2StatsTrauma: leading cause of death in children and adolescents > 1 year of ageHead Injury:accounts for 80% of all trauma75- 97% trauma deaths5% of these are dead at the site
3StatsTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) insult to the brain from an external mechanical force possibly leading to permanent or temporary impairment of neurologic function.10-20 % with moderate to severe short term memory problems and delayed response times> 50% will have permanent neurologic deficits5- 10 % will end up in long term care facilities
4Common Causes Motor vehicle accidents: (27-37% of cases) Ages: less than 15 years usually a pedestrian or bicyclistAges: years are passengers, alcohol commonFalls: (24% of cases) common ages < 4 yearsAssaults and firearms: (10% of cases)Recreational Activities: ages (21% of cases)Child abuse: ages < 2 years (24% of brain injury)
5Stats Males 2X more likely than females African American males account for majorityof firearms related head trauma
6Minor Head Trauma > 95,000 children seen in ERs each year One of the most frequent reasons to visit MD
7Minor Closed Head Injury No Loss of Consciousness1/5000 adults require medical interventionGood History and PhysicalEvaluate at home ok with reliable caregiver
8Minor Head Injury Loss of Consciousness and /or seizures, prolonged N & V and HA2-5% will have injury requiring medical interventionMost MDs will have child in the CT scan
9Pros and Cons of CTIf child needs sedation or anesthesia to obtain an accurate CT scan, MD will weigh the benefits and might decide to monitor child in the hospital or at home with a reliable care giver.
10What HappensPediatric brain more susceptible to certain types of injuryLarger in proportion to BSADepends on ligaments vs. bones for supportHigher water content 88% vs. 77% - more prone to acceleration deceleration injuryUn-myelinated brain : more susceptible to shear injuries
19Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common and results from the disruption of the small vessels on thecerebral cortex
20Subdural hematoma result from tearing or laceration of veins across the dura during acceleration-deceleration forces. Usually associated with severe brain injurywith progressive neurologic deterioration.
21Epidural hematoma occurs secondary to a laceration of a vein or an artery. Hemorrhages of arterial origin peak size by 6 hours, venous origin may growover 24 hours or more.
23Penetrating wound to skull Neurosurgical emergency Fatal hemorrhaging can ensue
24Diffuse axonal injury Severe rapid acceleration-deceleration forces Prognosis for recovery poor
25CT scanningRapid diagnosis of intracranial pathology that requires prompt surgical intervention
26Brain needs 02 Cerebral blood flow (CBF) Minimal amt. to prevent ischemia ??????Influenced by MAP
27Autoregulation Normal brain maintain CBF over a wide range of blood pressure MAP mmhgTBI can lead to loss of autoregulationFoundation for nursing /medical care of TBI
28Pediatric Neuro Assessment Glascow coma scoringEye OpeningEspontaneous4to speech3to pain2no response1Best Motor ResponseMTo Verbal Command:obeys6To Painful Stimulus:localizes pain5flexion-withdrawalflexion-abnormalextensionBest Verbal ResponseVoriented and conversesdisoriented and conversesinappropriate wordsincomprehensible soundsE + M + V = 3 to 15> to 12 = minor injury> to 9 not in coma< to 8 are in coma< to 8 at 6 hours - 50% dieComa is defined as: (1) not opening eyes, (2) not obeying commands, and (3) not uttering understandable words.
32Nursing Care Head midline with HOB elevated 30º ↓ environmental stimuli↓ painful stimuliMaintain normal Pao2 and Pc02Carefully planned airway suctioning (preoxygenate)Maintain normal temperature
33Goals of Care Prevent or reduce Secondary Injuries Cerebral edema Respiratory FailureHerniation
34Cerebral Edema Cytotoxic Edema: Intracellular swelling from hypoxia and ischemiaCell wall Ionic pump is disruptedReflects cell deathNot easy to treat
35Cerebral Edema Vasogenic Edema Alteration in cell wall permeability Protein rich plasma comes into brain cellsMay develop from a hematomaEasier to treat
36Nursing Care Avoid hypotension CVP must be adequate to avoid hypotension with sedativesOptimum blood pressure is patient specificKnow optimum for your patientFluid, diuretics and or vasoactive agents may be indicated
37Nursing Care Lab Maintain normal glucose Serum Na should be 140 -150 Serum Osmo should beHematocrit monitor for loss of blood
38Airway Mangagement Immobilization of cervical spine Intubation (avoid Nasal intubation/NG placement with suspected basilar skull fracture)Premedicate: Lidocaine 1- 2mg/kgThiopental 4-7mk/kgKetamine contraindicatedAdequate sedation and paralyzation post intubation
39Cardiovascular Managment Normotension is goalCerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) = MAP – ICP defines the pressure gradient of cerebral blood flow (CBF)Most studies suggest CPP at mmhgUse of hypertonic solutions is best vs. isotonicHypertension can be reflexive and tx could compromise CPP be careful (beta-blockers)
40Cerebral Perfusion Sedate and paralyze Diuretics ↑ HOB, midline head and neckSedate and paralyzeDiureticsMild hyperventilation PaDrain CSFBarbituates ????? Reserved for intractable ↑ ICPTreat seizuresMonitor for DIC (1/3 of head trauma pts.)
41Extraventricular Drains CSF drainage by EVD improves ICPAble to continuously monitor ICP