Presentation on theme: "WEST AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS FROM EXTENDED FAMILIES TO KINGDOMS."— Presentation transcript:
WEST AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS FROM EXTENDED FAMILIES TO KINGDOMS
FAMILY BASED COMMUNITIES Part I
EXTENDED FAMILIES The earliest farming communities were made of extended families. An extended family includes close relatives Grandparents Parents Aunts Uncles Children 15 to 20 people
ANCESTOR WORSHIP West African societies traditionally believed in unseen spirits of their ancestors Ancestors honored with carved statues Food offerings were made to the spirits to keep them happy Ancestors thought to protect the village
ANIMISM West Africans also traditionally practice animism They believed (and some continue to believe today) that bodies of water, animals, trees and other natural objects have spirits This religious practice reflects the dependence and respect of West Africans for nature
DEVELOPING VILLAGES Part II
VILLAGES Family communities joined with other families to get needed help: Work together to control flooding Mine iron or gold Provide Protection A village might contain people
VILLAGE LIFE Loyalty to family was important Everyone had tasks to complete Men hunted, farmed, fished, herded Women farmed, collected firewood, ground grain, carried water, cared for children Elderly men and women taught traditions/values through songs, dances and stories Children began to work beside adults as soon as thy were able
RISE OF TOWNS AND CITIES Part III
WHY DID CITIES GROW? Ancient cities in West Africa were not as big as modern cities Some had 1,000s of residents Two reasons for growth: Ironworking Expanded Trade
IRONWORKING Smelting furnaces heated with enormous amounts of charcoal to melt ore Iron metal was extracted Red-hot iron was hammered and bent into useful shapes: Axes Hoes spears
CAUSE AND EFFECT
TRADE CITIES Djenne (Mali), founded in 800 CE/AD, is one of sub-Saharan Africa's oldest cities.Mali It is located on an island in the Niger River delta It is a few hundred miles downstream from Timbuktu.
TRADE ROUTES Djenne was a natural hub for traders who shuttled their goods between the Sahara desert and the forests of Guinea.
GRAND MOSQUE Through the years Djenne became a center of Islamic learning and its market square is still dominated by the beautiful Grand Mosque. Wooden bars protrude from the façade (or face) of the mosque.
MARKET DAY A young woman from the Peul or Fula people balances a calabash on her head. A tinsmith cleverly displays his wares for customers. Djennes market square is directly in front of the Grand Mosque. Monday is the traditional market day.
CALABASH Cultivated plants often called gourds Grown mainly for use as a water containers Very bitter; poor food source Often used to make musical instruments
CITY ARCHITECTURE Like the Grand Mosque, most of the towns and cities of West Africa used mud and clay to construct homes with a squarer shape than the huts of the village
CLOSE PROXIMITY Just as city dwellers today live closer together than people in the countryside, West African cities used square buildings to place more people in a smaller area of land.
INFRASTRUCTURE Between buildings, narrow streets provided room for pedestrians. Grooves down the middle of the streets acted as sewer system.
NIGER RIVER AS A RESOURCE The Niger River and the delta were a valuable resource Fresh Water Fish Transportation for Trade Laundry Personal Hygiene (bathing)
ESTABLISHING KINGDOMS Part IV
TRADE LEADS TO KINGDOMS Rulers of some cities became wealthy by collecting taxes from the goods that were bought and sold.
RAISED ARMIES With their wealth, they could afford to: hire warriors form large armies Conquer more territory
CONTROLLING TRADE ROUTES Controlling the trade and the trade routes was the key to power This allowed the ruler to take over the trade in those areastaxing more goods and becoming even wealthier.
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES Kings provided protection Armies made sure trade routes were safe Wars between small cities ended Kings handed out luxurious presents equally throughout their lands Conquered people had to pay tribute to the king Goods were taxed Men had to serve in the kings army Governors might be set up to replace local elders/leaders Advantages: Disadvantages:
REVIEW QUESTIONS What was the benefit of an extended family? Why were villages even more useful? How did towns develop? What lead to the growth of kingdoms?