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**Success with ModelSmart3D**

Pre-Engineering Software Corporation Written by: Robert A. Wolf III, P.E. This series of slide shows was prepared for parents and teachers of technology students. It provides a method to introduce students to structural engineering design. Structural considerations for the design and construction of trusses for model bridges is discussed and an example is presented. Copyright 2001, Pre-Engineering Software Corporation All rights reserved Contact: Robert A. Wolf III, P.E. 5800 One Perkins Pl Dr - STE 10 D Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (225) Show 3 Copyright 2001, Pre-Engineering Software Corporation, All Rights Reserved

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**Series Outline Show # 1 Possible benefits**

Introduction to bridge trusses Modeling for structural analysis Show # 2 Using ModelSmart3D Extra for Experts Show # 3 Optimization Printing Show # 4 Building Your Model Show # 5 Final Project Optimization The previous show ended with a model that held the load. In fact, it was capable of carrying too much load. Therefore we might be able to reduce the size of some of the members and save some material. Optimization is the process whereby we use the individual members results to increase the overall efficiency of the structure. We do this in a series of steps. First we optimize the geometry of the truss. Then the size (cross section) of each element (member). Finally we consider material grade by using lighter (Less dense and thus weaker) members where possible. Printing We will learn to use the printing features in the program to print patterns that we can build on. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**VI. Optimization Overall Geometry of the Structure**

Characteristics of the Individual Elements. Optimization – The process of designing the best model that satisfies the problem statement. Usually you want to design the lightest model that can support a given load over a given span. The most efficient model possible is said to have been fully optimized. We can break the optimization process down into two main parts. The geometry of the structure and the characteristics of the individual elements. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**VI. Optimizing - Geometry**

Geometry - Form and Height Super Structure Overhead Under Slung Height The overall geometry of the structure What overall form (outline or shape) will the bridge take. Should it have an overhead or under slung superstructure. What should the maximum height of the structure be and how should the structure taper (straight or curved) to its support points. Sometimes the form depends of the skill of the builder. The straight tapers are easier to construct well. NoTaper Taper Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**VI. Optimizing - Elements**

Element – Orientation, Material Grade and Cross Section Direction Angle Element Connection Details Element Length Orientation The individual element – Orientation, Grade (density) and cross section. Orientation - Length and slope of the member. The quality of the material - amount of wood fiber versus voids. The amount of summer wood versus winter wood. The rings in Balsa are not very pronounced. Could that indicate a mild winter where it’s grown? Cross Section – How chunky is the member. A large cross section means a stronger member but also heavier. Material Grade -Density Cross Section Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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Our Example We are designing a 12” span bridge that will be tested by a 20 pound weight hung from a 4”x2 3/4”x3/4” test block placed at the center of the span. Let’s try optimizing our bridge. Recall from the last show, we stopped altering the model when we found a solution that could carry the load. Now let’s take a closer look at the forces in each member to determine if we can save some material by altering the overall height of the bridge and the individual member sizes. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Optimizing Geometry - Truss Height**

The indicated member is only carrying 5.55 pounds of compression force. It can support 15.6 pounds of compression (at ultimate). Therefore it is only using (5.55/15.6) *100 about 36% of the members material. This is not very efficient. This members has reserve strength to carry more load. The force in this members is directly effected by the height of the truss. We could decrease the height of our truss and save material. Decreasing the height of the truss will increase the amount of force in the top chord members making them more efficient an make the web members (the members between the top and bottom chord) shorter thus lighter. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Delete Miscellaneous Bracing**

In order to alter the height of the bridge we must first remove the portal bracing in the end panels. (Normally we would have optimized the model before adding the sway bracing.) Select the “Joints|Delete” menu option and delete the intermediate height joints on the main diagonals. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Move Origin to Left Front Joint**

Add back the main diagonals. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Open the Joint Properties Dialog**

Since we placed the origin at the leftmost rear joint, we can use the joint properties dialog to determine the overall height of the bridge. Y=4. The height of the bridge is given in the Y coordinate (Y=4). Let’s reduce the height to 3” Select the “Joint|Properties…” menu option then click on the upper left joint in the near truss. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Change Bridge Height Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI**

Enter “3” for the Y coordinate and click “Apply” Repeat this process until all joints have been lowered to y=3. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Re-analyze Model Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI Re-analyze.**

The critical members are now the two forward main diagonals. (If you are wondering why the rear to diagonals didn’t fail at the same time, remember that we have some lateral load (Z force) that affects the internal force distribution.) What can we do to make these failing members stronger? Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Adjust Compression Member Length**

When a slender member is in compression shortening the member will allow it to carry more load (Ie withstand more internal force). Let’s move the joint at the top of the diagonal so that we shorten the member – without making the top chord member too long. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Member Failure Modes Tension Compression Crushing Buckling**

Recall how members (in a truss – that are primarily subjected to axial forces) can fail. Tension members fail by pulling apart. Compression members fail by either crushing or buckling. Crushing Buckling Pulling Apart Tension Compression Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Finish New Bridge Geometry**

Finish up by adjusting the main diagonals to the right. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Re-Analyze Model Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI Re-analyze.**

It works! Now let’s consider material grade to see if we could safe some weight by using lighter members. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Optimizing the Element - Material Grade**

Voids and Wood Fiber What is material grade? Look at the end of a balsa wood stick. What do you see? - Wood and voids (holes). The stick is not solid wood fiber (cellulose). Some sticks have more fiber and less voids than others (for the same cross sectional area). The more fiber they have (within a given cross section) the heavier and stronger the stick. The higher the grade number (ie BalsaD1,BalsaD1.1, BalsaD2…) the greater the strength of the member (for a given cross section). This means: You can examine the members results and use a lesser grade and thus lighter member where you have excess members strength. End View of Balsa Wood Stick More Voids - Less Wood Fiber Same Cross Sectional Area Lighter and Weaker Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Determining material grade**

The Density Method Number each balsa stick. Weigh each balsa stick – in grams. (Record the weight and size of each stick.) Calculate the density of each stick. Classify each stick by grade. Place a grade mark on each stick. There are two methods that can be used to determine balsa grade. Deflection test Density test Let’s use the density method: Number each balsa stick. Weigh each balsa stick – in grams. (Record the weight and size of each stick.) Determine the density of each stick. Arrange the balsa sticks by weight. Classify each stick by grade. Place a grade mark on each stick. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Density Method Example**

Number the stick Weigh the stick Here is an example From balance: 2.55 grams Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Example Continued Calculate the density (Wt/Vol.).**

Volume of the stick: Change units to ft3: Density = weight/volume Measure the stick: 1/8”x1/8”x36” Volume=.125”x.125”x36”= in^3 Change units We want units of pounds per cubic foot (lbs/ft^3). Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Example Continued Weight of the stick = 2.55 grams**

Change units to pounds: Change the weight of the stick to pounds. Calculate the density in pounds per cubic foot. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Classify Apply Grade Mark From Table pg 10-3 Grade = BalsaD1.2**

Classify the stick The density of the stick is less that 18pcf but more that 16. It is a balsaD1.2 Apply a grade mark to the stick “D1.2” We know we are only using Balsa. Apply Grade Mark Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Using Exact Density Open the “Edit Material” Dialog.**

You can use the exact density of your stick. (By using the exact density, the program will make a better approximation of the models weight (less glue). Open the Edit Materials dialog. Type the density into the Density edit box then click the “Balsa” button. The program will insert the appropriate material properties for the given density. (Do not erase any of the values.) Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Material Grade Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI**

Looking at the member results we can determine which members that have excess strength – low mode ratio numbers. Let’s try to lighten up the interior web members by using a lesser grade for these members. Select the “Members|Change Default Material and Shape …” menu option. Set the default member grade to BalsaD1 and click the “OK” button. Select the “Members|Change Material” menu option. Change the grade of two diagonals nearest the mid span in both trusses by click on these members. Also change grade of the interior bracing in the top plane. Re-analyze The model works and we saved to weight! Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**Final Design! Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI**

A final analysis. The bridge is OK. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VI

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**VII. Printing Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII**

It’s time to build the model. You can use ModelSmart3D to print a layout pattern. This section explains ModelSmart3D’s printing features. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII

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**Move the XY GuidePlane Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII**

Select the “View|Show All” menu option then press the “F1” key. The program prints all members within ½” of the GuidePlane. To print out the near main truss, you must first move the XYGuidePlane forward until it goes through a joint in this part of the model. Select the “Guides|XY GuidePlane|Move Plane to Joint” menu option. Then click on the joint shown in the inset above. The XYGuidePlane now contains the near main truss. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII

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**Show Tiles Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII**

Use the toolbar to hide the XZ and YZ GuidePlanes. Select the “File|Tile Orientation|Landscape” menu option. Then select the “File|XY Plane Tiles|Show Tiles” menu option. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII

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**Move Tiles Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII**

To move the tiles slightly, select “File|XY Plane Tiles|MoveTiles” from the menu. Then click on the XYGuidePlane to locate the lower left corner of the page outlines. Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII

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**Print the Tiles Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII**

Select “File|Print XY Plane” to print the tiles. (Do not select landscape from the print dialog properties.) Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII

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End Of Show 3 Success with ModelSmart3D - Part VII

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