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1 WARNING! FIREFIGHTERS ARE FREQUENTLY INJURIED OR KILLED WHEN BURNING STRUCTURES COLLAPSE WITH OUT WARNING.

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Presentation on theme: "1 WARNING! FIREFIGHTERS ARE FREQUENTLY INJURIED OR KILLED WHEN BURNING STRUCTURES COLLAPSE WITH OUT WARNING."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 WARNING! FIREFIGHTERS ARE FREQUENTLY INJURIED OR KILLED WHEN BURNING STRUCTURES COLLAPSE WITH OUT WARNING

2 2 Firefighter Hazards Related to Building Construction The primary objective of understanding building construction and materials is to apply this information to the fireground. Firefighters should use this knowledge to monitor signs of structural instability.

3 3 Dangerous Building Conditions There are two primary types of dangerous conditions that may be posed by a building. There are two primary types of dangerous conditions that may be posed by a building. 1. Conditions that contribute to the spread & intensity of the fire. 2. Conditions that make the building susceptible to collapse.

4 4 Terms CONCENTRATED LOAD Load applied to a small area, example; a/c unit placed on a roof structure CONCENTRATED LOAD - Load applied to a small area, example; a/c unit placed on a roof structure DEAD LOAD – The weight of the building materials and any part of the building permanently attached to it. DEAD LOAD – The weight of the building materials and any part of the building permanently attached to it. DESIGN LOAD – A load the designer planned for in the building design. DESIGN LOAD – A load the designer planned for in the building design. UNDESIGNED LOAD – A load not planned for. UNDESIGNED LOAD – A load not planned for. DISTRIBUTED LOAD – A load applied equally over an area. DISTRIBUTED LOAD – A load applied equally over an area.

5 5 FIRE LOAD – All the parts or contents of a building that will burn. The amount of heat released from a fuel in lbs\sq ft. FIRE LOAD – All the parts or contents of a building that will burn. The amount of heat released from a fuel in lbs\sq ft. LIVE LOAD – The weight of all materials and people associated with but not part of the structure. LIVE LOAD – The weight of all materials and people associated with but not part of the structure. IMPACT LOAD – a load that is in motion when it is applied. This could be a hose stream striking the side of the building. IMPACT LOAD – a load that is in motion when it is applied. This could be a hose stream striking the side of the building.

6 6 AXIAL LOAD – A load padding through the center of the mass of the supporting element, perpendicular to its cross section. AXIAL LOAD – A load padding through the center of the mass of the supporting element, perpendicular to its cross section. ECCENTRIC LOAD - a load perpendicular to the cross section of the supporting element that does not pass through the center of mass. ECCENTRIC LOAD - a load perpendicular to the cross section of the supporting element that does not pass through the center of mass. TORSION LOAD – A load parallel to the cross section of the supporting member that does not pass through mass. TORSION LOAD – A load parallel to the cross section of the supporting member that does not pass through mass. Application of Loads

7 7 Application of Loads Pictures

8 8 Loads applied to structural elements as forces COMPRESSION – A force that tends to push materials together. COMPRESSION – A force that tends to push materials together. TENSION – A force that pulls materials apart. TENSION – A force that pulls materials apart. SHEAR – A force that tends to break material by causing its molecules to slide past each other. SHEAR – A force that tends to break material by causing its molecules to slide past each other.

9 9 Types of Loads picture

10 10 COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

11 11 Building Collapse Knowledge of the type of construction is vital during fire operations because of the possibility of collapse. Knowledge of the type of construction is vital during fire operations because of the possibility of collapse. Some buildings because of their age & construction are more inclined to collapse than others.

12 12 Collapse Zone

13 13 Indictors of Possible Building Collapse Cracks or separations in walls, floors ceiling and roof structures Cracks or separations in walls, floors ceiling and roof structures Evidence of existing structural instability such as the presence of tie rods & stars that hold walls together. Evidence of existing structural instability such as the presence of tie rods & stars that hold walls together. Loose bricks, blocks or stones falling from buildings Loose bricks, blocks or stones falling from buildings

14 14 Cracks or separations in walls, floors, ceilings & roof structure Deterioration of mortar between masonry

15 15 Signs of collapse Deterioration of mortar between the masonry Deterioration of mortar between the masonry Walls that appear to be leaning Walls that appear to be leaning Structural members that appear to be distorted Structural members that appear to be distorted Fire beneath floors that support heavy machinery or other extreme weight loads. Fire beneath floors that support heavy machinery or other extreme weight loads.

16 16 Signs of collapse Prolonged fire exposure to the structural members Prolonged fire exposure to the structural members Unusual creaks and cracking noises Unusual creaks and cracking noises Structural members pulling away from walls Structural members pulling away from walls Excessive weight of building contents Excessive weight of building contents

17 17 Parapet Wall Collapse

18 18 RESIDENTIAL COLLAPSE

19 19 Parallel Chord Truss

20 20 Wood Trusses

21 21 Truss Construction Void Spaces

22 22 Types of Construction Truss construction Truss construction Bowstring trusses Bowstring trusses Wood trusses Wood trusses Open web steel joist Open web steel joist Void spaces Void spaces Engineering wood structural members Engineering wood structural members Roof structures Roof structures Parapet walls Parapet walls Synthetic materials Synthetic materials Fire-resistive and noncombustible construction Fire-resistive and noncombustible construction

23 23 WRAP-UP Firefighters must know and understand building construction. Firefighters must know and understand building construction. There are five common types of construction. There are five common types of construction. Truss construction is dangerous because trusses collapse under fire conditions. Truss construction is dangerous because trusses collapse under fire conditions. Firefighters need to be aware of the hazards associated with structure fires. Firefighters need to be aware of the hazards associated with structure fires.


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