with stars Charlie Chaplin and Canadian Mary Pickford Americas Sweetheart talkies (talking movies) with stars Charlie Chaplin and Canadian Mary Pickford Americas Sweetheart Golden Age of Sports Famous amateur athletes such as Lionel Conacher, Bobbie Rosenfeld played multiple sports Famous amateur athletes such as Lionel Conacher, Bobbie Rosenfeld played multiple sports Women in Sports: Edmonton Grads dominated basketball for over 20 years but by 1930s competitive sports were considered unfeminine Women in Sports: Edmonton Grads dominated basketball for over 20 years but by 1930s competitive sports were considered unfeminine Professional Sports: hockey (NHL) & Foster Hewitts call of Hockey Night and Canada; baseball Professional Sports: hockey (NHL) & Foster Hewitts call of Hockey Night and Canada; baseball

7 1920s Economy ECONOMIC PROSPERITY End of post war economic problems End of post war economic problems New inventions and mass production of products fueled economy and employment New inventions and mass production of products fueled economy and employment High sales, high wages, high prices, high production, high profits, high demand, low unemployment High sales, high wages, high prices, high production, high profits, high demand, low unemployment Emergence of branch plants in Canada Emergence of branch plants in Canada PLAYING THE STOCKMARKET Get rich quick scheme (buy low, sell high) Get rich quick scheme (buy low, sell high) Stock / share: a unit of ownership in a company Stock / share: a unit of ownership in a company Price of share dependent on supply and demand Price of share dependent on supply and demand CREDIT BUYING credit buying of products (appliances)- buy now, pay later credit buying of products (appliances)- buy now, pay later buying on margin of stocks buying on margin of stocks

8 The Balloon Bursts: The Great Crash of 1929 HOW DID IT CRASH? Stocks were highly inflated or overpriced AND company assets were not the same worth Stocks were highly inflated or overpriced AND company assets were not the same worth Investors became nervous as stock prices were becoming too high for what it actually worth Investors became nervous as stock prices were becoming too high for what it actually worth Black Tuesday: October 29, 1929: massive selling of stocks > panic sets in > everyone selling Black Tuesday: October 29, 1929: massive selling of stocks > panic sets in > everyone selling As investors sold, prices of stocks plunged As investors sold, prices of stocks plungedEFFECTS Thousands of investors wiped out Thousands of investors wiped out Banks demanded payment for loans but borrowers could not repay Banks demanded payment for loans but borrowers could not repay Many companies had borrowed money to finance expansion of companies and had to shut down > rise in unemployment Many companies had borrowed money to finance expansion of companies and had to shut down > rise in unemployment People had bought many stocks and items on credit- had nothing to pay back; then banks would repossess items (ie. homes) People had bought many stocks and items on credit- had nothing to pay back; then banks would repossess items (ie. homes) People could not afford to buy clothes, food and other merchandise > forcing more companies to go bankrupt and put more people out of work People could not afford to buy clothes, food and other merchandise > forcing more companies to go bankrupt and put more people out of work Trigger to the Great Depression- worst economic downturn in history Trigger to the Great Depression- worst economic downturn in history

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10 Background Causes of Great Depression Similar to WWI, there were BACKGROUND CAUSES to the Depression: Similar to WWI, there were BACKGROUND CAUSES to the Depression: 1)Overexpansion & overproduction 2)Canadas Dependence on Staples (wheat) 3)Canadas Dependence on United States 4)High Taxes decreased International Trade 5)Credit Buying 6)Buying on Margin

11 The Dirty Thirties /3 of people were out of work /3 of people were out of work Riding the rods Riding the rods Relief vouchers or Pogey Relief vouchers or Pogey Relief Camps Relief Camps Dust Bowl Dust Bowl Soup Kitchens Soup Kitchens Bennett Buggies Bennett Buggies On to Ottawa Trek & Regina Riot On to Ottawa Trek & Regina Riot

12 Political Responses P.M. Mackenzie King Five Cent Speech 1930 Five Cent Speech 1930 re-elected 1935 re-elected 1935 P.M. R.B. Bennett elected 1930 elected 1930 proposed the New Deal proposed the New Deal New Political Parties emerged to solve the problems of the 1930s emerged to solve the problems of the 1930s Social Credit- leader William Aberhart Social Credit- leader William Aberhart Union Nationale- leader Maurice Duplessis Union Nationale- leader Maurice Duplessis Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)- leader J.S. Woodsworth Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)- leader J.S. Woodsworth

13 Promoting Canadian Identity Group of Seven Group of Seven Canadian Authors Association (1921) Canadian Authors Association (1921) RCAF: Royal Canadian Air Force (1924) RCAF: Royal Canadian Air Force (1924) Statute of Westminster (1931) Statute of Westminster (1931) CRBC: Canadian Radio Broadcasting Company (1933) CRBC: Canadian Radio Broadcasting Company (1933) CBC: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1936) CBC: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1936) NFB: National Film Board (1939) NFB: National Film Board (1939)

14 What brought the world out of the Great Depression? World War II breaks out September 3, 1939 World War II breaks out September 3, 1939 Canada declares war on Germany September 10, 1939 Canada declares war on Germany September 10, 1939 HOW? war industries re-open war industries re-open rise in employment rise in employment as more people get jobs, people have $ to spend as more people get jobs, people have $ to spend businesses revived businesses revived


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