3Extended familiesThe earliest farming communities were made of extended families.An extended family includes close relativesGrandparentsParentsAuntsUnclesChildren15 to 20 people
4Ancestor worshipWest African societies traditionally believed in unseen spirits of their ancestorsAncestors honored with carved statuesFood offerings were made to the spirits to keep them happyAncestors thought to protect the village
5animism West Africans also traditionally practice animism They believed (and some continue to believe today) that bodies of water, animals, trees and other natural objects have spiritsThis religious practice reflects the dependence and respect of West Africans for nature
7villagesFamily communities joined with other families to get needed help:Work together to control floodingMine iron or goldProvide ProtectionA village might contain people
8Village life Loyalty to family was important Everyone had tasks to completeMen hunted, farmed, fished, herdedWomen farmed, collected firewood, ground grain, carried water, cared for childrenElderly men and women taught traditions/values through songs, dances and storiesChildren began to work beside adults as soon as thy were able
10Why did cities grow?Ancient cities in West Africa were not as big as modern citiesSome had 1,000s of residentsTwo reasons for growth:IronworkingExpanded Trade
11IronworkingSmelting furnaces heated with enormous amounts of charcoal to melt oreIron metal was extractedRed-hot iron was hammered and bent into useful shapes:AxesHoesspears
12Cause and effect Iron tools improved farming techniques Surplus food gathered during harvestLarge volume of food supported larger villages = townsAbility to trade or sell surplus to othersNew trades: weavers, potters, leatherworkers, bead makers, carvers, tradesmen, construction workers
13Trade citiesDjenne (Mali), founded in 800 CE/AD, is one of sub-Saharan Africa's oldest cities.It is located on an island in the Niger River deltaIt is a few hundred miles downstream from Timbuktu.
14Trade RoutesDjenne was a natural hub for traders who shuttled their goods between the Sahara desert and the forests of Guinea.
15Grand mosqueThrough the years Djenne became a center of Islamic learning and its market square is still dominated by the beautiful Grand Mosque.Wooden bars protrude from the façade (or face) of the mosque.
16Market dayA young woman from the Peul or Fula people balances a calabash on her head.Djenne’s market square is directly in front of the Grand Mosque. Monday is the traditional market day.A tinsmith cleverly displays his wares for customers.
17calabash Cultivated plants often called gourds Grown mainly for use as a water containersVery bitter; poor food sourceOften used to make musical instrumentsCalabash horn credit AlexanderKoller
18City architectureLike the Grand Mosque, most of the towns and cities of West Africa used mud and clay to construct homes with a squarer shape than the huts of the village
19Close ProximityJust as city dwellers today live closer together than people in the countryside, West African cities used square buildings to place more people in a smaller area of land.
20InfrastructureBetween buildings, narrow streets provided room for pedestrians.Grooves down the middle of the streets acted as sewer system.
21Niger River as a resource The Niger River and the delta were a valuable resourceFresh WaterFishTransportation for TradeLaundryPersonal Hygiene (bathing)Picture by Bruno Morandi
23Trade leads to kingdoms Rulers of some cities became wealthy by collecting taxes from the goods that were bought and sold.
24Raised armies With their wealth, they could afford to: hire warriors form large armiesConquer more territory
25Controlling trade Routes Controlling the trade and the trade routes was the key to powerThis allowed the ruler to take over the trade in those areas—taxing more goods and becoming even wealthier.
26Advantages & Disadvantages Kings provided protectionArmies made sure trade routes were safeWars between small cities endedKings handed out luxurious presents equally throughout their landsConquered people had to pay tribute to the kingGoods were taxedMen had to serve in the king’s armyGovernors might be set up to replace local elders/leaders
27Review questions What was the benefit of an extended family? Why were villages even more useful?How did towns develop?What lead to the growth of kingdoms?